Siege of Malacca (1568)

The siege of Malacca occurred in 1568, when the Sultan of Aceh Alauddin attacked the Portuguese-held city of Malacca. The city had been held by the Portuguese since its conquest by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511.[5][6]

Siege of Malacca
Part of Acehnese-Portuguese conflicts

Portuguese map of the city of Malacca besieged in 1568
2°11′20″N 102°15′04″E / 2.1888°N 102.2511°E / 2.1888; 102.2511
Result Portuguese and Johor victory
Portuguese Empire
Sultanate of Johor
Aceh Sultanate Aceh Sultanate
Kalinyamat Kingdom
Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Leonis Pereira
Muzaffar II of Johor
Alauddin al-Kahar
1,500 men[1] 15,000 men[2]
400 Ottoman gunners[2]
300 ships[2]
200 cannons[2]
Casualties and losses
3 dead[3] 4,000 dead[4]
Several more wounded

The offensive was the result of a pan-Islamic alliance to try to repel the Portuguese from Malacca and the coasts of India.[7] The Ottomans supplied cannonneers to the alliance, but were unable to provide more due to the ongoing invasion of Cyprus and an uprising in Aden.[7]

The army of the Sultan was composed of a large fleet of long galley-type oared ships, 15,000 troops, and Ottoman mercenaries.[5][6][8][9][10] The city of Malacca was successfully defended by Dom Leonis Pereira, who was supported by the king of Johore.[5]

Other attacks on Malacca by the Acehnese would continue during the following years, especially in 1570.[5] The offensive weakened the Portuguese Empire. In the 1570s, the Sultan of the Moluccas was able to repel the Portuguese from the Spice Islands.[7]

Notes edit

  1. ^ Danvers, Frederick Charles (1894). A.D. 1481-1571. W.H. Allen & Company, limited.
  2. ^ a b c d Crusaders in the Far East Charles Truxillo p.66
  3. ^ Danvers, Frederick Charles (1894). A.D. 1481-1571. W.H. Allen & Company, limited.
  4. ^ Danvers, Frederick Charles (1894). A.D. 1481-1571. W.H. Allen & Company, limited.
  5. ^ a b c d "In 1568 Sultan Alaal-Din of Acheh assembled a huge fleet, with 15000 troops and Turkish mercenaries, and besieged Malacca. Aided by Johore, Dom Leonis Pereira drove off the siege, but Achinese attacks continued for many years." in Dictionary of Battles and Sieges by Tony Jaques [1] p.620
  6. ^ a b Of fortresses and galleys Pierre-Yves Mandrin
  7. ^ a b c By the sword and the cross Charles A. Truxillo p.59
  8. ^ Tony Jaques (1 January 2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 620–. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9.
  9. ^ J. M. Barwise; Nicholas J. White (2002). A Traveller's History of Southeast Asia. Interlink Books. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-1-56656-439-7.
  10. ^ Merle Calvin Ricklefs (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1200. Stanford University Press. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-0-8047-4480-5.