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The Mahsud or Mehsud (Pashto: محسود), also spelled Maseed (Pashto: ماسيد), is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A minor number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan, especially in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but also in Wardak, Ghazni and Kunduz Provinces. The Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darweshkhel Wazirs, and being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds, inhabit and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur (Burki) tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram. The Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years. There are also some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.
|Regions with significant populations|
|South Waziristan Mehsud division, Tank , D.I.Khan, Karachi and UAE.|
|Islam 99%, Sunni|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Maseeds usually pronounce their name Māsīd. They are divided into three great clans or subtribes, namely Manzai, Bahlolzai, and Shamankhel. Maseeds usually call these Drei Māsīd, meaning the "Three Maseeds"(DREZE). Each tribe has his own Khan. In the words of Sir Olaf Caroe, who acted as the former governor of the British Indian Frontier, "The Maseed tribe are a people who can never even think of submitting to a foreign power." From 1860 to 1937, the English forces repeatedly attacked Maseed positions, but never got a foothold in the area.
The Maseeds originally lived in the centre of waziristan area of FATA. In the later 14th century, they migrated eastwards, and fell into dispute with the Bannuchi and Khattak tribes settled in the Shawal area. The Maseeds and the Wazirs succeeded to defeat the Khattaks and pushed them northeastwards towards Bannu and Kohat. Eventually, the Mahsuds settled at the center of Waziristan, in the Makeen, Kaniguram and Lada area.
The Maseed tribe inhabits a large portion of the center of Waziristan, which is drained by the Tank Zam and Shahur Rivers. The Maseed territory is a rough triangle between Jandola, the hills north of Razmak, and from Shuidar to Janimela, north of Wana. No portion of their territory touches the "settled" districts, and the tribe is surrounded on the north and west by the Wazirs, on the east by the Bhittanis, and on the south by the Wazirs and Shranis.
With the exception of a few Shabi Khel in the Bannu District, some land near Gumal in the Tank Tehsil, and the colonies at Chark and elsewhere in the Logar Valley in Afghanistan, none of the Maseed own land outside of South Waziristan Agency. To escape the severe cold in the higher hills during the winter, a large number move down to the lower valleys but always keep within the Maseed territorial limits. Many of these people live in caves or tents.
"South Waziristan is mountainous with several high peaks; Pirghal, for example, being 11,600 feet. The Gomal is the main river, in addition to which there are many hill torrents, which…remain dry for most of the year."
The mountains and valleys geographically isolate the Maseed from large scale movements of invaders and provide excellent opportunities to conduct effective ambushes on enemies.
The cave villages along the Shahur River near Barwand and along the Split Toi provide excellent hiding places and defensive positions.
Many Maseed inhabit in the lower valleys during the winter. They return to family compounds at higher elevations during the summer.
Key terrain featuresEdit
Valleys: Wacha Khwara, Ladha, Baddar, Darra Algad, Khaisara, Mastang, Shaktu, Sheranna, Split Toi, Tak Zam
Mountains: Kundeygaar, Pre Ghal, Spin Ghar, Spinkamar
Rivers: Tak Zam, Gomal, Shahur, Shinkai Toi, Baddar Toi, Split Toi, Lower Khaisara Toi, Tauda China, Kundygar, Osspass, Karrama, Torwam, Thangi Parkhai
The climate in the region is hot in summer, with high temperatures around 110 degrees Fahrenheit, and cool in winter, with low temperatures around 35 degrees Fahrenheit. There is modest rainfall in July and August and in January and February.
On many occasions the Afghan throne was saved with the help of the Maseed (like general Ramzan Khan Maseed Shamankhel, Shabaram Khan Machikhel, Bakhan Maseed, Mosa Khan Maseed, Miajee Maseed, Jagar Maseed etc.), Burki/Baraki, and Wazirs from Waziristan, Pakistan. Of those who fought during this time, most came back to their homeland, but those who stayed were given high ranks of office, such as Faiz Muhammad Maseed, who was appointed as an interior minister during the Reign of Daud Khan in the 1970s. Today the majority of Maseeds are still in Logar Province, with the title of Waziri, but by caste, they are Maseeds. The majority of these are with a sub-caste of Malik Denai, Dramankel, Faridi, Shamirai شمیرائی, Shabi khel, etc. When the Soviet–Afghan War started, some of these families came back to Waziristan but could not stay there, so they moved to cities like Peshawar and Karachi. Some of them stayed in waziristan and D.I. Khan. The Maseed helped to defeat the British invading troops and saved Afghanistan, they contributed a lot because Afghanistan was nearly in the hands of British.
John Ayde described the Maseeds:
They are poor but brave… and although turbulent and difficult to deal with, still have a great love of their country and cherish their independence, possessing qualities that we admire ourselves, and which deserve consideration and respect.
Maseed are very good marksmen and have the reputation of trustworthiness. Maseed is the most independent of all the tribes. Even their own maliks have a very limited control over them. However, Maseed have been increasingly integrated within Pakistani society since independence.
Sir Olaf Caroe in his book published just after partition of the British India about Mahsuds
They hold aloof, and are continually engaged in aggressive warfare against their Wazir cousins, at whose expense they have encroached to acquire new lands. And to those who know both tribes, they present a different appearance. Pass along a road which is being used by babirs, or caravans, of these tribes- men, and it is not so hard to distinguish one from the other, not by his dress, for that is much the same, but by something indefinable in his air and carriage. The nearest I can get to it is to liken the Mahsud to a wolf, the Wazir to a panther. Both are splendid creatures; the panther is slier, sleeker and has more grace, the wolf-pack is more purposeful, more united and more dangerous.
The Saintly Poet of the East (Dr. Allama Iqbal) has also prayed for the dominant tribes of Waziristan
Sher Shah Suri has so well said:
The distinction of tribes is the cause of all ruin.
Waziris and Mahsuds are names dearest to heart;
Alas! They feel no pride in being Afghans.
The Muslims of the mountains are divided into thousand tribes,
And every tribe has its own idol.
The same sanctuary is filled with Lat and Manat;
May God grant you power to break them all.
In 1850, Lewat's tribesmen the Great Baromi's (Shabi Khel) defeated 3,000 British troops with only 300 fighters, using guerrilla tactics by attacking the British in the Valley of Bobar (Waziristan) from all sides with outdated rifles and swords. This attack demoralized the British and made them fearful of the Maseeds. Survivors of this attack reported that the sight of the Maseed tribesmen charging at them (with loud roars and wearing long hair and beards like Lions) affected them mentally.
In 1897, Mujahed tribesmen again stood up against the British all the way from Quetta kakar, and the British experienced difficulty when engaging them. It was during this time that the name of Mullah Powindah [Jagar Draman Khil][Miajee] [Laly Malik Denai] [Mulla ShaSaleem kaka] emerged. Powindah comes from the Pashto language, meaning "nomad".
Day after day, Mullah Powindah grew more popular and famous.and his right hand mulla shasaleem kaka machikhel popular of all wazir, Maseed trib. He emerged as a legendary figure among the people of the region and beyond. There was even a time the British considered him to be the sole leader of the Waziristan country. His followers would sporadically kill individual British officers. However, the British were not able to capture the attackers, who would return to their mountain hideouts. All attempts to stop these attacks were unsuccessful.
In 1907, the Wazir and Maseed tribesmen were blocked from entry into any government-controlled territory. Economic sanctions were imposed, blocking even basic amenities, such as food and medicine. The British commander of that time blockaded the areas of Makin and Kaniguram. Various areas were searched to arrest Mullah Powindah without success. The British thought that the tribesmen were receiving weapons by sea, from the coast of Balochistan and responded by creating check posts, but no weapons were confiscated.
Mullah Powindah died in 1913. It could be said that he was the crownless emperor of one of the most fiercesome of the Pashtun Tribes, the Maseeds. Upon his death, his son Shah Fazal Din was given leadership and his son-in-law, Mulla Abdul Hakeem kakar, was appointed his adviser. They have good relations with Amir Abdul Rahman Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan.
When World War I started in 1915, the British were concerned that they would be engaged in battle on more than one front. This was a threat to their safety and economy, so they decided to close those fronts of lesser significance. They abandoned their ‘Forward Policy’ for the time being and sent a message of friendship and peace to the tribes. The tribes did not trust the British, and rejected these peace proposals. Instead, the Maseed assembled a militia to attack the British.
By this time, the British had established an air force in the subcontinent, which was used to harass the tribesmen, and as a result the tribe's hatred of the British increased. As a result of their suffering they were bent upon taking revenge, and hence their morale increased. A series of attacks were made by the Maseeds, inflicting heavy losses on the enemy. The attack on the Marhatta Regiment resulted in the deaths of hundreds of sepoys and five British Officers. In the attack on the Punjab Regiment, the Maseed warriors slaughtered everyone. The aerial bombardments had inflicted significant losses on the tribesmen, but they were content that they were also doing well and had killed around 250 of the enemy forces.
After the end of World War I, the British returned to Waziristan. This time, they built roads and forts throughout the land. The sophistication and constant patrols of the British Air Force helped create a secure atmosphere for their ground troops. With this sense of security, the British Army constructed a road from Jandola to Ladha. At Razmak, they constructed a cantonment for their army officers and soldiers.
By 1922-23, all the British forces had moved from Wana to Razmak. They had constructed an airport there and instead of flying all the way from India, their aircraft would fly from Razmak Airport and bomb the countryside. Because of this, the countryside of Makin was totally devastated. The Maseed deemed it appropriate at this time to agree to a ceasefire because this new British tactic was inflicting widespread losses on their side. The ceasefire, they imagined, would also enable them to devise a strategy for countering the latest British advances.
In 1925, the Royal Air Force successfully put down a Maseed rebellion by strafing the tribes' mountain strongholds. The action, which came to be known as Pink's War led to the tribal leaders seeking peace terms.
In 1927 Ghazi Ramadan Khan Mahsud attacked Wana camp with a huge lashkar (tribal militia). The result was a big loss for the British army. In 1928 Ghazi Ramadan Khan Mahsud re-assembled his lashkar again for his next attack, on Sararogha Fort. This time he attacked with a powerful force, killed all of the defending soldiers (numbering 300) and took hold of the Fort.
Lashkar invasion of KashmirEdit
Immediately after Pakistan came into existence, Maseeds raised a tribal militia under Gaideen Khan Abdullai which entered Kashmir to help the newly created state Pakistan to capture Kashmir. They quickly reached Baramulla town, instead of pressing on to the capital, Srinagar, to seize Kashmir completely.
A large number of tribals from Pakistan attacked Kashmir under the code name "Operation Gulmarg" to seize Kashmir. The invading tribals started moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road on 22 October 1947 with Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October.
Pir Roshan is the first person who founded the Pashto alphabet. He was born in Kanygram of Waziristan. The Roshani Ghorzang was one of the great revolutions in the land of Pshtonkhwa. Mula Shasleem kaka, Mula Pawenda Maseed and Haji Mirza Ali Khan Fight several years for the unity of both side Pashtons.
Maseed have a Maseed Jarga for large problems. The Jarga is a tribal assembly of elders which takes decisions by consensus, particularly among the Pashtun people.
Music and AttanEdit
Attan, is the famous dance of Maseed tribe. Dhol is also widely used in Waziristan.
- Caroe, Olaf (1958). The Pathans. LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. p. 393. ISBN 0710306822.
- "Royal Air Force History - RAF History Timeline 1918 to 1929". Royal Air Force. 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
- "Program For Culture & Conflict Studies" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-10.