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Kabaddi, a contact sport that originated in ancient India, is one of the most popular sports in India, played mainly among people in villages. India has taken part in four Asian Games in kabaddi, and won gold in all of them. Four forms of kabaddi played in India are Amar, Suranjeevi, huttuttoo, and Gaminee. Amar is generally played in Punjab, Haryana, the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world, mostly by Punjabi sportsmen. Suranjeevi is the most played form of kabaddi in India and the world. This is the form used in international matches generally and played in Asian Games. Huttuttoo was played by men in Maharashtra State.

Kabaddi in India
Players of kabaddi, a contact sport originating in ancient India.
CountryIndia
National team(s)India

History and developmentEdit

 
People playing Kabaddi at the Veraval beach.

Modern kabaddi is a synthesis of the game played in various forms under different names. Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravati, Maharashtra. The game was introduced in the Indian Olympic Games at Calcutta in 1938.

In 1950 the All India Kabaddi Federation came into existence and compiled standard rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. After formation of the Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men's nationals were held in Tamil Nadu(Madras)(renamed Chennai), while the women's were in AKFI has given new shape to the rules.

The Asian Kabaddi Federation (AKF) was founded under the chairmanship of kabaddi.

In 1979, a return test between Bangladesh and India was held at different places of India including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Punjab. The Asian Kabaddi Championship was arranged in 1980 and India emerged as champion and Bangladesh runner-up. Bangladesh became runner-up again in 1985 in the Asian Kabaddi Championship held in Jaipur, India. The other teams in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia and Japan. The game was included for the first time in the Asian Games in Beijing in 1990. India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh took part. India won the gold medal and has also won gold at the following six Asian Games in Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok in 1998, Busan in 2002, Doha in 2006 and Guangzhou in 2010.

An attempt to popularise kabaddi in Great Britain was carried out by Channel 4, who commissioned a programme dedicated to the sport. The programme, kabaddi in the early 1990s, however, failed to capture viewer attention despite fixtures such as West Bengal Police versus the Punjab. Kabaddi was axed in 1992. Alt-rock band The Cooper Temple Clause formed a kabbadi team in 2001 and were, at one stage, ranked seventh in the British domestic standings.[10] [better source needed]

In the 1998 Asian games held at Bangkok (Thailand), the Indian kabaddi team clinched the gold medal. The chief coach of the team was former kabaddi player and coach Flt. Lt. S P Singh.

In a major upset, seven-time gold medalist India suffered their first ever loss in 28 years at the 2018 Asian Games to South Korea in the men’s Kabaddi group A game.[1] In the semi-final, Iran sent the seven-time Asiad champions packing with a 27-18 win. India, who took home the bronze for reaching the semi-finals, did not play in the final since the introduction of the Games in the Asiad in 1990 at Beijing.[2]

VariationEdit

Standard styleEdit

In the international team version of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 10 by 13 metres (33 ft × 43 ft) in case of men and 8 by 12 metres (26 ft × 39 ft) in case of women. Each has three supplementary players held in reserve. The game is played with 20-minute halves, with a 5-minute halftime break during which the teams exchange sides. During each raid, a player from the attacking side—known as the "raider"—runs into the opposing team's side of the field and attempts to tag as many of the seven defending players as possible. For a raid to be eligible for points, the raider must cross the baulk line in the defending team's territory, and return to their half of the field without being tackled. Whilst doing so, the raider must also chant the word "kabaddi", confirming to referees that their raid is done on a single rhythm. A 30-second shot clock is also enforced on each raid.

A point is scored for each defender tagged, and a point can also be scored if the raider can step into the area past the territory's bonus line. If the raider is successfully stopped, the opposing team earns a point instead. All players tagged are taken out of the game, but one is "revived" for each point a team scores from a subsequent tag or tackle (bonus points do not revive players). Players who step out of bounds are also out. A raid where no points are scored by the raider is referred to as an "empty raid". By contrast, a play where the raider scores three or more points is referred to as a "super raid". If a team gets all seven players on the opposing team out at once, an "All Out" is scored for two bonus points, and they are automatically revived.

Additional rules are used in the Pro Kabaddi League; if a team has two empty raids in a row, the next raider must score a point on his/her raid or else he/she will be out ("do-or-die raid"). Additionally, when a defending team has less than four players left on the field, tackles are worth 2 points ("super tackle").[3][4][5][6]

Circle styleEdit

 
Circle Kabaddi

Four major forms of kabaddi played in India which are recognised by the amateur federation. In Sanjeevani kabaddi, one player is revived against one player of the opposite team who is out – one out. The game is played over 40 min with a 5 min break between halves. There are seven players on each side and the team that outs all the players on the opponent’s side scores four extra points. In Gaminee style, seven players play on either side and a player put out has to remain out until all his team members are out. The team that is successful in ousting all the players of the opponent’s side secures a point. The game continues until five or seven such points are secured and has no fixed time duration. Amar style resembles the Sanjeevani form in the time frame rule. But, a player who is declared out doesn’t leave the court, but instead stays inside, and the play goes along. For every player of the opposition touched “out”, a team earns a point.[7] Punjabi kabaddi is a variation that is played on a circular pitch of a diameter of 22 metres (72 ft).[8]

International competitionsEdit

Note that all of the following competitions are played in standard style.

Kabaddi World CupEdit

The second Kabaddi World Cup tournament was held in 2007 with India winning over Iran in the final round.[citation needed] The Punjab government organised a Circle Style 2010 Kabaddi World Cup from 3 to 12 April 2010. On 12 April 2010 Indian team emerged as the winner after beating Pakistan in the finals. The opening match of the tournament was held in Patiala while the closing ceremony took place in Ludhiana. India won the first edition of the Circle Style Kabaddi World Cup, Beating rival Pakistan in a 58–24 victory. The final of this 10-day tournament was played at Guru Nanak Stadium.[citation needed]

Pro kabaddi leagueEdit

Pro kabaddi league was introduced in 2014 in India based on Indian premier league.The first edition of the tournament had begun at 26 July 2014 with eight franchises based at eight different cities in India consisting of players from all over the world. The Jaipur Pink Panthers is owned by Bollywood star Abhishek Bachchan who said he wants to promote kabaddi. The other teams are the U Mumba based at Mumbai, the Bengaluru Bulls, the Delhi Dabbangs, the Puneri Paltans,the Telugu Titans based at Vizag, the Bengal Warriors based at Kolkata and the Patna Pirates based at Patna, Bihar. Among all seasons, Patna Pirates is the most successful team with three times title winner while U Mumba and Jaipur Pink Panthers shares 1-1 title.

The organisers have added four new teams in the PKL season 5, 2017: the Haryana Steelers, the Tamil Thalaivas from Tamil Nadu, the Gujarat Fortunegiants, and the UP Yoddha.

The opening match was held at Mumbai where Amitabh Bachchan was found cheering for his son's team. Aishwarya Rai was also present with Abhishek Bachchan. Together with them Bollywood stars Shahrukh Khan, Aamir Khan, Sunil Shetty, Sonali Bendre, Farah Khan, Boman Irani and producer Ronnie Screwvala cheering for his team Jaipur Pink Panthers were present at the stadium.

Indian star cricketer Sachin Tendulkar was present with his wife and daughter who said he enjoyed the speed, agility, and strength of the players of the sport very much.

Rakesh Kumar the captain of the Indian kabaddi team who has received an Arjuna Award and also the captain of Patna Pirates was also present at the inaugural matches who said it is a pleasure to see kabaddi getting recognition through the tournament.

Rakesh Kumar was the highest bought player in the auction by Patna pirates for 12.80 lakhs held before the tournament.

The broadcast rights were won by the Star sports network.

Domestic CompetitionsEdit

  • Kabaddi nationals

The Kabaddi Senior Nationals is the pre-eminent tournament conducted by AKFI to promote the sport of kabaddi within India. in 2019 the 66th Edition of the tournament is being conducted in Roha , Raigad, with 31 teams competing.[9]

  • Federation Cup
  • Telangana Premier Kabaddi League[10][11]

Performance By India national team in International competitionsEdit

Men's teamEdit

India national kabaddi team represents India in international kabaddi India national kabaddi team competitions.[12] India won Gold medals Asian Games in 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010.

World Cup (Standard Style)Edit

India has won all six Kabaddi world cups played till now. Iran is the three times runner-up of world cups.All the world cups were held in India.[13][14]

Year India's Position Last Match played by India Winner Runner-up
2004
Details
Winner  India vs.  
Iran (Final match)
55 – 27
 
India
 
Iran
2007
Details
Winner  India vs.  
Iran (Final match)
29 – 19
 
India
 
Iran
2016
Details'
Winner  India vs.  
Iran (Final match)
38-29
 
India
 
Iran

Asian GamesEdit

Year Host Final Third place match
Winner Score Runner-up 3rd place Score 4th place
1990
Details
 
Beijing
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan
 
Japan
1994
Details
 
Hiroshima
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan
 
Japan
1998
Details
 
Bangkok
 
India
No playoffs  
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
No playoffs  
Sri Lanka
2002
Details
 
Busan
 
India
No playoffs  
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan
No playoffs  
Japan
2006
Details
 
Doha
 
India
35–23  
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
37–26  
Iran
2010
Details
 
Guangzhou
 
India
37–20  
Iran
 
Pakistan
No playoffs  
Japan
2014
Details
 
Incheon
 
India
27–25  
Iran
 
Pakistan
No playoffs  
South Korea
2018
Details
 
JakartaPalembang
 
Iran
26-16  
South Korea
 
Pakistan
No playoffs  
India

Asian Indoor gamesEdit

Year Host Final Third place
Gold Score Silver Bronze Bronze
2007
Details
Macau  
India
35–17  
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
 
Iran
2009
Details
Hanoi  
India
57–33  
Iran
 
Bangladesh
 
Sri Lanka

SAF GamesEdit

India is very strong in Kabaddi as these results show. India won 7 gold medals out of a possible 8 until the 2006 SAF games.

Year Winner Runner-up 3rd Place Reference
2010
Details
 
India
 
Pakistan
  Bangladesh
    Nepal
2006
Details
 
India
 
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
2004
Details
 
India
 
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
1999
Details
 
India
 
Pakistan
 
Sri Lanka
1995
Details
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan
1993
Details
 
Pakistan
 
India
 
Bangladesh
1989
Details
 
India
 
Pakistan
 
Bangladesh
1987
Details
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan
1985
Details
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Pakistan

Women's teamEdit

India women's national kabaddi team represents India in international women's kabaddi events.[15]

Asian GamesEdit

Year Host Final Third place
Winner Score Runner-up
2010
Details
Guangzhou  
India
28–14  
Thailand
 
Iran
 
Bangladesh

South Asian GamesEdit

Year Winner Runner-up 3rd Place Reference
2010
Details
 
India
 
Bangladesh
 
Nepal


 
Sri Lanka

FederationsEdit

IndiaEdit

The Kabaddi Federation of India (KFI) was founded in 1950, and it compiled a standard set of rules. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. The AKFI has given new shape to the rules and it has also the rights of modification in the rules. The Asian Kabaddi Federation was founded under the chairmanship of Sharad Pawar.

The Governing body of Kabaddi in Asia is Asian Kabaddi Federation (AKF) headed by Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot. AKF is affiliated to Olympic Council of Asia. Parent body to regulate the game at international level is International Kabaddi Federation (IKF). India won the world cup in December 2013 by defeating Pakistan in finals at Punjab. In 2016 India had won world cup finals by defeating Iran.

Films about kabaddiEdit

Pop culture references In the 1993 movie Little Buddha in which Keanu Reeves plays the Siddhartha Gautama, a game of kabbadi is depicted.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "KABADDI: INDIA SUFFER SHOCK DEFEAT TO KOREA - The Times Of India - Delhi, 2018-08-21". Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  2. ^ "Asian Games: Kings of kabaddi get rude Iranian lesson - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-08-24.
  3. ^ "Rules of Kabaddi". International Kabaddi Federation (IKF). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Kabaddi World Cup 2016: A handy guide to the format, rules and how the sport works". Firstpost. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  5. ^ "Kabaddi 101: Raid, defend, revive, repeat". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  6. ^ "Everything you need to know about Kabaddi". The Indian Express. 2016-01-30. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  7. ^ "Kabaddi In India: Origins, success and current pitiable state". Sportskeeda.com. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  8. ^ Kissa 2 Kabaddi da. Sarwan Singh Sangam Publications. ISBN 93-83654-65-1.
  9. ^ "Roha Raigad all set to host the 66th Senior Nationals Kabaddi". Kabaddi Adda. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  10. ^ "Telangana premier kabaddi | Telanganapremierkabaddi.com". telanganapremierkabaddi.com. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  11. ^ "Silly Monks buys Telangana Premier Kabaddi League". Kabaddi Adda. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  12. ^ India national kabaddi team
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2011-06-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) | World Cup 2007
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-12-04. Retrieved 2011-11-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) | World Cup 2004
  15. ^ India women's national kabaddi team