The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy, also by the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The government-in-exile was based in Cairo, Egypt. Hence it is also commonly referred to as the "Cairo Government" (Greek: Κυβέρνηση του Καΐρου). It was the internationally recognised Greek government, during the years of the Axis occupation of Greece.
Κυβέρνησις τοῦ Καΐρου
Motto: «Ἐλευθερία ἢ Θάνατος»
"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: «Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν»
"Hymn to Freedom"
|Status||Government in exile|
Capital in Exile:
|Religion||Eastern Orthodox Church|
|Historical era||World War II|
|28 October 1940|
|20 May 1941|
• Arrival at Cairo
|24 May 1941|
• Liberation of Greece
|ISO 3166 code||GR|
It was headed by King George II, which evacuated from Athens in April 1941, after the German invasion of the country, first to the island of Crete and then to Cairo in Egypt. It remained there until the German occupying forces withdrew from the country on 17 October 1944.
The exiled Greek government was closely controlled by the British. Until 1944 it was also recognized as the legal Greek government by all Greek Resistance forces. In the occupied Greece, alongside the Axis-controlled collaborationist governments, a vigorous Resistance movement developed. Its major force was the communist-controlled EAM/ELAS. During 1944, EAM/ELAS established a de facto separate administration, formalised in March 1944 after elections in both occupied and liberated territories, as the Political Committee of National Liberation (PEEA).
On 25 April 1941, with the onset of the Battle of Greece, King George II and his government left the Greek mainland for Crete, which was attacked by Nazi forces on 20 May 1941. The Germans employed parachute forces in a massive airborne invasion and attacked the three main airfields of the island. After seven days of fighting and tough resistance, Allied commanders decided that the cause was hopeless and ordered a withdrawal from Sfakia.
During the night of May 24, George II and his government were evacuated from Crete to Cairo. The government remained in Egypt until the withdrawal of German forces from Greece on October 17, 1944. The Greek government returned from exile accompanied by a group of British forces in October.
|King George II
|Term of office||Party||Cabinet|
|Democratic Socialist Party||Papandreou|
- "Greece - The Metaxas regime and World War II | history - geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-06-27.
- Papastratis, Procopis (1984). British Policy Towards Greece During the Second World War 1941–1944. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521243421.