Gurū Hargobind (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਿਗੋਬਿੰਦ, pronunciation: [gʊɾuː ɦəɾᵊgoːbɪn̯d̯ᵊ]l 19 June 1595 – 28 February 1644), revered as the sixth Nānak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He had become Guru at the young age of eleven, after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan, by the Mughal emperor Jahangir.[2]

Guru Hargobind
ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਿਗੋਬਿੰਦ
Contemporary painting of the sixth Sikh guru, Guru Hargobind. Provincial Mughal school, Deccan, mid-17th century
6th Guru of the Sikhs

19 June 1595 (1595-06-19)
Guru Ki Wadali, Amritsar, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire
(present-day Punjab, India)
Died28 February 1644 (1644-02-29) (aged 48)[1]
SpouseMata Nanaki, Mata Damodari, and Mata Marvahi
ChildrenBaba Gurditta (1613–1638)
Baba Suraj Mal (1618–1698)
Baba Ani Rai (1633–1678)
Baba Atal Rai (1619–1627)
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)
Bibi Veero (1628–1705)
Parent(s)Guru Arjan and Mata Ganga
Known for
  • Building the Akal Takhat
  • Founder of the Akal Sena
  • First Guru to engage in warfare
  • Advising the Sikhs to take part in military training and martial arts
  • Establish the Miri piri
  • Founding Kiratpur Sahib and Hargobindpur
  • Supervising the creation of the Taus
Other namesThe Sixth Master
Saccha Paatshah
The Master of Miri Piri
Sixth Nanak
Military service

Fighting the following battles:

(For detailed list see List of Battles of Guru Hargobind
Religious career
PredecessorGuru Arjan
SuccessorGuru Har Rai

Guru Hargobind introduced the process of militarization to Sikhism, likely as a response to his father's execution and to protect the Sikh community.[3][4] He symbolized it by wearing two swords, representing the dual concept of mīrī and pīrī (temporal power and spiritual authority). In front of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht (the throne of the timeless one). The Akal Takht represents the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa (the collective body of the Sikhs) today.

Early life Edit

Guru Hargobind was born in Gurū kī Waḍālī, on 19th June of 1595, in a Sodhi Khatri Family in a village 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of Amritsar,[1][5] the only son of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru. He suffered from smallpox as a child.[6]

According to hagiographies written by the orthodox Sikh tradition he survived two poisoning attempts by his uncle Prithi Chand and his wife, Karmo, as well as another attempt on his life, when a cobra was thrown at him by Prithi Chand.[6] The first poisoning attempt involved Karmo dispatching her personal nurse to pretend to be interested in looking after the child Hargobind.[6] However, the nurse placed poison around her nipple which was to harm Hargobind as he suckled her but the young boy refused to latch onto her and thus the nurse's plan failed and she became ill to the poison herself.[6] The second poisoning plan involved a snake-charmer being sent by Prithi Chand and his wife to assassinate the young Hargobind by releasing a snake onto him but the young boy is said to have grabbed the snake in his hand by its head and squeezed it until it died.[6] A third attempt on his life was by a Brahmin directed again by Prithi Chand and his wife, the Brahmin planned to blend poison with curd and feed the child Hargobind with it but when he attempted to do so, Hargobind knocked the curd out of the Brahmin's grasp and it fell onto the floor, where a cat then ate some of it and died as a result revealing its dangerous contents.[6] The Brahmin then died of abdominal afflictions.[6]

He studied religious texts with Bhai Gurdas and was trained in swordsmanship and archery by Baba Budda (not to be confused with the Gautama Buddha).[1] He was also instructed on various languages, religious philosophy, astronomy, medicine, horse-riding, and administration.[6] Hargobind spent a good deal of his early years engrossed in hymns being sung at the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar.[6]

Guruship Edit

On 25 May 1606 Guru Arjan, five days before his own death, selected his son Hargobind as his successor and instructed his son to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection.[7] Shortly afterwards, Guru Arjan was arrested, tortured and killed by order of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. [7][8] Guru Hargobind's succession ceremony took place on 24 June 1606.[2][5] He put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority (pīrī) and the other, his temporal authority (mīrī).[2][9] He followed his martyred father's advice and always kept himself surrounded by armed Sikhs for protection. The number fifty-two was special in his life, and his retinue consisted of fifty-two armed men.[1] He thus founded the military tradition in the Sikh faith.[2][7]

Guru Hargobind had three wives: Damodari, Nanaki, and Marvahi.[1][10] He had children from three wives. Two of his eldest sons from the first wife died during his lifetime. Guru Tegh Bahadur, his son from Mata Nanaki, became the ninth Sikh Guru.[11] The Sodhis of Anandpur Sahib[12] are the descendants of Baba Suraj Mal Sodhi, one of Guru Hargobind's sons.[13]

The Guru was a martial artist (shastarvidyā) and he encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat. He had his own Darbar (court). The arming and training of some of his devoted followers began. The Guru came to possess seven hundred horses and his Risaldari (cavalry) grew to three hundred horsemen and sixty musketeers.[14]

Relations with other rulers Edit

Guru Hargobind is released from Gwalior Fort by Jahangir's order

Guru Hargobind led the Sikh response against Mughal power after Guru Arjan's execution. He nominally accepted Shah Jahan's authority but resisted the Islamic persecution, fighting four wars against Shah Jahan's armies. His attempts to transform the Sikh community brought him in conflict with the Mughal authority.[4][15][16]

Jahangir Edit

Along with the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the very start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to arm and fight the Mughals.[9] The death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasize the military dimension of the Sikh community. He symbolically wore two swords, which represented miri piri. He founded the Akal Sena, the first Sikh army. He built a fort to defend Ramdaspur and created a formal court, Akal Takht.[17]

Jahangir responded by jailing the 14-year-old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind.[18] It is not clear as to how much time he spent as a prisoner. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old.[18] Persian records, such as Dabistān-e Mazāhib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617–1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir.[1][19]

It is unclear why he was released. Scholars suggest that Jahangir had more or less reverted to tolerant policies of Akbar by about 1611 after he felt secure about his throne, and the Sunnis and Naqshbandi court officials at the Mughal court had fallen out of his favour. Another theory states that Jahangir discovered the circumstances and felt Guru Hargobind was harmless, so he ordered his release.[17][18][20]

According to Surjit Singh Gandhi, 52 rajas (kings) who were imprisoned in the fort as hostages for "millions of rupees" and for opposing the Mughal empire were dismayed as they were losing a spiritual mentor. Guru Hargobind requested the rajas to be freed along with him as well and stood surety for their loyal behavior. Jahangir ordered their release as well. Guru Hargobind got a special gown stitched which had 52 hems. As Guru Hargobind left the fort, the captive kings caught the hems of the cloak and came out along with him.[21]

After his release, Guru Hargobind more discreetly strengthened the Sikh army and reconsolidated the Sikh community.[18] His relations with Jahangir remained mostly friendly. He accompanied Jahangir to Kashmir and Rajputana and subdued Tara Chand of Nalagarh, who had continued for a long time in open rebellion and all efforts to subdue him had failed.[22][23][24] During Jahangir's reign, Guru Hargobind fought a battle against the Mughals at Rohilla. The battle was in response to the militarisation of the Sikhs. The Mughals who were led by Governor Abdul Khan were defeated by the Sikhs.[25] According to Bhai Mani Singh after Guru Hargobind’s release from prison Jahangir handed Chandu Shah, the man responsible for Guru Arjan’s execution, over to Guru Hargobind. He was later beaten, tortured, and killed. Jahangir also accompanied the Guru to Gobindwal, Tarn Taran, and Amritsar. In Amritsar Jahangir asked for forgiveness from Mata Gangga the widow of Guru Arjan.[26]

Shah Jahan Edit

During the reign of Shah Jahan that started in 1627, relations became bitter again. Shah Jahan was intolerant. He destroyed the Sikh baoli at Lahore.[27] In 1628, Shah Jahan's hunting party plundered some of Guru Hargobind's property, which triggered the first armed conflict.[28]

Guru Hargobind's army fought battles with the Mughal armies of Shah Jahan at Amritsar, Kartarpur and elsewhere. Guru Hargobind defeated the Mughal troops near Amritsar in the Battle of Amritsar in 1634. The Guru was again attacked by a provincial detachment of Mughals, but the attackers were routed and their leaders slain.[29] Guru Hargobind also led his armies against the provincial Mughal governors.[30] The Guru anticipated the return of a larger Mughal force, so retreated into Shivalik Hills to strengthen his defenses and army, with a base in Kiratpur where he continued to stay till his death.[28]

Painde Khan was appointed the leader of the provincial troops by Shah Jahan and marched upon the Guru. Guru Hargobind was attacked, but he won this battle as well.[29] Guru Hargobind also fought the Battle of Kartarpur. Chandu Shah, Guru Arjan's killer, was killed through torture by the Sikhs of Guru Hargobind, a thick iron ring was put around his nose and he was dragged on the floor till the man who killed Guru Arjan, who became a Sikh, poured hot sand on him from the same ladle which was used on Guru Arjan.[31][32]

Guru Hargobind lost his eldest son Baba Gurditta in 1638. Shah Jahan attempted political means to undermine the Sikh tradition, by dividing and influencing the succession.[28] The Mughal ruler gave land grants to Baba Gurdita's eldest son Dhir Mal, living in Kartarpur, and attempted to encourage Sikhs to recognise Dhir Mal as the rightful successor to Guru Hargobind. Dhir Mal issued statements in favour of the Mughal state, and critical of his grandfather. Guru Hargobind died at Kiratpur, Rupnagar, Punjab, on 28 February 1644, but before his death, he rejected his eldest grandson Dhir Mal's politics, and nominated Guru Har Rai (Dhir Mal's younger brother) instead to succeed him as the Guru.[28] The pattern was repeated when Guru Har Rai chose his second son as his successor instead of his eldest son.

Samarth Ramdas and Guru Hargobind Edit

Guru Hargobind and Samarth Ramdas

According to Sikh tradition based on an old Punjabi manuscript Panjah Sakhian, Samarth Ramdas met Guru Hargobind (1595–1644) at Srinagar in the Garhval hills. The meeting, corroborated in a Marathi source, Ramdas Swami's Bakhar, by Hanumant Swami, written in 1793, probably took place in the early 1630s during Samarth Ramdas's pilgrimage travels in the north and Guru Hargobind's journey to Nanakmata in the east. It is said that as they came face to face with each other, Guru Hargobind had just returned from a hunting excursion. He was fully armed and rode a horse. "I had heard that you occupied the Gaddi of Guru Nanak", said the Maratha saint Ramdas, and asked what sort of sadhu was he. Guru Hargobind replied, "Internally a hermit, and externally a prince. Arms mean protection to the poor and destruction of the tyrant. Guru Nanak had not renounced the world but had renounced Maya".[33]

Death Edit

He nominated his grandson to succeed him as the seventh Guru Har Rai. He died in 1644 at Kiratpur Sahib, a town situated on the banks of river Sutlej, and was cremated on the banks of River Sutlej, where now stands Gurdwara Patalpuri Sahib.[1]

Battles and skirmishes Edit

  1. Battle of Sangrana (1628)
  2. Battle of Rohilla (1630)
  3. Battle of Amritsar (1634)
  4. Battle of Lahira, 1634
  5. Battle for Maham
  6. Battle of Padiala
  7. Battle of Kiratpur
  8. Battle of Kartarpur, 1635
  9. Battle of Phagwara, 1635[34]

Popular culture Edit

The animated Punjabi movie Dastaan-E-Miri Piri is about Guru Hargobind and his contribution to the Sikh faith and community.[35]

The life story and teachings of Guru Hargobind influenced the 2023 season theme and artwork of the Dallas Cowboys football team.[36][37][38]

Gallery Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Fauja Singh (2009). "HARGOBIND, GURU (1595–1644)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University, Patiala. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d HS Syan (2013), Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century, IB Tauris, ISBN 978-1780762500, pages 48–55
  3. ^ John F. Richards (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 97–98, 177–178. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2.
  4. ^ a b Hargobind: Sikh Guru, Encyclopedia Britannica, Quote: "Hargobind, sixth Sikh Guru, who developed a strong Sikh army and gave the Sikh religion its military character, in accord with the instructions of his father, Guru Arjan (1563–1606), the first Sikh martyr, who had been executed on the order of the Mughal emperor Jahangir."; "After Jahāngīr’s death (1627) the new Mughal emperor, Shāh Jahān, persecuted the Sikh community in earnest. The Sikhs under Hargobind Sahib defeated Shāh Jahān’s armies four times, crushing the myth of Mughal invincibility. To the Sikh ideals of his predecessor, Guru Hargobind thus added another: the right and duty of the Sikhs to defend their faith by the sword if necessary."
  5. ^ a b HS Singha (2009), Sikh Studies, Book 7, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170102458, pages 18–19
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). The History of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9788183820752.
  7. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pp. 29–62
  8. ^ Louis E. Fenech, Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, pages 118–121
  9. ^ a b V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
  10. ^ Fenech and McLeod (2014), Historical Dictionary of Sikhism, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1442236004, page 145
  11. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
  12. ^ Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  13. ^ "Suraj Mal - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  14. ^ Grewal, J.S. Sikh History from Persian Sources: Translations of Major Texts ISBN 978-8185229171, p. 62 "Guru Hargobind, son of Guru Arjan, ate meat and took to hunting. Most of their [the Guru's] followers adopted his practice."
  15. ^ HS Syan (2013). Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century. IB Tauris. pp. 48–49, 98. ISBN 978-1780762500.
  16. ^ Sikh history from Persian sources : translations of major texts. J. S. Grewal, Irfan Habib, Indian History Congress. Session. New Delhi: Tulika. 2001. p. 4. ISBN 81-85229-17-1. OCLC 47024480. Even Guru Hargobind was sent as a prisoner to the fort of Gwalior on account of the arrears of fine imposed upon Guru Arjan. However, this was not the only cause of Guru Hargobind's difficulties. He had begun to wear the sword and adopted the appearance of a soldier; he used to hunt and to maintain servants. He came into armed conflict with the gumashtas (officials) of Shah Jahan and had to leave Ramdaspur for Kartarpur in the Jalandhar Doab. There too he had to fight quite a few battles before he moved to Phagwara and then to Kiratpur in the territory of the refractory hill chief Tara Chand. There too, Guru Hargobind maintained seven hundred horses in his stables, three hundred horsemen, and sixty musketeers. His headquarters served as a place of refuge for refractory individuals. The Dabistan, thus, provides extremely useful evidence on the change in the attitude of the Mughal Emperors towards the Gurus and the change in the attitude of Guru Hargobind towards the State.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ a b Phyllis G. Jestice (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 345, 346. ISBN 9781576073551.
  18. ^ a b c d Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A & C Black. p. 48. ISBN 9781441117083.
  19. ^ The Sikh Review, Volumes 42–43, Issues 491–497. Sikh Cultural Centre. 1994. pp. 15–16.
  20. ^ Raj Pal Singh (2004). The Sikhs : Their Journey Of Five Hundred Years. Pentagon Press. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 9788186505465.
  21. ^ Surjit Singh Gandhi (2007). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–1708 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 52. ISBN 9788126908585.
  22. ^ Jasbir Singh Sarna (2014). The Sikh Shrines in Jammu & Kashmir. p. 28. ISBN 9788186741306.
  23. ^ Surjit Singh Gandhi (2007). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606-1708 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 506. ISBN 9788126908592.
  24. ^ Joseph Davey Cunningham, H.L.O. Garrett (2012). A History of the Sikhs from the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. Asian Educational Services. p. 57. ISBN 9788120609501.
  25. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 860. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
  26. ^ Gurbilas Patashahi 6 Chapter 8
  27. ^ Sikhism Origin and Development By Dalbir Singh Dhillon, p121 "In the year A. D. 1632, Shah Jahan revived his religious policy and issued ... of his policy, the Gurdwara and a Baoli at Lahore was destroyed and a mosque was erected over its place"
  28. ^ a b c d Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A & C Black. pp. 48–49. ISBN 9781441117083.
  29. ^ a b Cunningham, Joseph Davey. A History Of The Sikhs (1853 ed.). London: John Murray. p. 55.
  30. ^ Cunningham, Joseph Davey. A History Of The Sikhs (1853 ed.). London: John Murray. p. 53.
  31. ^ Gujral, Maninder S. (19 December 2000). "CHANDU SHAH". The Sikh Encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  32. ^ "Chandu Shah - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  33. ^ Singh, Sangat (2010). The Sikhs In History (2nd ed.). Singh Brothers. p. 48. ISBN 978-8172052768.
  34. ^ Harbans Kaur Sagoo (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovereignty. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 38. ISBN 9788176293006.
  35. ^ "Dastaan-E-Miri Piri". IMDb.
  36. ^ Monet, Jazz (7 September 2023). "Carpe omnia: Dallas Cowboys intend to 'seize everything' in 2023". Inside The Star. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  37. ^ Kaur, Kamaljit (7 September 2023). "ਅਮਰੀਕਾ 'ਚ ਨੈਸ਼ਨਲ ਫੁੱਟਬਾਲ ਲੀਗ ਦੀ ਟੀਮ Dallas Cowboys ਨੇ ਜਰਸੀ 'ਤੇ ਲਗਾਈ ਜਰਨੈਲ ਹਰੀ ਸਿੰਘ ਨਲੂਆ ਦੀ ਤਸਵੀਰ" [Dallas Cowboys team of the National Football League in America put the picture of General Hari Singh Nalua on the jersey]. Rozana Spokesman (in Punjabi). Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  38. ^ Gehlken, Michael (7 September 2023). "What is Carpe Omnia? Mike McCarthy's 2023 theme for Cowboys is about seizing everything". Dallas News. Retrieved 8 September 2023.

Further reading Edit

  • Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012), SIKH HISTORY in 10 volumes, Sikh University Press.

External links Edit

Preceded by Sikh Guru
25 May 1606 – 3 March 1644
Succeeded by