Afghan–Sikh Wars

The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Islamic Durrani Empire (centred in present-day Afghanistan), and the Sikh Empire (located in the Punjab region). The conflict had its origins stemming from the days of the Dal Khalsa.

Afghan-Sikh Wars
DateFirst Phase: November 1751 – May 1765
Second Phase: December 1766 – 1799
Third Phase: 1800 – 1839
Location
Result First Phase:Afghans driven from modern day Pakistan region; Lahore taken by Sikhs[1]
Second Phase:Afghan campaign cut short, return home[2]
Third Phase:
Belligerents
Durrani Empire (1751-1826)
Emirate of Afghanistan (1823-1837)
Afghan tribesmen (1751-1837)
Khalsa (1751-1837)
Dal Khalsa (1748-1765)
Misldar Army (1765-1800)
Sikh Empire (1800-1839)
Sikh Khalsa Army (1799-1837)
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Ahmad Shah Durrani
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Timur Shah Durrani
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Mir Mannu
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Shah Zaman
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Fateh Khan
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Dost Muhammad Khan
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Nawab Muzaffar Khan  
Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg Azim Khan
Syed Akbar Shah  
Sultan Mohammad Shah
Akbar Khan
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Baba Deep Singh  
Sikh flag.jpg Nawab Kapur Singh
Sikh flag.jpg Sardar Tara Singh Ghaiba & Badesha Sardars
Sikh flag.jpg Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgharia
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Hari Singh Bhangi
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Charat Singh
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Sardar Maha Singh
Kattar Dhal Talwar.jpg Baba Ala Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Misr Diwan Chand
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jarnail Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa  
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sher Singh Sandhanwalia
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Kanwar Nau Nihal Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Sham Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Chattar Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Sher Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Kharak Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Mahan Singh Mirpuri
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Phula Singh  
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Sadhu Singh  
Sikh Akali flag.jpg Akali Naina Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Lehna Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Sardar Ranjodh Singh
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jean-Francois Allard
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Jean-Baptiste Ventura
Sikh Empire flag.jpg Sikh Regular Infantry standard.png Khalsa flag.png Claude Auguste Court

BackgroundEdit

The Sikh Confederacy had effectively achieved independence from the Mughal Empire in 1716, and expanded at its expense in the following decades, despite the Sikh holocaust of 1746. The Afsharid Persian emperor Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire (1738–40) dealt a heavy blow to the Mughals, but after Nader Shah's death in 1747, the Durrani Empire (roughly covering modern Afghanistan and Pakistan) declared its independence from Persia. Four years later, this new Afghan state came into conflict with the Sikh alliance.

First PhaseEdit

Second PhaseEdit

In 1766, Ahmad Shah Durrani, again invaded India, taking Lahore without a fight.[2] The Sikhs withdrew, resorting to guerilla warfare against the Afghans.[2] Ahmad marched on to Amritsar, massacring the population and destroying the city,[2] however his campaign was short-lived.[2] Faced with unpaid troops and internal strife back home in Kandahar, Ahmad was forced to march back to Afghanistan.[2] Ahmad Shah died in 1776, and by 1799, Sikhs were back in possession of Lahore.[3]

Third PhaseEdit

Battle of AttockEdit

Siege of MultanEdit

Battle of ShopianEdit

Battle of NowsheraEdit

Battle of JamrudEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mehta 2005, p. 303.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dupree 1980, p. 339.
  3. ^ Glover 2008, p. 12.

SourcesEdit

  • Dupree, Louis (1980). Afghanistan. Princeton University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Glover, William J. (2008). Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. University of Minnesota Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Mehta, Jaswant Lal (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. New Dawn Press, Inc.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)