The Akal Sena (Gurmukhi: ਅਕਾਲ ਸੈਨਾ; meaning 'Army of the Immortal', 'God's Army', or 'Eternal Army'; alternatively transcribed as Akaal Sena)[1][2][3] was the Sikh military force established by the sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind.[4][5] It was the first standing Sikh army.[6] It was also known as the Akali Dal (Gurmukhi: ਅਕਾਲੀ ਦਲ, 'Immortal Brigade').[7]

Akal Sena
ਅਕਾਲ ਸੈਨਾ
Detail of a mural from Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi in Hadiara, Lahore district showcasing the Nishan Sahib flag of the Akal Sena during the time of Guru Hargobind
Reconstructed Flag of the Akal Sena of a Kattar push-dagger and overlaid Dhal shield as depicted in a mural from Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi in Hadiara, Lahore district showcasing the Akal Dhuja flag of the Akal Sena during the time of Guru Hargobind
Active15 June 1606 – 13 April 1699
AllegianceSikh Gurus
Pathan regiment
Risaldari (cavalry)
HeadquartersAkal Bunga, Amritsar
  • Yellow (during/after the tenure of Guru Hargobind Sahib)
  • Navy (during the tenure of Guru Gobind Singh)
Successor Khalsa Fauj

Background edit

Mural of Guru Hargobind on horseback while accompanied by a flag-bearer and hunting dog and escorted by the Akal Sena, from Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi, Hadiara, Lahore district

During the time period of Guru Arjan, an enemy of the Sikhs and the brother of Arjan, named Prithi Chand, instigated a local Mughal official named Sulahi Khan to destroy the Sikhs and the Guru.[8] Sulahi Khan conjured up an excuse that he was collecting tax to justify him leading a small contingent against the Sikhs at Amritsar.[8] Due to the local residents of Amritsar fearing for their personal safety, Guru Arjan left the city to prevent tragedy.[8] Arjan made his way to Wadali and then from there to Raur.[8] After Wadali was ransacked by bandits, Guru Arjan returned and stayed there for two years to provide security for the local residents.[8]

Guru Arjan had advised his son, Hargobind, to become martially trained when he was a youth.[6] The Akal Sena came into being at the same time of the consecration of the Akal Bunga on the 15 June 1606.[2][9][10] Guru Hargobind believed that the Sikh faith was not limited to spiritual pursuits but martial power and temporal authority was vital as well.[11] There are various views as to why the Sikh community and faith was martialized, with one theory being it was caused by the growing religious fundamentalism of the Mughal emperors.[12] Some scholars, notably Trilochan Singh, argue that the roots for the martial tradition in Sikhism date back further to the guruship of Guru Arjan, pre-dating Guru Hargobind's militarization reforms and enactments.[13]

Purpose edit

The Akaal Takhat and the Akaal Sena (God's army) the Sikhs, would protect and uphold the integrity of faith promulgated by Harmander Sahib and all it stood for. The Sikhs would become renowned for their bravery as warriors, who protect the integrity and faith of one and all. They would fight oppression and tyranny, relinquishing risk to life; they would make daring attacks on foes, defending their strong principles of righteousness.

— Harjinder Singh, Reflections on 1984 (2014), pages 16–17

It had been described as an "elite army corps" for the Sikh community to meet the "Mughal challenge".[14] Sikhs were called upon to bring horses and equipment for the army, which they obliged.[14] The warriors of the Akal Sena came to be known as Akalis (the immortals).[3]

History edit

Guru Hargobind edit

Painting of Guru Hargobind and his army, the Akal Sena, at the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar, circa 19th century

The army was founded by Guru Hargobind.[15][16] During his time, it consisted of 700-800 horses, 300-500 cavalrymen, 60 musketeers, and 60 artillery men.[3][17][18][19][20] The Akal Sena fought major battles against the Mughal empire and its allies, winning all four of the major battles in-which Hargobind was leader, as well as more minor skirmishes.[6][21] The first commanders of the Akal Sena were Bidhi Chand Chhina, Baba Jattu, Baba Peda, and Baba Praga, commanding a force around 400 strong.[22]: 8 [22] Later a special regiment of Pathans led by Painde Khan joined the Akal Sena.[23]

Initially, the Akal Sena was a policing force that was an army only nominally.[22]: 8  It was only after the release of the sixth Guru from the prison of Gwalior Fort in 1612 that the force began to take on more shape, as 52 Rajput kings also gained freedom from the prison, who then accompanied the Guru as many of them had lost their polity to conquests and absorptions by the Mughal empire.[22]: 8  The Guru established an Akhara (Indic military training centre or arena) the same year in Amritsar, it was called the Ranjit Akhara (alt. spelt as 'Ranjeet').[22]: 8 [24] Rajput converts to the Sikh faith had given the new institution much strength and information regarding the art of war.[22]: 8 


The Akal Sena fought many battles under Guru Hargobind. The first was the Battle of Rohilla in 1621 which occurred after Akal Sena soldiers killed Bhagwan Das Ghererh, a relative of Chandu, over his blasphemous remarks. His body was dumped in the nearby river. On hearing the news of the two sons of Chandu, Rattan and Karam Chand appealed to the Mughal governor of Jalandhar, Abdul Khan, who then led an army of 15,000. The Akal Sena was smaller in number, but managed to defeat the Mughal army killing Abdul Khan, Rattan Chand, Karam Chand and the other generals along with 14,000 soldiers. Bhai Jatu was killed in this battle.[25][26][27][28]

Following this battle the Akal Sena fought in no major battles until the Battle of Amritsar which occurred on April 14 of 1634.[29] It was a two-day battle which began over a hunting dispute between Guru Hargobind and the Mughals. The Mughals attacked the Akal Sena and a minor scuffle occurred. Blows were exchanged and many Mughals died. The Mughals were forced to fall back. [30] This was used as an excuse for Shah Jahan to send an army of 7,000 under the command of general Mukhlis Khan, Shamas Khan, Murtaza Khan, and Mustafa Khan. The Akal Sena was only 700 in number under the lead of Guru Hargobind, Bhatt Kirat, Bhai Bhanno, Bhai Peda Das, Rao Bulla, and Painde Khan.[31]: 96 [32] The Akal Sena was not prepared for a fight as they were busy preparing for the Guru Hargobind's daughter's wedding. It was a two-day battle. On the first day the Mughals took over Lohgarh and attacked the home of Guru Hargobind. On the second day the Akal Sena launched a counterattack. Bhai Banno was killed in battle after which Guru Hargobind took command. The battle ended when Guru Hargobind killed Mukhlis Khan in hand-to-hand combat. All the Mughal generals were killed with no Mughal soldier surviving.[30][31]

This battle proved that Guru Hargobind and the Akal Sena were powerful and not a small militia. The victory cemented Guru Hargobind and the Akal Sena's presence and destroyed ideas of Mughal invincibility.[30]

Mural of Guru Hargobind, with Bhai Lakhu, Bhai Tiloka, Bhai Jetha, Bhai Bidhi Chand, and Baba Buddha, from an unidentified Samadhi located near Gurdwara Bhai Than Singh at Kot Fateh Khan, Attock, Punjab

In revenge over recent Mughal defeats Shah Jahan stole Guru Hargobind's horses and kept them in Lahore. Bhai Bidhi Chand broke into Lahore Fort and brought the horses back to Guru Hargobind. Guru Hargobind knew of Mughal retaliation coming and prepares for battle. The Akal Sena number's 3,000 and is aided with Rai Jodh's army of 1,000.[33] The Akal Sena and Rai Jodh's army moves into a jungle near a lake in order to have a better position in battle.[33] Shah Jahan sends to Mughal generals Lala Beg, the governor of Kabul, and Qumae Beg his brother with an army of 36,000. A deadly battle ensues in which the Akal Sena uses guerrilla warfare tactics to win. Both Mughal generals are killed and 35,000 Mughal soldiers are killed along with 100 surrendering. 1200 soldiers of the Akal Sena also fall in the battle.[33][34]

Betrayal of Painde Khan edit

Mural depicting the Akal Sena fighting the Battle of Kartarpur (April 1635) from Gurdwara Chhevin Patshahi, Hadiara, Lahore district

Painde Khan, a Pathan general of the Akal Sena, had double-crossed his former master and mentor, Guru Hargobind, and sided with the Mughal forces.[35] Since he served as a general in the Sikh army, he was convinced he could use that as an advantage and persuaded the Mughals to assist him in this affair against a common enemy due to his inner knowledge.[35] He was accompanied by Kale Khan the governor of Peshawar, Kutab Khan the Faujdar of Jalandhar and his son-in-law Anwar Khan. The army was accompanied by plunderers and mujahedeen who all together numbered from 52,000 - 100,000.[36][37][38] Painde Khan and the vast majority of his army were killed in the Battle of Kartarpur at the hands of Guru Hargobind during a duel between the two.[39] In his last moments, the Guru showed mercy for the man he had loved and raised as his own and shielded him from the sun's direct rays with his shield as he lay dying and offered a prayer for him.[39]

Guru Har Rai edit

Detail of an equestrian painting of Guru Har Rai kept in the Sursinghwala collection

Guru Har Rai mostly kept the peace during his guruship, avoiding major conflicts for the most part, but he still maintained a large size for the Akal Sena, consisting of 2,200 mounted soldiers.[3][40][15] However, this period was not a totally pacifist one for the Akal Sena, as Har Rai had deployed the army against Aurangzeb's troops in-support of Dara Shikoh. This is recorded in a Sikh source, the Mahimā Parkāsh Vārtak, which states that Har Rai deployed the Akal Sena at Goindwal to prevent Aurangzeb's forces from pursuing the fleeing Dara Shikoh, after the latter had lost the Battle of Samugarh.[41] Guru Har Rai did not let the Akal Sena stall during these times of peace but rather he was responsible for further developing it.[42]

Guru Har Krishan edit

Fresco depicting Guru Har Krishan holding durbar (court) with armed followers from the Bedi Mahal

Not much is known about the Akal Sena during the leadership of the Guru Har Krishan. Sources on his life are scarce.[43] However, he maintained the army of the Akal Sena and an entourage of armed followers guarding him.[44]

Guru Tegh Bahadur edit

Originally named Tyag Mal, the ninth Guru was renamed as 'Tegh Bahadur' meaning "Brave Swordsman"[45] after the valor he displayed fighting in the Battle of Kartarpur, alongside his elder brother Gurditta.[15][46][47] The guru is noted as having been skilled in his usage of the kirpan sword.[48] During his guruship, he mostly avoided conflict and was occupied by his missionary tours throughout the Indian subcontinent, focused on spreading Sikhism and meeting with local congregations of Sikhs that had been widely spread-out throughout the land.[46]

Whilst Guru Tegh Bahadur was in Dhaka, Raja Ram Singh petitioned that the Akal Sena assist him in his crushing of a rebellion led by King Chakradhwaj Singha of the Ahom Kingdom in Kamrup (located in Assam) in north-eastern India.[49] The Guru agreed to the request because he had plans to visit that region anyways to rebuild a monument of Guru Nanak's udasi (travel tour) to the area. The Guru and his forces reached the region in February 1669. Whilst stationed in Dhubri, Kamrup near the bank of a river, an encampment of the Akal Sena with Guru Tegh Bahadur had come under attack from the other side of the river by local Assamese forces.[49] The Sikhs were able to defeat the enemy using archery.[49] Afterwards, the Guru made peace with the locals after the latter informed him that they were rebelling to resist the conquests of the Mughal empire and to protect their sovereignty.[49] Later-on, the Ahom king honoured the Guru at the Kamakhya shrine after Guru Tegh Bahadur brokered peace between the imperial Mughal army under the command of Raja Ram Singh and the local Ahom resistance.[49]

Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by beheading on the orders of Aurangzeb, partly because the Mughal emperor had grown jealous over the growing wealth and success of the Akal Sena army of the Sikhs.[50]

Guru Gobind Singh edit

Guru Gobind Singh changed the uniform and colours of the Akal Sena to blue after witnessing his youngest son, Fateh Singh, donning such garbs in this colour.[22]: 8–9  Even after the Guru had implemented reforms to the Akal Sena, he believed it was not enough and something different must be done.[22]: 8–9  Therefore, Guru Gobind Singh formalized the Khalsa order in Anandpur in the year 1699, which absorbed the functionalities and institution of the Akal Sena into the Khalsa Fauj.[22]: 8–9 [15][51]

Dissolution edit

The Akal Sena was absorbed into the Khalsa Fauj of the Khalsa order formalized by Guru Gobind Singh in Anandpur on 13 April 1699, on the day of the Baisakhi festival.[51]

Legacy edit

The Akali-Nihang tradition ultimately traces itself back to the establishment of the Akal Sena.[2][51]

Symbols edit

Flags edit

The Nishan Sahib was first raised by Guru Hargobind at the consecration of the Akal Bunga in 1606.[26][52] The flag during this time was known as the Akal Dhuja ("the immortal flag") or Satguru ka Nishan (standard of the true Guru).[52]

Timeline of the Akal Sena edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Singh, Harjinder (2014). Reflections on 1984. Akaal Publishers. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-9554587-3-6. OCLC 898056748.
  2. ^ a b c "Abstracts of Sikh Studies". Abstracts of Sikh Studies. 3 (3). Chandigarh, India: Institute of Sikh Studies: 54. 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d Akal Takht Sahib: Timeless Sovereign Throne – State of the Panth, Report 4 (PDF). Sikh Research Institute. March 2019. Akal Takht Sahib became the seat of Sikh power and gave the Sikhs a rallying point as a symbol of Sikh sovereignty. It is from the Akal Takht Sahib that the Guru administered justice like a king in a court, accepted gifts of arms and horses, and awarded honors and punishment. Guru Hargobind Sahib, for example, is noted as having 800 horses in the stables, 300 troopers on horseback, and 60 men with firearms at all times. This tradition was carried forward by Guru Harirai Sahib, the seventh Guru, who maintained an army that consisted of 2,200 mounted soldiers. This army of the Akal Takht Sahib came to be called the Akal Sena (immortal army), and its warriors were honored as the Akalis (the immortals)
  4. ^ Malik, Ikram Ali (1970). A Book of Readings on the History of the Punjab: 1799-1947. Vol. 20 of Research Society of Pakistan publication, Research Society of Pakistan. Research Society of Pakistan, University of the Punjab. p. 676.
  5. ^ Gopal Singh (1994). Politics of Sikh homeland, 1940-1990. Delhi: Ajanta Publications. p. 323. ISBN 81-202-0419-0. OCLC 32242388.
  6. ^ a b c Mitra, Swati (2006). Good Earth Punjab Travel Guide (2nd ed.). Eicher Goodearth Limited. p. 26. ISBN 9789380262178.
  7. ^ Singh, Kamalroop (2014). "38. Sikh Martial Art (Gatkā)". In Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford Handbooks Online. Oxford University Press. pp. 459–470. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199699308.013.022.
  8. ^ a b c d e Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). The History of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 9788183820752.
  9. ^ Singh, Dr Kuldip. Akal Takht Ate Khalsa Panth. Chandigarh. p. 2. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  10. ^ Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1980). The Akal Takht. Jalandhar: Sikh University Press.
  11. ^ Deol, Satnam Singh (2019-04-03). "Sikh ethnonationalism and militancy: manifestation and prognosis". Asian Ethnicity. 20 (2): 183–209. doi:10.1080/14631369.2018.1491289. ISSN 1463-1369. S2CID 149695516. Guru Hargobind (1595-1644), the sixth Guru decreed that sacred obligations of the Sikh leaders as well as disciples were not curtailed only to the religious matters but Sikhs should be marshaled and militarized to be compatible to the uncomplimentary political situations. He further built the Akal Takht (Throne of Immortal) in the premise of the Darbar Sahib as a symbol of the reconciliation and cohabitation of religion and politics.
  12. ^ Syan, Hardip Singh (August 2011). "EARLY SIKH HISTORIOGRAPHY: The Issue of 'Doxa'". Sikh Formations. 7 (2): 145–160. doi:10.1080/17448727.2011.593297. ISSN 1744-8727. S2CID 142930089.
  13. ^ Singh, Trilochan (1967). Guru Tegh Bahadur, Prophet and Martyr: A Biography. Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. pp. 24–25.
  14. ^ a b "The Sikh Review". The Sikh Review. 50 (577–588). Calcutta: Sikh Cultural Centre: 29. 2002.
  15. ^ a b c d Whiting, J. R. S. (1991). Religions for today. J. R. S.. Whiting (3rd ed.). Thornes. p. 67. ISBN 0-7487-0586-4. OCLC 24669427.
  16. ^ Savinder Kaur Gill; Sonam Wangmo (2019). Two Gurus One Message: The Buddha and Guru Nanak: Legacy of Liberation, Egalitarianism and Social Justice. Teachings of Buddha and the Sikh Gurus. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. p. 19.
  17. ^ Khushwant Singh (1977). A History of the Sikhs. Vol. 1. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press. p. 64.
  18. ^ Anand, Balwant Singh (1979). Guru Tegh Bahadur, a Biography. Sterling Publishers. p. 16.
  19. ^ Prithi Pal Singh (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 81. ISBN 81-8382-075-1. OCLC 297207913.
  20. ^ Gandhi 2007, p. 483.
  21. ^ Sikh history from Persian sources : translations of major texts. J. S. Grewal, Irfan Habib, Indian History Congress. Session. New Delhi: Tulika. 2001. p. 4. ISBN 81-85229-17-1. OCLC 47024480. Even Guru Hargobind was sent as a prisoner to the fort of Gwalior on account of the arrears of fine imposed upon Guru Arjan. However, this was not the only cause of Guru Hargobind's difficulties. He had begun to wear the sword and adopted the appearance of a soldier; he used to hunt and to maintain servants. He came into armed conflict with the gumashtas (officials) of Shah Jahan and had to leave Ramdaspur for Kartarpur in the Jalandhar Doab. There too he had to fight quite a few battles before he moved to Phagwara and then to Kiratpur in the territory of the refractory hill chief Tara Chand. There too, Guru Hargobind maintained seven hundred horses in his stables, three hundred horsemen, and sixty musketeers. His headquarters served as a place of refuge for refractory individuals. The Dabistan, thus, provides extremely useful evidence on the change in the attitude of the Mughal Emperors towards the Gurus and the change in the attitude of Guru Hargobind towards the State.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Singh, Nirdr (1998). The Fighting Traditions and Fighting Arts of the Traditional Sikh Warriors the Beloved of Guru Gobind Singh Ji the Akali Nihangs (2nd ed.). Budha Dal and Tarna Dal.
  23. ^ Prithi Pal Singh (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 82. ISBN 81-8382-075-1. OCLC 297207913.
  24. ^ Thind, Inder Singh (2019). "Foreword by Gen. Kuldip Singh". Gatka - Traditional Gatka Comprehensive Training Guide. White Falcon Publishing. pp. ix. ISBN 9789389530674. Guru Hargobind Sahib ji, the 6th Guru, improved upon the art of warfare and carried out innovative changes. As a result, skill of weapon use was rejuvenated. The training arenas were called 'Ranjeet Akhara'; an invincible.
  25. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 860. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
  26. ^ a b Hari Ram Gupta. History of the Sikhs:The Sikhs Gurus (1469-1708). Munshilal Manohorlal 1994. p. 164.
  27. ^ Singh, Fauja (1975). Guru Tegh Bahadur: Martyr and teacher. Publication Bureau Punjabi university, PATIALA. p. 10.
  28. ^ Gurbilas Patashahi 6 Chapter 14
  29. ^ Dhillon 1988, p. 122.
  30. ^ a b c Gandhi 2007, p. 534-536.
  31. ^ a b Macauliffe, Max Arthur (1909). The Sikh Religion, its gurus, sacred writings and authors, Vol 4. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Wikisource
  32. ^ Jaques 2007, p. 47.
  33. ^ a b c Gurbilas Patashahi 6 Chapter 19
  34. ^ Suraj Granth Raas 7
  35. ^ a b Dhillon, Harish (2015). The Sikh Gurus. Hay House Publishing. ISBN 978-93-84544-45-4. OCLC 968092357. At this point, however, the Guru Hargobind fell out with his famous general, Painde Khan. The relationship deteriorated to such an extent that Painde Khan and his son-in-law, Asman Khan, were both dismissed from the Guru's service. Painde Khan went to the Mughal court and offered his services against the Guru. "I have been with the Guru for many years. I know all his strengths and all his weaknesses. If you send a strong army with me, I am sure I can defeat the Guru,' claimed Painde Khan. The Mughals decided to take advantage of this offer. So in 1634, a large force under Kale Khan (the brother of Mukhlis Khan) along with Painde Khan and Asman Khan was sent out against the Guru. It is said that on the eve of the battle, Dhirmal, Guru Hargobind's grandson, wrote a secret letter to Painde Khan promising to help the invading forces with information about the Guru's army. The Guru had taken up position in Kartarpur and the Mughal forces surrounded him from all sides. The defence of the town was divided among his generals Bidhi Chand, Jati Mai, Lakhi, and Rai Jodh. The Mughal army attacked the town and a fierce and bloody battle followed. The Guru's sons, Tegh Bahadur and Gurditta, fought with great skill and courage. In fact Tegh Bahadur wielded his sword so well that he caused great harm to the Mughal army and it seemed that the battle would go in favour of the Guru's forces. Some of the remaining Mughal generals now called upon Painde Khan. 'Where is your knowledge of the Guru's forces? If you really have such knowledge you must use it'
  36. ^ Macauliffe 1909, p. 198.
  37. ^ Gurbilas Patashai 6 Chapter 20
  38. ^ Suraj Granth Raas 8
  39. ^ a b Anand, Tejinder Kaur (2015). Essence of Sikhism – 5: The Lives and Teachings of the Sikh Gurus (Reprint ed.). Vikas Publishing House. p. 48. ISBN 9788125919469.
  40. ^ Dhir, Krishna S. (2022). The Wonder That Is Urdu. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 206. ISBN 9788120843011.
  41. ^ a b Takhar, Opinderjit Opinderjit; Jakobsh, Doris R. (2023). Global Sikhs: Histories, Practices and Identities. Routledge Critical Sikh Studies. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781000847352. During the time of the seventh Guru, the emphasis on armed conflict with the Mughals receded, but Guru Har Rai held court and kept a regular force of Sikh horsemen. He had favorable relations with Dara Shikoh (eldest son of Emperor Shah Jahan and heir apparent to the Mughal throne), who sought the Guru's help while he was fleeing in front of the army of his younger brother Aurangzeb, after his defeat in the battle of Samugrah on May 29, 1658. According to Mahimà Prakäsh Värtak, Guru Har Rai deployed his own troops at the ferry at Goindval to delay Aurangzeb's army, which was pursuing Dara Shikoh at his heels
  42. ^ Lalrinawma, V. S. (2007). Major faith traditions of India. I.S.P.C.K. Delhi: ISPCK. p. 329. ISBN 978-81-7214-961-1. OCLC 166255543.
  43. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  44. ^ World religions for healthcare professionals. Siroj Sorajjakool, Mark F. Carr, Julius J. Nam. New York: Routledge. 2009. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7890-3812-8. OCLC 444447904.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  45. ^
  46. ^ a b c d e f Kohli, Surinder Singh (1996). "Section II - Sikh History". Guru Tegh Bahadur - The Ninth Nanak (1621 - 1675). Fundamental Issues in Sikh Studies. Chandigarh, India: Institute of Sikh Studies.
  47. ^ Johar, Surinder Singh (1975). Guru Tegh Bahadur: A Biography. Abhinav Publications. p. 26.
  48. ^ Jawandha, Nahar Singh (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers. p. 163. ISBN 978-93-80213-25-5. OCLC 895111680.
  49. ^ a b c d e f Randhir, G. S. (February 1990). "Assam". Sikh Shrines in India. Publications Division of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India. pp. 83–87. ISBN 9788123022604.
  50. ^ Terhune, Lea (2023). California's Pioneering Punjabis: An American Story. I.J. Singh. Arcadia Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 9781439676783.
  51. ^ a b c Sethi, Chitleen K. (2020-04-14). "Who are Nihang Sikhs? 'Guru di laadli fauj' warrior sect in news for chopping off cop's hand". ThePrint. Retrieved 2023-03-08. The Nihangs trace their origins to the founding of the Khalsa Panth by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh, around 1699. Many claim the sect to be "guru di laadli fauj" (the guru's favourite army). The armed sect is believed to have emerged from the Akaal Sena, a band of soldiers of Guru Hargobind, the sixth guru. Later, the Akaal Sena metamorphosed into the 'Khalsa Fauj' of the 10th guru.
  52. ^ a b Harbans Singh (1992–1998). The encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Vol. 3. Patiala: Punjabi University. pp. 239–240. ISBN 0-8364-2883-8. OCLC 29703420.
  53. ^ a b c Singh, Rishi (2015). State Formation and the Establishment of Non-Muslim Hegemony : Post-Mughal 19th-century Punjab. New Delhi: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-93-5150-504-4. OCLC 1101028781. The cordial relationship the Sikh leaders enjoyed with Jehangir did not continue with his son, Shahjahan. The Sikhs fought five battles, namely the battle of Amritsar (1628 AD), the battle of Hargobindpur (1630 AD), the battles of Lara and Gurusar (December 1634 AD), and the battle of Kartarpur (1635 AD), against the Mughal forces during the reign of Shahjahan.
  54. ^ Harajindara Siṅgha Dilagīra (1997). The Sikh reference book. p. 655. ISBN 9780969596424.

Works cited edit

Further reading edit

  • Syan, Hardip Singh (2020). Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. Vol. 4 of Library of South Asian history and culture. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781350160996.
  • Singh, Ishwar (19 September 2022). The Brief History of Budha Dal: From the Establishment of Akal Sena to the Creation of Budha Dal. Notion Press. ISBN 979-8888153772.