Portuguese control of Malacca –a city on the Malay Peninsula– spanned a 130 year period from 1511 to 1641 as a possession of the Portuguese East Indies. It was captured from the Malacca Sultanate as part of Portuguese attempts to gain control of trade in the region. Although multiple attempts to conquer it were repulsed, the city was eventually lost to an alliance of Dutch and regional forces, thus beggining a period of Dutch rule.

Portuguese Malacca
Malaca Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Melaka Portugis (Malay)
Malacca, shown within modern Malaysia
Malacca, shown within modern Malaysia
Portuguese Malacca in Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia, ca. 1550–1563.
Portuguese Malacca in Lendas da India by Gaspar Correia, ca. 1550–1563.
StatusPortuguese colony
CapitalMalacca Town
Common languages
King of Portugal 
• 1511–1521
Manuel I
• 1640–1641
John IV
• 1512–1514 (first)
Rui de Brito Patalim
• 1638–1641 (last)
Manuel de Sousa Coutinho
• 1616–1635 (first)
António Pinto da Fonseca
• 1637–1641 (last)
Luís Martins de Sousa Chichorro
Historical eraAge of Imperialism
• Captured
15 August 1511
14 January 1641
CurrencyPortuguese real
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Malacca Sultanate
Dutch Malacca

History edit

According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca was named after the malacca tree (Phyllanthus emblica), fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele (Ayer Leleh). The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China (present-day Bukit Cina). Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri (i.e. Parameswara) the first King of Malacca in 1411.

The capture of Malacca edit

Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of the King of Portugal, Manuel I, who sent captain-major Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to make contact with Malacca and sign a trade agreement with its ruler. The first European to reach Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah, trouble quickly ensued.[1] The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Muslims in the sultan's court.[2] The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a threat. Mahmud subsequently turned on the Portuguese and attacked the four ships in the harbour, killing some and capturing several of them, who were then imprisoned in Malacca and tortured. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca.[1]

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of around 1,200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[1] The Albuquerque made a number of demands, one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city where they could trade safely.[2] The sultan refused, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August with Sultan Mahmud Shah fleeing the city. A dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down on the Malaccan side.[1]

Following the defeat of the Malacca Sultanate, Afonso de Albuquerque sought to erect a fort in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud. A fortress was designed and constructed near a hill, south of the river mouth, on the former site of the mosque. Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack.[1]

A Portuguese port in a hostile region edit

Construction of Malacca City: Intramuros Anno 1604 by Manuel Godinho de Eredia

Portuguese Malacca faced severe hostility as it was the first European Christian trading settlement in Southeast Asia, being surrounded by numerous emerging Muslim states. They endured years of conflicts with Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim the port town. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital. He rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the Sultanate of Demak began a second campaign to assist the Malay sultan to retake Malacca which failed and cost of the Sultan of Demak his life. He was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed (the Java Sea) to North (Malay Peninsula). The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it was not until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II.[citation needed]

Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south, creating the Johor Sultanate.[citation needed]

The Sultan of Johor made several attempts to end Portuguese rule in Malacca. A request sent to Java in 1550 resulted in Ratu Kalinyamat, queen regnant of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers aboard 40 ships to aid Johor in taking Malacca. The Jepara troops joined forces with the Malay alliance and managed to assemble around 200 warships for the upcoming assault. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces. The Malay alliance troops were pushed back to the sea, while the Jepara troops remained on shore, withdrawing only after their leaders were killed. The battle continued on the beach and in the sea resulting in more than 2,000 Jepara soldiers being killed. A storm stranded two Jepara ships on the shore of Malacca where they were attacked by the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara soldiers managed to leave Malacca.[citation needed]

In 1568, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but was met with failure. In 1574 a combined attack from the Aceh Sultanate and the Javanese Jepara tried again to capture Malacca from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination.[citation needed]

Siege of Malacca by the Acehnese in 1568.

Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than being a centralised port of regional exchange, and having been made an authority to police the Strait of Malacca that ensured safety for commercial traffic, trade was instead scattered over a number of ports that experienced warfare among each other.[3]

Chinese reaction edit

Portuguese Malacca tin coins of King Emmanuel (1495–1521) and John III (1521–1557) period were discovered during an excavation near the Malacca River mouth by W. Edgerton, Resident Councilor of Malacca in 1900.

Malacca harboured a community of Chinese merchants, probably from Fujian and other places, who left China in defiance of Ming laws.[4] They were probably not treated well by the sultan, as all or almost all supported the Portuguese and helped them establish relations with neighbouring countries.[5] They had much to gain both from the protection and connections the Portuguese could offer.[6]

China was first contacted in 1513 by Jorge Álvares, who sailed from Malacca in a fleet of five junks and set foot on an island in the Pearl River Delta, and erected a padrão. He was followed by Rafael Perestrello, who landed in continental China proper and traded profitably at Guangzhou. The protection which Albuquerque provided to the resident Chinese merchants ensured that they were well received.[citation needed]

On 17 June 1517 a fleet of eight ships under the command of Fernão Peres de Andrade reached Guangzhou with an embassy from King Manuel I of Portugal, the ambassador Tomé Pires disembarked with pomp and circumstance and was well received by the Chinese authorities who came to see him with great ceremony.[7][8] Pires and his companions received one of the best houses in the city and received frequent visits from distinguished residents.[9][10] Andrade moved his ships to the Island of Tamão, where he obtained authorization from the Ming authorities to open a trade post and declared that anyone who had demands on the Portuguese should appeal to him, which gave the Chinese a high opinion of the integrity of the Portuguese.[11][12]

Pires reached Beijing in January 1521 but an ambassador from Sultan Mahmud appealed to Emperor Zhengde for aid against the Portuguese.[13] Zhengde died shortly afterwards and his successor Jianjing ruled that the Portuguese embassy would be held hostage at Guangzhou, until the Portuguese had restored the city to Sultan Mahmud.[14] Most or all of the members of the embassy were robbed of their belongings and imprisoned, many dying in captivity or being executed. Portuguese presence in China banned, though many Portuguese continued to sail from Malacca to engage in trade or smuggling.[15]

Relations with China gradually improved and aid was given against the Wokou pirates along China's shores, by 1557 Ming China agreed to allow the Portuguese to settle at Macau.[16] The Sultanate of Johor also improved relations with the Portuguese and fought alongside them against the Aceh Sultanate.

Dutch conquest and the end of Portuguese Malacca edit

Naval battle between Portuguese and Dutch East India Company ships.

By the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) began contesting Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into an impregnable fortress, the Fortaleza de Malaca, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Strait of Malacca and the spice trade in the region, where it repulsed an attack from Aceh in 1568. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese. The first serious attempt was the siege of Malacca in 1606 by the third VOC fleet with eleven ships, commanded by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge that led to the battle of Cape Rachado. Although the Dutch were routed, the Portuguese fleet of Martim Afonso de Castro, the Viceroy of Goa, suffered heavier casualties and the battle rallied the forces of the Sultanate of Johor into an alliance with the Dutch and later on with the Aceh Sultanate. The Dutch attacked Malacca again in 1616.[17]

Around that same time period, the Sultanate of Aceh had grown into a regional power with a formidable naval force and regarded Portuguese Malacca as a potential threat. In 1629, Iskandar Muda of the Aceh Sultanate sent several hundred ships to attack Malacca, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all his ships were destroyed and lost some 19,000 men in the process.[18]

The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and captured Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch–Johor–Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, reducing their influence in the archipelago. The Dutch settled in the city as Dutch Malacca, however the Dutch had no intention to make Malacca their main base, and concentrated on building Batavia (today Jakarta) as their headquarters in the orient instead. The Portuguese ports in the spice-producing Maluku Islands also fell to the Dutch in the following years. With these conquests, the last Portuguese colonies in Asia remained confined to Goa, Daman and Diu in Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Macau until the 20th century.[citation needed]

Fortress of Malacca edit

A Famosa proper, the keep of the fortress of Malacca.

The early core of the fortress system was a quadrilateral tower called Fortaleza de Malaca. Measurements were given as 10 fathoms per side with a height of 40 fathoms. It was constructed at the foot of the fortress hill, next to the sea. A circular wall of mortar and stone with a well in the middle was constructed to its east.[citation needed]

Over the years, constructions began to fully fortify the fortress hill. The pentagonal system began at the farthest point of the cape near south-east of the river mouth, towards the west of the Fortaleza. At this point two ramparts were built at right angles to each other lining the shores. The one running northward toward the river mouth was 130 fathoms in length to the bastion of São Pedro while the other one ran for 75 fathoms to the east, curving inshore, ending at the gate and bastion of Santiago.[citation needed]

From the bastion of São Pedro the rampart turned north east 150 fathoms past the Custom House Terrace gateway ending at the northernmost point of the fortress, the bastion of São Domingos. From the gateway of São Domingos, an earth rampart ran south-east for 100 fathoms ending at the bastion of the Madre de Deus. From here, beginning at the gate of Santo António, past the bastion of the Virgins, the rampart ended at the gateway of Santiago. Overall, the city enclosure was 655 fathoms and 10 palms (short) of a fathom.[citation needed]

Gateways edit

Present day Porta de Santiago

Four gateways were built for the city:

  1. Porta de Santiago
  2. The gateway of the Custom House Terrace
  3. Porta de São Domingos
  4. Porta de Santo António

Of these four gateways only two were in common use and open to traffic: the Gate of Santo António linking to the suburb of Yler and the western gate at the Custom House Terrace, giving access to Tranqueira and its bazaar.[citation needed]

The city of Malacca during the Portuguese Era edit

Malacca was the most thoroughly described city in south-east Asia during the 16th and 17th century as a result of it being under Portuguese control.[19] Outside of the fortified town centre lie the three suburbs of Malacca. The suburb of Upe (Upih), generally known as Tranqueira (modern day Tengkera) from the rampart of the fortress. The other two suburb were Yler (Hilir) or Tanjonpacer (Tanjung Pasir) and the suburb of Sabba.

Tranqueira edit

The Fort of Tranquera at Malacca by Carl Friedrich Reimer, 1786

Tranqueira was the most important suburb of Malacca. The suburb was rectangular in shape, with a northern walled boundary, the straits of Malacca to the south and the river of Malacca (Rio de Malaca) and the fortaleza's wall to the east. It was the main residential quarters of the city. However, in war, the residents of the quarters would be evacuated to the fortress. Tranqueira was divided into a further two parishes, São Tomé and São Estêvão. The parish of S.Tomé was called Campon Chelim (Malay: Kampung Keling). It was described that this area was populated by the Chelis of Choromandel. The other suburb of São Estêvão was also called Campon China (Kampung Cina).

Erédia described the houses as made of timber but roofed by tiles. A stone bridge with sentry crosses the river Malacca to provide access to the Malacca Fortress via the eastern Custome House Terrace. The centre of trade of the city was also located in Tranqueira near the beach on the mouth of the river called the Bazaar of the Jaos (Jowo/Jawa i.e. Javanese). In the present day, this part of the city is called Tengkera.

Yler edit

The district of Yler (Hilir) roughly covered Buquet China (Bukit Cina) and the south-eastern coastal area. The Well of Buquet China was one of the most important water sources for the community. Notable landmarks included the Church of the Madre De Deus and the Convent of the Capuchins of São Francisco. Other notable landmarks included Buquetpiatto (Bukit Piatu). The boundaries of this unwalled suburb were said to extend as far as Buquetpipi and Tanjonpacer.

Tanjonpacer (Malay: Tanjung Pasir) was later renamed Ujong Pasir. A community descended from Portuguese settlers is still located here in present-day Malacca. However, this suburb of Yler is now known as Banda Hilir. Modern land reclamations (for the purpose of building the commercial district of Melaka Raya) have, however, denied Banda Hilir the access to the sea that it formerly had.

Sabba edit

Malays of Malacca, depicted by the Portuguese in the Códice Casanatense.

The houses of this suburb were built along the edges of the river. Some of the original Muslim Malay inhabitants of Malacca lived in the swamps of nypeiras tree, where they were known to make nypa (nipah) wine by distillation for trade. This suburb was considered the most rural, being a transition to the Malacca hinterland, where timber and charcoal traffic passed through into the city. Several Christian parishes also lay outside the city along the river; São Lázaro, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Hope. While Muslim Malays inhabited the farmlands deeper into the hinterland.

In later periods of Dutch, British and modern day Malacca, the name of Sabba was made obsolete. However, its area encompassed parts of what is now Banda Kaba, Bunga Raya and Kampung Jawa within the modern city centre of Malacca.

Portuguese immigration edit

Portuguese tombstone at Malacca.

Portuguese residents were separated into five major subgroups:[20]

  • Soldados, or the soldier class consisting of single men whose duty it was to defend the city if it were to be under attack.
  • Casados, or settlers made up of married settlers. These group of people were directly ruled under the Portuguese formal administration and were made up of fidalgos, retired soldados and lower class citizens who migrated to these foreign lands. Since the composition was disproportionately male, these settlers wound up marrying local Asian natives, leading to children of interracial descent.[21]
  • Moradores, or informal settlers who were not under the purview of the formal administration, settling in regions outside of the Portuguese formal eye with Portuguese permission. They were often merchants by profession and established long-term settlements.
  • Ministrios, or crown-appointed officials meant for short term-stay. This included the captain-major. Other officials included the ouvidor (crown magistrate) and vedor da fazenda (financial superintendent).
  • Religioso, or ecclesiastical class. These were made of Catholic officials sent from with papal blessing to the Bishopric of Malacca which was placed under the purview of the Archbishopric in Goa, established in 1557. The catholic priests were made of the Capuchins, Augustinians and Dominican orders.[22] Malacca was also used as an intermediary stop for Jesuit priests heading to Japan and China, most famous of whom was Francis Xavier.[23]

The Portuguese also shipped over many Órfãs do Rei to Portuguese colonies overseas in Africa and India, and also to Portuguese Malacca. Órfãs do Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry Portuguese settlers.

Portuguese administration of Malacca edit

Floorplan of the Malacca citadel.

Portuguese Malacca was placed under the purview of the Estado da Índia, based in Goa with its governor/viceroy overseeing its rule. Malacca itself was administered by the captain-major whose office was located inside the Fortaleza.

In 1552, Malacca was granted a charter to become a camara (city)[24] equipped with its own Senado de Camara which normally consisted of fidalgos, procuradores dos mesteres (trade guild representatives) and citizens acting on behalf of marginalised groups.[25] The camara represented the voices and interests of the casados who would use it as a medium of communication between themselves and the Portuguese Crown.

Additionally, the other major organisation present in the city was the Misericordia or the House of Mercy which was a fraternity dedicated to providing aid, medicine and rudimentary education to the Christians of Malacca regardless of background. The body of administration was called the mesa and headed by a provedor. They also acted as financial executors for those who willed their assets to the Misericordia.

With regards to native matters, the administrative structure of Malacca pre-conquest remained largely unchanged. Afonso de Albuquerque initially wanted the sultan to return and rule under the Portuguese eye, to no avail.[26] The posts of bendahara, temenggung and shahbandar were maintained and appointed from among the non-muslims of Malacca.

In 1571, an attempt was made by Sebastian I to establish three separate entities of his Asian colonial holdings with Malacca being one sector under its own governor, though this effort did not come to fruition.[27]

According to Eredia in 1613, Malacca was administered by a governor (a captain-major), who was appointed for a term of three-years, as well as a bishop and church dignitaries representing the episcopal see, municipal officers, royal officials for finance and justice and a local native bendahara to administer the native Muslims and foreigners under the Portuguese jurisdiction.

Dom Estevão da Gama, son of Vasco da Gama, captain of Malacca between 1534 and 1539.
Captains of Malacca (1512–1641)
No. Captain Major From Until Monarch
1 Ruy de Brito Patalim 1512 1514 Manuel I
2 Jorge de Alburquerque (1st time) 1514 1516
3 Jorge de Brito 1516 1517
4 Nuno Vaz Pereira 1517 1518
5 Alfonso Lopes da Costa 1518 1520
6 Jorge de Alburquerque (2nd time) 1521 1525 Manuel I John III
7 Pedro Mascarenhas 1525 1526 John III
8 Jorge Cabral 1526 1528
9 Pero de Faria 1528 1529
10 Garcia de Sà (1st time) 1529 1533
11 Dom Paulo da Gama 1533 1534
12 Dom Estêvão da Gama 1534 1539
13 Pero de Faria 1539 1542
14 Ruy Vaz Pereira 1542 1544
15 Simão Botelho 1544 1545
16 Garcia de Sà (2nd time) 1545 1545
17 Simão de Mello 1545 1548
18 Dom Pedro da Silva da Gama 1548 1552
19 Licenciado Francisco Alvares 1552 1552
20 Dom Alvaro de Ata de Gama 1552 1554
21 Dom Antonio de Noronha 1554 1556
22 Dom João Pereira 1556 1557
23 João de Mendonça 1557 1560 John III Sebastian I
24 Francisco Deça 1560 1560 Sebastian I
25 Diogo de Meneses 1564 1567
26 Leonis Pereira 1567 1570
27 Francisco da Costa 1570 1571
28 António Moniz Barreto 1571 1573
29 Miguel de Castro 1573 1573
30 Leonis Pereira ou Francisco Henriques de Meneses 1573 1574
31 Tristão Vaz da Veiga 1574 1575
32 Miguel de Castro 1575 1577
33 Aires de Saldanha 1577 1579 Sebastian I

Henry I

34 João da Gama 1581 1582 Philip I
35 Roque de Melo 1582 1584
36 João da Silva 1584 1587
37 João Ribeiro Gaio 1587 1587
38 Nuno Velho Pereira 1587 15xx
39 Diogo Lobo 15xx 15xx
40 Pedro Lopes de Sousa 15xx 1594
41 Francisco da Silva Meneses 1597 1598
42 Martim Afonso de Melo Coutinho 1598 1599 Philip I

Phillip II

43 Fernão de Albuquerque 1599 1603 Phillip II
44 André Furtado de Mendonça 1603 1606
45 António de Meneses 1606 1607
46 Francisco Henriques 1610 1613
47 Gaspar Afonso de Melo 1613 1615
48 João Calado de Gamboa 1615 1615
49 António Pinto da Fonseca 1615 1616
50 João da Silveira 1617 1617
51 Pedro Lopes de Sousa 1619 1619
52 Filipe de Sousa ou Francisco Coutinho 1624 1624 Phillip III
53 Luis de Melo 162. 1626
54 Gaspar de Melo Sampaio 16xx 1634
55 Álvaro de Castro 1634 1635
56 Diogo de Melo e Castro 1630 1633
57 Francisco de Sousa de Castro 1630 1636
58 Diogo Coutinho Docem 1635 1637
59 Manuel de Sousa Coutinho 1638 1641 Phillip III

John IV

Military history edit

Portuguese soldiers in Malacca fighting the Acehnese, inspired by Saint Francis Xavier. 1619 painting by André Reinoso.
Portuguese Campaigns in the Strait of Malacca (1511–1641)
Year Event
1511 Conquest of Malacca
1520 Battle of Pago
1521 Battle of Bintan, Battle of Aceh
1522 Pedir Expedition
1523 Battle of Muar river
1524 Siege of Pasai, Siege of Malacca
1525 Battle of Lingga
1526 Siege of Bintan
1528 Battle of Aceh
1535 Battle of Ugentana
1536 Second Battle of Ugentana
1537 Siege of Malacca
1547 Battle of Perlis River
1551 Siege of Malacca
1568 Siege of Malacca
1569 Battle of Aceh
1570 First Battle of Formoso River
1573 Siege of Malacca
1574 Siege of Malacca
1575 Siege of Malacca
1587 Siege of Johor
1606 Battle of Aceh, Siege of Malacca, Battle of Cape Rachado
1607 Johor expedition
1615 Second Battle of Formoso River
1616 Battle of Malacca
1629 Battle of Duyon River
1641 Siege of Malacca

Gallery edit

Currency edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  2. ^ a b Mohd Fawzi bin Mohd Basri; Mohd Fo'ad bin Sakdan; Azami bin Man (2002). Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 1. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. p. 95. ISBN 983-62-7410-3.
  3. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300, 2nd Edition. London: Macmillan. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  4. ^ Roderich Ptak (2004). "Reconsidering Melaka and Central Guangdong". In Peter Borschberg (ed.). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century). Vol. 14 of South China and maritime Asia (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 11. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  5. ^ Roderich Ptak (2004). "Reconsidering Melaka and Central Guangdong". In Peter Borschberg (ed.). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century). Vol. 14 of South China and maritime Asia (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 13. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  6. ^ Roderich Ptak (2004). "Reconsidering Melaka and Central Guangdong". In Peter Borschberg (ed.). Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century). Vol. 14 of South China and maritime Asia (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 12. ISBN 3-447-05107-8. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  7. ^ J. Gerson da Cunha: Materials for the History of Oriental Studies Amongst the Portuguese in Atti del IV Congresso Internazionale degli Orientalisti, 1881, Florence, p. 214. "His landing was attended with much pomp and circumstance, the fleet greeted him with a salute, the Chinese authorities came in solemn processions to receive him and he was allotted for his residence the best kiosk in the city".
  8. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-988-8028-54-2. Retrieved 14 December 2011. In 1517, the viceroy of Goa, Lopo Soares de Albergaria, sent a fleet of eight ships to China, led by Fernão Peres de Andrade. This was a successful expedition and the Portuguese were able to establish good relations with the Chinese, even though there were some serious misunderstandings at first.
  9. ^ Juan González de Mendoza: The History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom of China and the Situation Thereof, volume 1, 1853, Hakluyt Society, xxxiii.
  10. ^ Ljungstedt, 1836, p. 92.
  11. ^ Juan González de Mendoza: The History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom of China and the Situation Thereof, volume 1, 1853, Hakluyt Society, xxxiv.
  12. ^ Frederick Charles Danvers: The Portuguese in India, volume I, London, W. H. Allen & Co. Limited, 1894, p. 338.
  13. ^ Sir Andrew Ljungstedt: An Historical Sketch of the Portuguese Settlements in China, Boston, James Munroe & Cp, 1836, p. 93.
  14. ^ Ljungstedt, 1836, p. 93.
  15. ^ Armando Cortesão: A Propósito do Ilustre Boticário Tomé Pires in Esparsos volume II, 1974, p. 206.
  16. ^ Wills, John E., Jr. (1998). "Relations with Maritime Europe, 1514–1662," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 2, 333–375. Edited by Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank, and Albert Feuerwerker. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24333-5, 343–344.
  17. ^ Moody, Andrew J. (18 March 2021). Macau's Languages in Society and Education: Planning in a Multilingual Ecology. Springer Nature. ISBN 978-3-030-68265-1.
  18. ^ Monteiro, Saturnino (2010). Batalhas e Combates da Marinha Portuguesa. Lisbon: Livraria Sá da Costa Editora. ISBN 978-972-562-323-7.
  19. ^ Pierre Yves Manguin: Of Fortresses and Galleys: The 1568 Acehnese Siege of Malacca, After a Contemporary Birds Eye View, 1988, p. 607.
  20. ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (10 April 2012). The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500–1700: A Political and Economic History. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 230–231. doi:10.1002/9781118496459. ISBN 978-1-118-49645-9.
  21. ^ Disney, A. R. (2009). A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807: Volume 2: The Portuguese Empire. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511813337. ISBN 978-0-521-40908-7.
  22. ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (2012). The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500–1700 A Political and Economic History (2., Auflage ed.). New York, NY. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-118-27401-9. OCLC 894714765.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  23. ^ Sar Desai, D. R. “The Portuguese Administration in Malacca, 1511–1641.” Journal of Southeast Asian History, vol. 10, no. 3, 1969, pp. 501–512., doi:10.1017/S0217781100005056.
  24. ^ South East Asia, Colonial History: Imperialism before 1800. United Kingdom, Routledge, 2001. p.163
  25. ^ Boxer, C. R. (1973), The Portuguese seaborne empire 1415–1825, Penguin, pp. 273–280
  26. ^ Disney, A. R. (2009). A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807: Volume 2: The Portuguese Empire. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 164. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511813337. ISBN 978-0-521-40908-7.
  27. ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (2012). The Portuguese empire in Asia, 1500–1700: a political and economic history (2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-118-49645-9. OCLC 779165225.

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