The Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: قوای انضباطيّه, lit.'Forces of Order'; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, lit.'Caliphate Army') was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence in the aftermath of World War I. It was commanded by Süleyman Şefik Pasha.

Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye
Soldiers of the Caliphate Army
ActiveApril 18, 1920 – June 25, 1920
CountryOttoman Empire
AllegianceCaliph Mehmed VI
TypeField Army
Size7,000 (at peak)[1]
Nickname(s)Caliphate Army
EngagementsTurkish War of Independence
Süleyman Şefik Pasha
Anzavur Ahmed Bey

Establishment edit

Sensing the situation, Sultan Mehmed VI charged his minister of war, Şevket Süleyman Paşa, with the establishment of an irregular force to exterminate the Nationalists. Realizing he could no longer count on the title "Sultan" alone to influence the Turkish people, he considered it necessary to use the timeless and spiritual title of "Caliph" for the leader of the army - thus depicting Nationalists not only as the enemies of the Sultanate but also as the enemies of God. The British supported the Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye with the aim of enforcing British policy in the region and of stabilizing the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Supported by the British, the Sultan began a propaganda war throughout the country. Relayed by imams, he urged the Turks to take up arms against the Nationalists of General Mustafa Kemal, presented as the enemies of God.

Dissolution edit

The defeat of the Army of the Caliph, a sign of the end of the influence of the Ottoman Sultan in Turkey, ended the civil war and heralded the beginning of the War of Independence against the occupying nations, which culminated in the victory of the Nationalists and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Jowett, Philip (20 July 2015). Armies of the Greek-Turkish War 1919–22. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 9781472806864. Retrieved 17 September 2016 – via Google Books.