The Battle of the Ten Kings (Sanskrit: दाशराज्ञ युद्ध, romanized: Dāśarājñá yuddhá) is a battle, first alluded to in the 7th Mandala of the Rigveda (RV), between a Bharata king and a confederation of tribes. It resulted in a decisive victory for the Bharatas and subsequent formation of the Kuru polity.
|Battle of the Ten Kings|
|Commanders and leaders|
The Ten Kings|
|Unknown but less||More than 6,666|
|Casualties and losses|
|Unknown but less||6,666 (Mandala 7)|
In Book 3, the Bharatas are noted to have crossed Beas and Sutlej, in their progress towards Kurukshetra where they came across a nascent (and temporary) inter-tribal alliance. This led to the battle, which is described in the 18th hymn (verses 5-21) of Book 7; the exact motivations are doubtful — Michael Witzel argues that it might have been a product of intratribal resentment or intrigues of an ousted family-priest[a] while Ranabir Chakravarti argues that the battle was probably fought for controlling the rivers, which were a lifeline for irrigation. The hymns also mention of the tribes seeking to steal cows from the Bharatas.
Hanns-Peter Schmidt, whom Witzel deems to have produced the most "detailed, and ingenious reinterpretation" of the hymns, locates a unique poetic moment across the RV corpus, in their extraordinarily abundant usage of sarcastic allusions, similes and puns to mock the tribal alliance. Some of those allusions seem to be heavily context-specific and (still) remain unrecognized; there exist considerable disputes about interpretations of particular words, in light of the employed figures of speech and other poetic devices.
The first phase of the battle took place on the banks of the river Ravi (then Parusni) near Manusa, west of Kurukshetra. The Bharata King and their priest are respectively mentioned as Sudas Paijavana and Vasistha, in the Rig Veda; however the names change in Samaveda and Yajurveda Samhitas. The principal antagonist is doubtful[b] and names of the participating tribes are difficult to retrieve, in light of the phonological deformations of their names. Plausible belligerents of the tribal union include (in order) — Purus (erstwhile master-tribe of Bharatas), Yadu (probably commanded by Turvasa), Yaksu (relatively unimportant or a pun for Yadu), Matsyas, Druhyus, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Vishanins, Sivas, Vaikarna, and Anu.
Though seemingly an unequal battle, going by the numbers (this aspect is highlighted multiple times in the hymns), Sudas decisively won against the tribal alliance by strategic breaching of a dyke on the river thereby drowning most (?) of the opponents. This sudden change in fortunes is attributed to the benevolence and strategizing of Indra, the patron-God of Bharatas, whose blessings were secured by Vasistha's poetics.
The Battle of the Ten Kings led Bharatas to occupy the entire Puru territory (Western Punjab) centered around Sarasvati River and complete their east-ward migration. Sudas celebrated his victory with the Ashvamedha ritual to commemorate the establishment of a realm, free of enemies from the north, east, and west. He still had enemies in the Khāṇḍava Forest to the south, which was inhabited by the despised non-Indo-Aryan Kikatas.
A political realignment between Purus and Bharatas probably followed soon enough and might have included other factions of the tribal union as well; this is exhibited from how the core collection of RV prominently features clan-hymns of both the sides.
Numerous translators since the 1800s including K. F. Geldner have considered the battle as a historical event, based on the narration-characteristics of the verses. Witzel dates the battle between approximately 1450 and 1300 BCE; he deems the concerned hymns to be late interpolations. Stephanie W. Jamison warns against using it as a major source to reconstruct history since the description of the battle is "anything but clear."
Possible Prototype for the Mahabharata WarEdit
Witzel notes this battle to be the probable archetype/prototype of the Kurukshetra War, narrated in the Mahabharata. John Brockington takes a similar approach. S. S. N. Murthy goes to the extent of proposing the battle as the very "nucleus" of the Kurukshetra War; Walter Ruben adopts a similar stance. However, Witzel maintains the nucleus text of the Mahabharata to be in description of some event in the Late Vedic spans; it was since reshaped (and expanded) over centuries of transmission and recreation to (probably) reflect the Battle of the Ten Kings. Alf Hiltebeitel rejects Witzel's and Brockington's arguments as "baffling fancy" and notes a complete lack of means to "connect the Vedic Battle of the Ten Kings with the fratricidal struggle" of the Mahabharata.
The territory would eventually become the first South-Asian "state" under the Kuru tribe in post-RV span and serve as the heart-land of Brahminical culture. The Purus went on to survive as a marginal power in Punjab; Witzel and some other scholars believe Porus (c. early 300 BC) to be a king from the same tribe.
- Book 3 was composed by Vishwamitra, the family priest of the Bharatas and makes no mention of the battle. Book 7 was composed by Vasistha, who replaced Vishwamitra. However, Jamison rejects that there exists any evidence of Vasistha-Vishwamitra feud in RV.
- Karl Friedrich Geldner deemed it to be Bheda, incorrectly. Witzel proposes Trasadasyu. Palihawadana proposes Purukutsa, Trasadasyu's father.
- Witzel, Michael (1997). "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu" (PDF). Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora. 2: 264.
- Witzel, Michael (1995). "4. Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parametres". In Erdosy, George (ed.). The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. Indian Philology and South Asian Studies. De Gruyter. pp. 85–125. doi:10.1515/9783110816433-009. ISBN 978-3-11-081643-3. S2CID 238465491.
- Brereton, Joel P.; Jamison, Stephanie W., eds. (2014). The Rigveda: The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. I. Oxford University Press. pp. 880, 902–905, 923–925, 1015–1016. ISBN 9780199370184.
- Sinha, Kanad (2015). "PROFESSOR V.K. THAKUR MEMORIAL PRIZED PAPER: WHEN THE BHŪPATI SOUGHT THE GOPATI'S WEALTH: LOCATING THE "MAHĀBHĀRATA ECONOMY". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 76: 67–68. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44156566.
- Schmidt, Hans-Peter (March 1980). "Notes on Rgveda 7.18.5–10". Indica. 17: 41–47. ISSN 0019-686X.
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- Brereton, Joel P.; Jamison, Stephanie W., eds. (2020). The Rigveda: A Guide. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780190633363.
- Palihawadana, Mahinda (2017). Mumm, Peter-Arnold; West, Tina (eds.). "The Indra Cult as Ideology A Clue to Power Struggle in an Ancient Society". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 24 (2): 51.
- Witzel, Michael (1997). "The development of the Vedic canon and its schools: the social and political milieu". crossasia-repository.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: 263, 267, 320. doi:10.11588/xarep.00000110. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
- Witzel, Michael (2000). "The Languages of Harappa: Early Linguistic Data and the Indus civilization": 37. doi:10.11588/xarep.00000120. Cite journal requires
- Witzel, Michael (1997). "Early Sanskritization Origins and Development of the Kuru State". In Kölver, Bernhard (ed.). Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien / The State, the Law, and Administration in Classical India. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. doi:10.1524/9783486594355-005 (inactive 31 October 2021). ISBN 978-3-486-59435-5.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (30 October 2001). "Introduction". Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King. University of Chicago Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-226-34054-8.
- Murthy, S. S. N. (8 September 2016). "The Questionable Historicity of the Mahabharata". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 10 (5): 1–15. doi:10.11588/ejvs.2003.5.782. ISSN 1084-7561. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Ruben, Walter (1977). "KṚṢṆA, PARIS, AND SEVEN SIMILAR HEROES". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 58/59: 299. ISSN 0378-1143. JSTOR 41691699.
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (1 June 2000). "John Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics". Indo-Iranian Journal. 43 (2): 162. doi:10.1023/A:1003953706398. ISSN 1572-8536. S2CID 189772160.