Battle of Anandpur (1685)

The Battle of Anandpur (1685) was fought between the Sikhs and an allied force of rajas of the Hill States of the Sivalik range, specifically Kahlur, Kangra, and Guler.[1][2]

Battle of Anandpur
Part of Hill States-Sikh Wars
Result Sikh victory
Akal Sena (Sikhs) Chandel of Kahlur
Commanders and leaders
Guru Gobind Rai Bhim Chand (Kahlur)
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown



Raja Bhim Chand strongly objected to the Guru beating a nagara drum, as it was an action only sovereign rulers took, which is one of the reasons for the conflict.[3] Another reason is the Guru refusing to lend an elephant, named Prasadi, to Bhim Chand, as the Guru thought the ruler was trying to take the animal away from him permanently for himself.[4]



The Hill State allies attacked Anandpur in early 1685 but were repelled.[5][6][7]



The Guru left Anandpur for Paonta Sahib in the same year in April or May on the summon of Raja Medni Prakash of Nahan State.[8][9][10] One of the reasons the Guru left Anandpur is due to the hostilities he faced with the Hill kings.[4]

See also



  1. ^ Gill, Pritam Singh (1978). History of Sikh Nation: Foundation, Assassination, Resurrection. New Academic Publishing Company. p. 209. ( ii ) Second Battle of Anandpur (1685) : Having lost the first battle, Bhim Chand approached some hill chiefs for help; he formed an alliance with the Rajas of Kangra and Guler. The allies attacked Anandpur in 1685 but they were repulsed.
  2. ^ Ralhan, O. P. The Great Gurus of the Sikhs: Guru Tegh Bahadur & Govind Singh. Vol. 4. Anmol Publications Pvt Limited. p. 358.
  3. ^ Singh, Harbhajan (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism: over 1000 entries (1. publ ed.). New Delhi: Hemkunt Publ. p. 150. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  4. ^ a b Yasmin, Robina (2022). Muslims under Sikh Rule in the Nineteenth Century: Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Religious Tolerance. Library of Islamic South Asia. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 9780755640348. At the invitation of Raja Mat Parakash of Sirmaur, he moved to Paonta in April 1685. The Gazetteer of the Sirmaur State reports that the Guru had to leave Anandpur Sahib because of a disagreement with Bhim Chand, the Raja of Bilaspur. Ratan Rai, the son of Raja Ram Rai of Assam, visited Anandpur with his mother and several ministers and presented gifts to the Guru, including an elephant called Prasadi. Some days later, Bhim Chand sent a message to Anandpur, asking the Guru to lend him Prasadi. The Guru suspected that Bhim Chand wanted to gain permanent possession of the elephant, and declined his demand. An atmosphere of confrontation developed between the two on such small issues.
  5. ^ Hari Ram Gupta (1994). History Of The Sikhs Vol. I The Sikh Gurus (1469-1708). pp. 226–229. ISBN 8121502764.
  6. ^ Harbans Kaur Sagoo (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur And Sikh Sovereignty. p. 59.
  7. ^ Singh, Dalip (2002). Life of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji: includes clarifications on authenticity of Zafarnama, Fatehnama, role of Banda Bairagi, Amarnama and the facts connected with the Guru's final departure from earth. Amritsar, India: B. Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-81-7601-480-9.
  8. ^ Johar, Surinder Singh (1999). "As a Democrat". Guru Gobind Singh: A Multi-faceted Personality. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 83. ISBN 9788175330931.
  9. ^ Gandhi, Surjit Singh (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. 2: 1606 - 1708 C. E. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 703. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  10. ^ Bakhshi, Surinder (July 2009). Sikhs in the Diaspora: A Modern Guide to Practice of the Sikh Faith: A Knowledge Compendium for the Global Age. Sikh Publishing House. pp. 73–74. ISBN 9780956072801.