The Punjab ( (listen), , , ), also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, land of "five rivers"
(Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi)), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.
The Punjab region has been inhabited by Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Scythians and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Afghans, British and others. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Panjabi culture and traditions. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis and their principal language is called Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism and Buddhism.
The Sikh Empire
(also Sikh Khalsa Raj
or Punjab Empire
), was a major power in the South Asia
, that arose under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
who established a secular empire basing it around the Punjab
. The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore
, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa
from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls
. At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass
in the west to western Tibet
in the east, and from Mithankot
in the south to Kashmir
in the north. It was the last major region of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British.
The foundations of the Sikh Empire can be traced to as early as 1707, the year of Aurangzeb's death and the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire. With the Mughals significantly weakened, the Sikh army, known as the Dal Khalsa, a rearrangement of the Khalsa inaugurated by Guru Gobind Singh, led expeditions against them and the Afghans in the west. This led to a growth of the army which split into different confederacies or semi-independent misls. Each of these component armies controlled different areas and cities. However, in the period from 1762 to 1799, Sikh commanders of the misls appeared to be coming into their own as independent warlords.
: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ (Gurmukhi)
) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism
and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus
. His birth is celebrated world-wide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab
on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak
Guru Nanak has been called "one of the greatest religious innovators of all time". He travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth.He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue.
Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The snow-covered Himalayas
Wikipedia in Punjabi