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The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Islamic Durrani Empire (centred in present-day Afghanistan), and the Sikh Empire (located in the Punjab region). The conflict had its origins stemming from the days of the Dal Khalsa.
The Sikh Confederacy had effectively achieved independence from the Mughal Empire in 1716, and expanded at its expense in the following decades, despite the Sikh holocaust of 1746. The Afsharid Persian emperor Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire (1738–40) dealt a heavy blow to the Mughals, but after Nader Shah's death in 1747, the Durrani Empire (roughly covering modern Afghanistan and Pakistan) declared its independence from Persia. Four years later, this new Afghan state came into conflict with the Sikh alliance.
In 1766, Ahmad Shah Durrani, again invaded India, taking Lahore without a fight. The Sikhs withdrew, resorting to guerilla warfare against the Afghans. Ahmad marched on to Amritsar, massacring the population and destroying the city, however his campaign was short-lived. Faced with unpaid troops and internal strife back home in Kandahar, Ahmad was forced to march back to Afghanistan. Ahmad Shah died in 1776, and by 1799, Sikhs were back in possession of Lahore.
Battle of AttockEdit
Siege of MultanEdit
Battle of ShopianEdit
Battle of NowsheraEdit
Battle of JamrudEdit
- Dupree, Louis (1980). Afghanistan. Princeton University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Glover, William J. (2008). Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. University of Minnesota Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mehta, Jaswant Lal (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. New Dawn Press, Inc.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)