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List of chief ministers of Punjab (India)

The Chief Minister of Punjab, an Indian state, is the head of the Government of Punjab. As per the Constitution of India, the Governor of Punjab is the state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Punjab Legislative Assembly, the governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]

Chief Minister of Punjab
Seal of Punjab.svg
Seal of Punjab
Amarinder Singh.jpg
Incumbent
Captain Amarinder Singh

since 16 March 2017
StyleThe Honourable
StatusHead of Government
AbbreviationCM
Member ofPunjab Legislative Assembly
SeatPunjab Civil Secretariat, Chandigarh
AppointerGovernor of Punjab
constitutionally; based on the appointee's ability to command confidence in the House
Inaugural holderSikandar Hayat Khan
(as Prime Minister)
Formation5 May 1937; 82 years ago (1937-05-05) (as Prime Minister)
DeputyDeputy Chief Minister of Punjab

Contents

HistoryEdit

Punjab Province (1937-1947)Edit

After passing of Government of India Act 1935, Punjab Assembly was established in 1937 when first time Punjab Provincial Assembly elections, 1937 were held and Unionist Party won the election and Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan became the Prime Minister of the Punjab and hold the position till his death in 1942 and he was succeeded by Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana. In 1946 when Punjab Provincial Assembly elections, 1946 were held Unionist Party stood fourth place but with the support of Indian National Congress and Shiromani Akali Dal formed the government and second time Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana became the Prime Minister of the Punjab but resigned on 2 March 1947 against decision of Partition of India.

PEPSU (1948-1956)Edit

 
Map of PEPSU in red color

It was created by combining eight princely states, which maintained their native rulers :

Six Salute states 
  • Patiala, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns (19-guns local)
  • Jind, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns personal and local)
  • Kapurthala, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns personal and local)
  • Nabha, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 13-guns (15-guns local):
  • Faridkot, title Raja, Hereditary salutes of 11-guns
  • Malerkotla, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns
and two Non-salute states

The state was inaugurated on 15 July 1948 and formally became a state of India in 1950. In 1956 PEPSU was merged with Punjab.

Punjab (1947-1966) (Punjab, Haryana and Himachal)Edit

 
Map of East Punjab in red color from 1947-1966

Since 1947, Punjab has had fifteen chief ministers. The first was Gopi Chand Bhargava of the Indian National Congress party, who was sworn-in on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence from the British. He was succeeded by fellow Congressman Bhim Sen Sachar, who was then subsequently replaced after 188 days by former Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava. After a brief term, President Rajendra Prasad placed the Punjab Legislative Assembly under suspension for ninth months to help the state government gets its act together. In 1952, the first state elections took place for the Legislative Assembly. The results of the election saw the return of the Congress government with former Chief Minister Bhim Sen Sachar as its leader. After he resigned in 1956, Partap Singh Kairon became chief minister. Serving until 1964, Khairon remain's one of Punjab's longest-serving chief ministers. He was followed by the returning Chief Minister Gopi Chand Bhargava, who briefly held office as acting chief minister for only 15 days. In July 1964, Ram Kishan assumed the office and served for two years. His tenure was followed by the President's rule which lasted for 119 days. During this time, the state of Haryana was separated from Punjab.

Punjab (Since 1966)Edit

 
Map of present Punjab in red color

The first chief minister of the newly re-configured state was Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir who led a Congress government from the Vidhan Parishad, one of only two to have done so. In the 1967 elections, he was voted out of power in favour of the Akali Das Sant Fateh Singh Group whose leader Gurnam Singh became the first non-Congress chief minister. Gurnam Singh's government was succeeded by three short-lived Akali Dal governments—Lachhman Singh Gill's government for less than a year and for a little more than a year under the returning Gurnam Singh and Parkash Singh Badal. After 272 days under President's rule, the Congress party returned to power under future President Zail Singh. In 1977, Parkash Singh Badal became the chief minister for the second time. Darbara Singh became chief minister in 1980 and remained in office for three years before a long period under President's rule. A brief interlude under Surjit Singh Barnala followed, after which three Congress-led governments took office—led by Beant Singh from 1992 to 1995, Harcharan Singh Brar from 1995 to 1996 and Rajinder Kaur Bhattal from 1996 to 1997. Upon taking office, Rajinder Kaur Bhattal became the first female chief minister of Punjab and overall the 8th female chief minister in India.

Parkash Singh Badal assumed office for the third time in 1997 and became the first chief minister, since Kairon's resignation in 1964, to serve a full term. Badal was succeeded by Congressman Amarinder Singh, who also successfully served a full term. The incumbent Chief Minister of Punjab is Captain Amarinder Singh who is heading an Indian National Congress government since 16 March 2017.

KeyEdit

Chief Ministers of the PunjabEdit

Prime Ministers of Punjab (1937-1947)Edit

No Name Portrait Party
(Coalition with)
Term of office[2] Constituency Election (Assembly) Appointed by
1 Sikandar Hayat Khan   Unionist Party 5 April 1937 26 December 1942
[d]
5 years, 265 days West Punjab-Landlord 1937 (1) Herbert William Emerson
2 Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana   30 December 1942 19 March 1945 2 years, 79 days Khushab Bertrand Glancy
(i) Governor Rule (Bertrand Glancy) - 19 March 1945 21 March 1946 1 year, 2 days - - Viscount Wavell
(2) Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana   Unionist Party
(INC and SAD)
21 March 1946 2 March 1947 346 days Khushab 1946 (2) Bertrand Glancy
(ii) Governor Rule (Evan Meredith Jenkins) - 2 March 1947 15 August 1947
[pd]
166 days - - Earl Mountbatten

PEPSU (1948-1956)Edit

No Name Portrait Party
(coalition with)
Term of office[3] Election (Assembly) Appointed by
List of Premier of PEPSU (1948-1952)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala   IND
(SAD)
15 July 1948 13 January 1949 2 years, 312 days Caretaker Government Yadavindra Singh
13 January 1949 23 May 1951 Not yet created
2 Raghbir Singh N/A Indian National Congress 23 May 1951 21 April 1952 334 days
Chief Minister of PEPSU (1952-1956)
1 Gian Singh Rarewala   IND
(UDF)
22 April 1952 5 March 1953 317 days 1952 (1) Yadavindra Singh
(i) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
- 5 March 1953 8 March 1954 1 year, 3 days - Rajendra Prasad
2 Raghbir Singh N/A Indian National Congress 8 March 1954 12 January 1955
[d]
310 days 1954 (2) Yadavindra Singh
3 Brish Bhan   12 January 1955 1 November 1956
[pd]
1 year, 294 days

Chief Minister of Punjab (1947-1966) (Punjab, Haryana and Himachal)Edit

Name Portrait Party
(coalition with)
Term of office[5] Constituency Elections
(Vidhan Sabha)
Appointed by(Governor)
1 Gopi Chand Bhargava   Indian National Congress 15 August 1947 13 April 1949[b] 1 year, 241 days University - (Interim Assembly) Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi
2 Bhim Sen Sachar   13 April 1949 18 October 1949 188 days Lahore City
(1) Gopi Chand Bhargava   18 October 1949 20 June 1951 1 year, 245 days University
(i) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 20 June 1951 17 April 1952 302 days - Rajendra Prasad
(2) Bhim Sen Sachar   Indian National Congress 17 April 1952 22 July 1953[c] 3 years, 281 days Ludhiana City South 1952 (1st) Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi
22 July 1953 23 January 1956 Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh
3 Partap Singh Kairon   23 January 1956 9 April 1957 8 years, 150 days Sujanpur
9 April 1957 11 March 1962 1957 (2nd)
11 March 1962 21 June 1964 1962 (3rd) Narhar Vishnu Gadgil
- Gopi Chand Bhargava   21 June 1964[d] 6 July 1964 15 days MLC in Vidhan Parishad Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim
4 Ram Kishan   7 July 1964 5 July 1966 1 year, 363 days Jalandhar City North East
(ii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 5 July 1966 1 November 1966 119 days - Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Chief Minister of Punjab (Since 1966)Edit

Name Portrait Party
(coalition with)
Term of office[6] Constituency Elections
(Vidhan Sabha)
Appointed by (Governor)
5 Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir   Indian National Congress 1 November 1966 8 March 1967 127 days MLC in Vidhan Parishad — (3rd) Dharma Vira
6 Gurnam Singh   Akali Dal - Sant Fateh Singh
(BJS-CPI)
8 March 1967 25 November 1967 262 days Qila Raipur 1967 (4th)
7 Lachhman Singh Gill   Punjab Janta Party
(INC)
25 November 1967 23 August 1968 272 days Dharamkot D. C. Pavate
(iii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 23 August 1968 17 February 1969 178 days - Zakir Hussain
(6) Gurnam Singh   Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJS)
17 February 1969 27 March 1970 1 year, 38 days Qila Raipur 1969 (5th) D. C. Pavate
8 Parkash Singh Badal   27 March 1970 14 June 1971 1 year, 79 days Giddarbaha
(iv) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 14 June 1971 17 March 1972 277 days - Varahagiri Venkata Giri
9 Zail Singh   Indian National Congress 17 March 1972 30 April 1977 5 years, 44 days Anandpur Sahib 1972 (6th) D. C. Pavate
(v) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 30 April 1977 20 June 1977 51 days - B. D. Jatti
(8) Parkash Singh Badal   Shiromani Akali Dal
(JP-CPI)
20 June 1977 17 February 1980 2 years, 242 days Gidderbaha 1977 (7th) Mahendra Mohan Choudhry
(vi) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 17 February 1980 6 June 1980 110 days - Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
10 Darbara Singh   Indian National Congress (Indira) 6 June 1980 6 October 1983 3 years, 122 days Nakodar 1980 (8th) Jaisukh lal Hathi
(vii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 6 October 1983 29 September 1985 1 year, 358 days - Zail Singh
11 Surjit Singh Barnala   Shiromani Akali Dal 29 September 1985 11 June 1987 1 year, 255 days Barnala 1985 (9th) Arjun Singh
(viii) Vacant[a]
(President's rule)
None 11 June 1987 25 February 1992 4 years, 259 days - Zail Singh
12 Beant Singh   Indian National Congress (Indira) 25 February 1992 31 August 1995
[†]
3 years, 187 days Jalandhar Cantonment 1992 (10th) Surendra Nath
13 Harcharan Singh Brar   31 August 1995 21 November 1996 1 year, 82 days Muktsar B. K. N. Chhibber
14 Rajinder Kaur Bhattal   21 November 1996 11 February 1997 82 days Lehra
(8) Parkash Singh Badal   Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
12 February 1997 26 February 2002 5 years, 14 days Lambi 1997 (11th)
15 Amarinder Singh   Indian National Congress 26 February 2002 1 March 2007 5 years, 3 days Patiala Urban 2002 (12th) J. F. R. Jacob
(8) Parkash Singh Badal   Shiromani Akali Dal
(BJP)
1 March 2007 14 March 2012 10 years, 15 days Lambi 2007 (13th) S. F. Rodrigues
14 March 2012 16 March 2017 2012 (14th) Shivraj Patil
(15) Amarinder Singh   Indian National Congress 16 March 2017 Incumbent 2 years, 160 days Patiala Urban 2017 (15th) V. P. Singh Badnore

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i President's rule may be imposed when the "government in a state is not able to function as per the Constitution", which often happens because no party or coalition has a majority in the assembly. When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant, and the administration is taken over by the governor, who functions on behalf of the central government. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]
  2. ^ Bhargava resigned from the post of chief minister on 6 April 1949 but hold the office till Sachar succeeded him on 13 April.
  3. ^ Sachar resigned from the post of Chief Minister due to the differences with cabinet ministers Sri Ram Sharma, but on same day re-sworn as Chief Minister.
  4. ^ Bhargava was also the only caretaker Chief Minister who served for few days due to the resignation of Partap Singh Kairon.
References
  1. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Punjab as well.
  2. ^ World statesman - British India
  3. ^ worldstatesmen.org PEPSU
  4. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  5. ^ page v of Punjab Vidhan Sabha Compendium.Retrieved on 25 September 2018.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference page5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External linksEdit