The Punjab Portal
Punjab (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ; Shahmukhi: پنجاب; , ; , ; native pronunciation: [pənˈdʒaːb]; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.
The geographical definition of the term "Punjab" has changed over time. In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers. In British India, until the Partition of India in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and Delhi and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.
The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. The two main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region was the cradle for the Indus Valley Civilisation. The region had numerous migration by the Indo-Aryan peoples. The land was later contested by the Persians, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, Macedonians, Ghaznavids, Turkic, Mongols, Timurids, Mughals, Marathas, Arabs, Pashtuns, British and other peoples. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions. The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.
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Virasti mela, Bathinda: Mud wall art
Chowk-poorana or chowkpurana is folk art practised in Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pradesh. In Uttar Pradesh, the term chowk-poorana refers to decorating the floor with various designs using flour and rice and also the walls using designs specific to the region.
Similarly, according to Aryan (1983), the term chowk-poorana in Punjab refers to floor art and mud wall painting. This art is primarily practised by women and is a folk tradition. In Punjab, during festivals such as Holi
, Karva Chauth
, walls and courtyards of rural houses are enhanced with drawings and paintings similar to rangoli
in South India, mandana
in Rajasthan, and rural arts in other parts of India. Chowk-poorana mud wall art in Punjab is given shape by the peasant women of the state. In courtyards, this art is drawn using a piece cloth. The art includes drawing tree motifs, flowers, ferns, creepers, plants, peacocks, palanquins, geometric patterns along with vertical, horizontal and oblique lines. These arts add to the festive atmosphere. Read more...
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The snow-covered Himalayas
Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1830 CE.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire at its peak in c. 1839
The charge of the British 16th Lancers at Aliwal on 28 January 1846, during the Anglo-Sikh war
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
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WikiProject Punjab was formed to foster better articles on the region of Punjab with a spirit of cooperation. The project is a home base that provides a place for Wikipedians (editors) to discuss issues, while share information and resources regarding improvements to Punjabi related articles, which can be discussed at the project's talk page. To join WikiProject Punjab (anyone may join), simply list your username on the members page. Editors are also encouraged to participate in the more regional and/or topic specific WikiProject 's as listed below.
Clickable map by territory
Wikipedia in Punjabi