The Punjab Portal


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Punjab map (topographic) with cities

Punjab (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; /pʌnˈɑːb/ (About this soundlisten), /-ˈæb/; /ˈpʌnɑːb/, /-æb/; native pronunciation: [pənˈdʒaːb]; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and Delhi and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. The two main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region was the cradle for the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region had numerous migration by the Indo-Aryan peoples. The land was later contested by the Persians, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, Macedonians, Ghaznavids, Turkic, Mongols, Timurids, Mughals, Marathas, Arabs, Pashtuns, British and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.

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Virasti mela, Bathinda: Mud wall art

Chowk-poorana or chowkpurana is folk art practised in Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh, the term chowk-poorana refers to decorating the floor with various designs using flour and rice and also the walls using designs specific to the region.

Similarly, according to Aryan (1983), the term chowk-poorana in Punjab refers to floor art and mud wall painting. This art is primarily practised by women and is a folk tradition. In Punjab, during festivals such as Holi, Karva Chauth and Diwali, walls and courtyards of rural houses are enhanced with drawings and paintings similar to rangoli in South India, mandana in Rajasthan, and rural arts in other parts of India. Chowk-poorana mud wall art in Punjab is given shape by the peasant women of the state. In courtyards, this art is drawn using a piece cloth. The art includes drawing tree motifs, flowers, ferns, creepers, plants, peacocks, palanquins, geometric patterns along with vertical, horizontal and oblique lines. These arts add to the festive atmosphere. Read more...

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Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri or Syed Abdullah Shah Gilani (Punjabi: سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری (Shahmukhi); 1680–1757), known as Bulleh Shah, was a Punjabi Muslim philosopher and Sufi poet during 17th-century Punjab. His first spiritual teacher was Shah Inayat Qadiri, a Sufi murshid of Lahore. He was a mystic poet and is universally regarded as "The father of Punjabi enlightenment". He lived and was buried in Kasur. His family claimed direct ancestry from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Read more...

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Darbar (court) of Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Darbar (court) of Maharaja Ranjit Singh during the Panjab Empire
Credit: Edwin Binney

Some topics


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Provinces and territories of Punjab Provinces and territories:

1799-1849 definition: Chandigarh - Delhi - Eastern Punjab state - Federally Administered Tribal Areas - Galgit - Haryana - Himachal Pradesh - Islamabad Capital Territory - Jammu - Kashmir - Khyber Pass - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - Ladakh - Western Punjab province

1947 definition: Chandigarh - Delhi - Eastern Punjab state - Haryana - Himachal Pradesh - Islamabad Capital Territory - Western Punjab province

Present definition: Chandigarh - Eastern Punjab state - Western Punjab province

Major cities: Amritsar - Bathinda - Chandigarh - Faisalabad - Lahore - Ludhiana - Multan - Patiala - Sialkot

Related portals

WikiProject Punjab


WikiProject Punjab was formed to foster better articles on the region of Punjab with a spirit of cooperation. The project is a home base that provides a place for Wikipedians (editors) to discuss issues, while share information and resources regarding improvements to Punjabi related articles, which can be discussed at the project's talk page. To join WikiProject Punjab (anyone may join), simply list your username on the members page. Editors are also encouraged to participate in the more regional and/or topic specific WikiProject 's as listed below.

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Associated Wikimedia

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Learning resources

Travel guides



Wikipedia in Punjabi

There is a Shahmukhi پنجابی version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

There is a Gurmukhi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.