Bandi Chhor Divas
Bandi Chhor Divas ("Day of Liberation") (ਬੰਦੀ ਛੋੜ ਦਿਵਸ) is a Sikh holiday which coincides with the day of Diwali. Sikhs historically celebrated Diwali along with Hindus, with Guru Amar Das explicitly listing it along with Vaisakhi as a festival for Sikhs. In late 20th century, Sikh religious leaders increasingly called Diwali as Bandi Chhor Divas, and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee adopted this name along with the Nanakshahi calendar in 2003.
Unlike the Hindu festival of Diwali whose significance is based on the texts and scriptures of Hinduism, Bandi Chhor Divas celebrates a Sikh historic event related to the sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind. According to Sikh history, on this day, Guru Hargobind was released from prison by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who freed 52 other Hindu kings with him.
The Bandi Chhor Divas is celebrated in a manner similar to Diwali, with the lighting of homes and Gurdwaras, feasts, gift giving and family time. It is an important Sikh celebration along with Vaisakhi, Maghi, Holi with Hola Mohalla and Gurpurab.
In addition to Nagar keertan (a street procession) and an Akhand paath (a continuous reading of Guru Granth Sahib), Bandi Shor (Shodh) Divas is celebrated with a fireworks display. The Shri Harmandir Sahib, as well as the whole complex, is festooned with thousands of shimmering lights. The temple organizes continuous kirtan singing and special musicians. Sikhs consider this occasion as an important time to visit Gurdwaras and spend time with their families.
History and significanceEdit
Guru Hargobind's father Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and he was asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. This event is remembered as a defining moment in Sikh history and as the martyrdom of Guru Arjan. After the execution, Guru Hargobind succeeded his father as the next Guru of Sikhism.
Guru Hargobind, on 24 June 1606, at age 11, was crowned as the sixth Sikh Guru. At his succession ceremony, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority (piri) and the other, his temporal authority (miri). Because of the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Hargobind from the very start was a dedicated enemy of the Mughal rule. He advised Sikhs to arm and fight. The death of his father at the hands of Jahangir prompted him to emphasise the military dimension of the Sikh community.
Jahangir responded by jailing the 14 year old Guru Hargobind at Gwalior Fort in 1609, on the pretext that the fine imposed on Guru Arjan had not been paid by the Sikhs and Guru Hargobind. It is not clear as to how much time he spent as a prisoner. The year of his release appears to have been either 1611 or 1612, when Guru Hargobind was about 16 years old. Persian records, such as Dabistan i Mazahib suggest he was kept in jail for twelve years, including over 1617-1619 in Gwalior, after which he and his camp were kept under Muslim army's surveillance by Jahangir. According to Sikh tradition, Guru Hargobind was released from the bondage of prison on Diwali. This important event in Sikh history is now termed the Bandi Chhor Divas festival.
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4., Quote: "Since the time of Guru Amar Das it has been customary for Sikhs to assemble before their Guru on three of the most important Hindu festival occasions - Vaisakhi, Divali and Maha Shivaratri".
- Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29, 59. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 6, 122-123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
- Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1
- Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed by Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair
- Knut A. Jacobsen; Kristina Myrvold (2012). Sikhs Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 26–27, 33 with note 19. ISBN 978-1-4411-0358-1.
- Glimpses of Sikhism By Major Nahar Singh Jawandha
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-85773-549-2.
- Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Philosophical Society, 12(1), pages 29-62
- Kulathungam, Lyman (2012). Quest: Christ amidst the quest. Wipf. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-1-61097-515-5.
- Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (1999). The Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, Wheeler M. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-19-512718-8.
- Louis E. Fenech, Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, pp. 118-121
- W.H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 20 (Arjan's Death). ISBN 9780810863446.
The Mughal rulers of Punjab were evidently concerned with the growth of the Panth, and in 1605 the Emperor Jahangir made an entry in his memoirs, the Tuzuk-i-Jahāṅgīrī, concerning Guru Arjan's support for his rebellious son Khusro. Too many people, he wrote, were being persuaded by his teachings, and if the Guru would not become a Muslim the Panth had to be extinguished. Jahangir believed that Guru Arjan was a Hindu who pretended to be a saint and that he had been thinking of forcing Guru Arjan to convert to Islam or his false trade should be eliminated, for a long time. Mughal authorities seem plain to have been responsible for Arjan's death in custody in Lahore, and this may be accepted as an established fact. Whether the death was by execution, the result of torture, or drowning in the Ravi River remains unresolved. For Sikhs, Arjan is the first martyr Guru.
- WH McLeod (1989). The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society. Columbia University Press. pp. 26–51. ISBN 978-0231068154.
- Louis E. Fenech, Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, pages 118-121
- HS Singha (2009), Sikh Studies, Book 7, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170102458, pages 18-19
- HS Syan (2013), Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century, IB Tauris, ISBN 978-1780762500, pages 48-55
- V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
- Phyllis G. Jestice (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 345, 346. ISBN 9781576073551.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A & C Black. p. 48. ISBN 9781441117083.
- Fauja Singh. Harbans Singh (ed.). "HARGOBIND GURU (1595-1644)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Punjabi. ISBN 978-8173802041. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- The Sikh Review, Volumes 42-43, Issues 491-497. Sikh Cultural Centre. 1994. pp. 15–16.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29, 59, 120–131. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.