The Mohmand (Pashto: مومند; Persian: موهمند) or Momand tribe is one of the most prominent Abdālī Pashtun tribes (later Durrani). They are descended from the 1st son of Daulatyar and the 2nd son, Daudzai, according to Pashtun historical literature. They are based primarily in the eastern districts of Nangarhar Province (Logar Province), Afghanistan, and the Mohmand district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, bordering Nangarhar to the east.

Most members of the Mohmand tribe speak a northern variety of Pashto. Rahman Baba and Abdul Hamid Baba are amongst the most popular Pashto poets, and Abdul Ahad Mohmand, the first Afghan astronaut, belonged to the Mohmand tribe.(zabihullah mohmand)

HistoryEdit

The Momands Ghoryakhel originally lived in the present-day Momand region, Kandahar, Ghazni, Ghor, and between the basins of the Tarnak, Oxus and Indus rivers, along the present Pakistan-Afghanistan border.

The Momand are historically known for resisting outside forces. From 1672 to 1676, the Mohmand, under the leadership of Aimal Khan Momand, rebelled and fought deadly wars against the Mughal Army.[1] When Peshawar was annexed formally by the British, the area that comprises the present Mohmand Agency was ruled by the local tribesmen under the influence of the Khan of Lalpura. The present Khan of Lalpura is "Khan Tahir Zaman Mohmand". The Safis were under the control of the Khans of Bajaur and the Utmankhels were independent of any Khanate.[2]

The Momands fought many times against British India and other foreign invaders. The area of the Mohmands may be roughly defined as being bounded on the east by Charsadda, Peshawar District (in present-day Pakistan), north by Bajour Agency, west by Nangarhar (Afghanistan) and south by the Khyber Agency. The area of Mohmand is about 1,200 square miles (3,100 km2). The Durand line boundary line now runs through the Mohmand area. The Emir of Afghanistan in 1893 gave assurances to the Burhan Khel, Dawezai, Halimzai, Isa Khel, Tarangzai and Utmanzai sections of the Mohmands that they would not suffer from the severance of their ancient connection with Afghanistan; these are known as the Assured Clans. Mohmands live in Afghanistan, primarily in Nangarhar, Ghazni, Kunar, Logar and Kunduz, and in Pakistan as well. Many of them live in the Mohmands village of Pul-e-Jogi, in Braki Brak District. Pul-e-Jogi is a 10-minute drive from Wardak Province. Likewise, Mohmand live in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, especially in Mohmand Agency. Many people of Mohmand migrated to India. Among them were 12 brothers who formed a tribe known as Barabasti. The people of Barah Basti are known to Mohmands and their sub clan Daud Zai.[3]

In May 2018, Mohmand tribal elders condemned the merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and were supporters of a separate province Qabailistan.[4]

Principal clansEdit

The major tribes in Mohmand agency are:

  • Khwezai
  • Tarakzai
  • Baizai
  • Halimzai

Baizai resides mostly in Kama and Goshta Districts of Nangarhar Afghanistan. There are sub-branches of Baizai clan; Atmarkhail and Khadak Khel are famous. Yousaf Khan Momand and Hassan Khan Momand were the Khans of Kama, Mir Afzal Khan Momand and Ferdows Khan Momand were the Khans of Goshta. Both families played important role in Momand's leadership. Mir Afzal Khan Momand and his family were the first people who stood against the Russian oppression in 1979. He managed to gather thousands of Momand fighters. with the support of Momand and Safi tribal leaders. Hanif Atmar and Umar Zakhilwal were the cabinet ministers in Hamid Karzai Presidency. The central bazaar of Mohmand is Gandhab and is locally known as Ghandao Bazaar. The Tarakzai are concentrated in the lower Mohmand from Ekka Ghund to Michanai up to Daudzai. They are a well-educated tribe that settled at the gate of the Mohmand Agency. The sub-tribes of the Tarak Zai are Morcha Khel, Dado Khel, Qasim Khel, Bran Khel, and Issa Khel.

The Marchakhel family, a sub-tribe of the Tarak Zai Mohmands (Dado khel), is a well-known family from Lal Pur. "Khan kor" ( Royal Family of khan), a sub-tribe of the Marchakhel Mohmands, are among the most powerful Mohmands. The Khan was regarded as the king of Mohmands by many famous Afghans such as Amir Sher Ali Khan of Afghanistan. Khan had Khani over all the Mohmands and continues to have influence over Lal Pur. Most Murchakhel now live in Pakistan. Most influential members of the Royal family of Lalpura are Khan Tahir Zaman Mohmand , Khan Asad Zaman Mohmand, Dost Muhammad Khan,Gohar Zaman Mohmand and Latif Jan In Michanai area Sardar Khan family residing in riverbank of Kabul, Mughal Khan family residing in Union Council Jogani, presently leading Morcha Khel family in Jogani and Michanai areas Nayyer Aman Khan, Inayat Khan Morcha Khel, Nazar Muhammad, Samb Ali Khan, Qaiser Khan etc.

Lal Pur was a famous trade route. The Khan would collect taxes from the traders. Lal Pur was considered a kingdom. The Khans fought frequently with the British during the Afghan wars. Saadat khan of Lal Pur was the father-in-law of Amir of Afghanistan and was the grandfather of the famous Amir Ayub Khan of Afghanistan, also known as "The Victor of Maiwand" or "The Afghan Prince Charlie".

The Marchakhel was the chief of Mohmands and had influence over all Mohmand tribes except the Safi Mohmand which were under the influence of khan of Bajawar. Marchakhels ruled over all Mohmands. Marchakhels rule was from Lal Pur, Afghanistan to Peshawar, Pakistan. [2]

Peshawar

Mohmands live in different villages in the south of Peshawar. Their leaders are called by Malik or Arbab. Arbab residing in Landi Arbab Peshawar are known as the Mohmand tribe and in their villages from Badaber, Kagawala, Masrezai, Surizai, Sulimankhel, Bazidkhel, Mashokhel, Masho gagar, Sheikhan, Matani, Adezai, Pasani, Hazaar Khwanay, Bahadur Kalay, etc. and the surrounding area; the last village is Landi Arbab. There are five main sub-divisions of the Momand tribe living above the villages of Peshawar. Rahman BaBa Shrine is in Bahadar Kalay Peshawar, he was Momand Ghoryakhel and that village is a Momand tribe.[citation needed]

  • Morcha khel
  • Wand Khel
  • Bhai Khel
  • Surizai
  • yara khel
  • Isa khel

RiversEdit

The Kabul River and Swat River are the two rivers that pass through the area of the Lower Mohmand. The Kabul River forms the boundary between the Khyber and Mohmand agencies after entry into Pakistan territory. The flow of the water is from the west towards the east. On entry into Pakistan territory, the course of the Kabul River is through high mountains gorges till after it passes through the Warsak Dam, where after it starts running through the Peshawar valley area. The Swat river flows from the north towards south after entering the agency limits from the Malakand and passes through the area of Prang Ghar/Pindiali Tehsil. The course of this river is also through mountainous territory till it reaches the Munda Headworks wherefrom it starts running through the plains.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31 August. The winter season starts from November and continue till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during winter season.[citation needed]

OccupationsEdit

The sources of income are very limited in general except agriculture and some trade/business. Most of the locals are earning their livelihood in the Gulf States.[citation needed]

Places of interestEdit

Warsak Hydel Power station is situated on the river Kabul about 32.2 km from Peshawar. The construction of the project was started in 1955 and the power station was commissioned in 1960. Before commissioning of Mangla Power station, it was one of the major sources of power.

Mohmand dam is being constructed on Swat River to the east of the agency which is an ideal site for a hydro power station. The Prime Minister Imran Khan initiated the project in May 2019.

Gandab valleyEdit

This historic valley is situated in the Mohmand agency and shoots forth in the north- west direction from Pir Killa, a village on the main Michni Shabqadar road, and 32 km to the north of Peshawar. It runs parallel to a dry bed of a nullah; it is inhabited by the Halim zai section of the Mohmand tribe.

Notable MohmandsEdit

Samad Khan Mohmand Deputy District Attorney Mardan,

Dr Ahmad Khan B.D.S FSPS Maxilofacial Surgey Principal Bacha Khan Dental College Mardan

  • Hidayat Ullah Khan, Commissioner (DMG)
  • Nisar Khan Mohmand, Politician ( MPA, KP Assembly from 2019 to 2023)
  • Jamshid Khan Mohmand, Politician ( MPA 2013 to 2023)
  • Shaheed Imran Khan Mohmand, Politician
  • Dr Nizam Ud Din MD, Washington DC
  • Ghulam Hussain Khan
  • Latif Jan khan
  • Mirwais Khan (Baba khan)
  • Muhammad Salim Chief Secretary Kpk
  • Faradoon Khan Momand MP in Afghan Parliament,
  • Sayed Karim khan Momand Member of the Parliament in Afghan Government
  • Muhammad Rahim Momand, Director General for International Trade Ministry of Commerce and Industries, Kabul Afghanistan
  • Mohammad Omar Momand, Director General Afghan Customs, Ministry of Finance Kabul Afghanistan

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Momand, Ahmad Gul. The Bare Language of Khoshal's Poetry. Nangarhar University. p. 13.
  2. ^ a b http://waziristanhills.com/FATA/AgenciesFRs/MohmandAgency/tabid/78/language/en-GB/Default.as[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ http://www.barahbasti.org/Shajrah_BarahBasti_Afghanan.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  4. ^ Mohmand, Mureeb (2018-05-29). "Aftermath: Mohmand tribe opposes Fata, K-P merger". The Express Tribune. Pakistan. Retrieved 2018-05-29.

External linksEdit