Open main menu

List of Confederate monuments and memorials

  (Redirected from List of monuments and memorials of the Confederate States of America)
Statue in Statesboro, Georgia

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1] In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."[2]

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.[3] For monuments and memorials which have been removed, consult Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.

This list does not include the removal of figures connected with the origins of the Civil War or white supremacy, but not with the Confederacy, including statues of Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney in Annapolis, Baltimore, and Frederick, Maryland, a controversial portrait of North Carolina Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin,[4] and numerous memorials to Southern politician John C. Calhoun (commemorated on the Confederacy's 1¢ stamp), although monuments to Calhoun "have been the most consistent targets" of vandals.[5] It also does not include post-Civil War white supremacists, such as North Carolina Governor Charles Aycock, some of whose monuments are also being removed (see Charles Brantley Aycock#Legacy).

Contents

HistoryEdit

Monument building and dedicationsEdit

 
Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement, times of increased racial tension.[1][6][7][note 1]

Memorials have been erected on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials have also been erected.

According to Smithsonian Magazine, "Confederate monuments aren't just heirlooms, the artifacts of a bygone era. Instead, American taxpayers are still heavily investing in these tributes today."[2] The report also concluded that the monuments were constructed and are regularly maintained in promotion of Lost Cause, white supremacist mythology, and over the many decades of their establishment, African American leaders regularly protested these memorials and what they represented.[2]

A small number of memorializations were made during the war, mainly as ship and place names. After the war, Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war".[9] Nevertheless, monuments and memorials continued to be dedicated shortly after the American Civil War.[10][better source needed] Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the twentieth century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[11]

Jim Crow and white supremacyEdit

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy.[12][8][7] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[13] According to Smithsonian Magazine, "far from simply being markers of historic events and people, as proponents argue, these memorials were created and funded by Jim Crow governments to pay homage to a slave-owning society and to serve as blunt assertions of dominance over African-Americans."[2]

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[6] Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy".[7] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[14] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African-Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[15] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[16] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[17]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[18][19][20] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued, in Monuments to the Lost Cause, that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life."[21][22]

In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[23]

Another wave of monument construction coincided with the Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil War Centennial.[24] At least thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, including at least 7 re-dedications.[25][26][27][28][29]

Scholarly studyEdit

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[30][31] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".[31]

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are however the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannon balls or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.[31]

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments; the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.[31]

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the south after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African American southerners. He concluded "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[31]

RemovalEdit

 
The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its perch on May 17, 2017

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[32] At the same time, laws in various Southern states place restrictions on, or prohibit altogether, the removal of statutes and memorials and the renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[33][34][35][36][37][36]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with Republicans and whites preferring to keep the monuments in place, while Democrats and minorities preferring their removal.[38][39] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[40][41]

Geographic distributionEdit

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the southern United States.[31] The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[31] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics." The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

NationalEdit

United States CapitolEdit

 
There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Arlington National CemeteryEdit

 
Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery
The NPS describes the property as "the nation's memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."[56]

Coins and stampsEdit

  • Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser for the Stone Mountain monument, which honors the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins were released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value.[58] The caption on the reverse reads "Memorial to the valor of the soldier of the South".
  • Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least five US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.[59][60]

US militaryEdit

BasesEdit

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[8] In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities,[61] and declined to make further comment in 2017.[62]

FacilitiesEdit

  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[66]
  • Lee Barracks (de) (Mainz, Germany), closed in 1992
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent's home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[67] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy's division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[67][68]

Current shipsEdit

Former shipsEdit

Within National ParksEdit

Multi-state highwaysEdit

On October 16, 2018, the Board of Commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina (location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, see Silent Sam), voted unanimously to repeal the county's 1959 resolution naming for Davis the portion of U.S. 15 running through the county.[70]

AlabamaEdit

 
Monument to Confederate Soldiers and Sailors, by Alabama by sculptor Alexander Doyle, at the Alabama State Capitol

There are at least 107 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[8]

The 2017 Alabama Memorial Preservation Act was passed to require local governments to obtain state permission before removing Confederate monuments and memorials.[71][72][73]

State capitolEdit

State symbolsEdit

 
Flag of the Governor since 1939
  • Alabama Coat of Arms (1923) and the State Seal include the Confederate Battle Flag.
  • Alabama State Flag (1895) The Alabama Department of Archives and History found in 1915 that the flag was meant to "preserve in permanent form some of the more distinctive features of the Confederate battle flag, particularly the St. Andrew's cross."[79] According to historian John M. Coski, the adoption of Alabama's flag coincided with the rise of Jim Crow laws and segregation,[80] as other former Confederate slave states, such as Mississippi and Florida, also adopted new state flags based off Confederate designs around the same time when those states instituted Jim Crow segregation laws themselves:[80]
  • The Governor's version of the State Flag includes St Andrew's Cross plus the State Coat of Arms with the Confederate Battle Flag inclusion and the military crest on the bottom.

State holidaysEdit

BuildingsEdit

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Panel on Jefferson County Court House, Birmingham, 1932[82]
 
Pickens County War Memorial in Carrollton
 
Confederate Monument, Clayton (circa 1910)
 
Confederate Monument in Jasper, Alabama, showing cavalryman, infantryman, and a Confederate flag made of flowers

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Confederate monument at Blakeley, Alabama
 
Raphael Semmes monument in Mobile, Alabama by sculptor Caspar Buberl
 
Monument to the Confederate victory in the Battle of Newton, Newton, Alabama
 
Calhoun County Confederate Memorial in Ohatchee, Alabama
 
"Arsenal Place" memorial in Selma, Alabama
 
Bust of Nathan Bedford Forrest in Old Live Oak Cemetery.
  • Selma:
    • The Edmund Pettus Bridge (1940), on US Route 80, is named for Edmund Pettus, Confederate General and Alabama Grand Dragon of the KKK.[130] This is the beginning of the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail (1996), commemorating the Selma to Montgomery civil rights marches of 1965.
    • Defense of Selma Memorial (1907) by UDC[127][131]
    • Memorial boulder marking The Selma Ordnance and Naval Foundry "destroyed by the Federals 1865," placed "in honor of the memory of hundreds of faithful men who made these great works a base for war material for the entire Confederate Army and Navy." (1917) Alabama Division United Daughters of Confederacy.[132]
    • "Arsenal Place" memorial (1931), marking the site of the Confederate ordnance works "destroyed by the Union Army April 6, 1865"
    • A memorial arch on the grounds of the Federal Building / U.S. Courthouse honors Confederate Generals and Senators John Tyler Morgan and Edmund Pettus
    • Old Live Oak Cemetery, a Selma city-owned property, incorporates various features including:
      • Jefferson Davis Memorial Chair – an inscribed stone chair
      • Confederate Memorial Circle (1878) Confederate Memorial Association[127]
      • The Nathan Bedford Forrest Bust Monument (2000). Built partly with city funds, sponsored by Friends of Forrest and UDC. It was first located at the Vaughan-Smitherman Museum, but during protest over Forrest's KKK links trash was dumped on it[133] and it was damaged during an apparent attempt to remove the bust from its foundation. It was then moved to the Cemetery's Confederate Circle. The bust was then stolen in 2012[134] and has not been recovered, despite a $20,000 reward; the present bust is a replacement.[135] The base is inscribed, under a Confederate flag: "Defender of Selma, Wizard of the Saddle, untutored genius, the first with the most. This monument stands as testament of our perpetual devotion and respect to Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, C.S.A., 1821-1877, one of the South's finest heroes. In honor of Gen. Forrest's unwavering defense of Selma, the great state of Alabama, and the Confederacy, this memorial is dedicated. Deo vindice."[136][137]
      • A Confederate Soldier Monument (pre-1881) with cannons protecting it
      • Graves and memorials to four CSA generals: John Tyler Morgan, Edmund Winston Pettus, Nathaniel H. R. Dawson, William J. Hardee and Confederate Navy Commander Catesby ap Roger Jones
      • A building historically used for concerts and Confederate Memorial Day celebrations
      • Elodie Todd Dawson Monument (sister-in-law to President Lincoln, strong advocate for the Confederacy)[138]
  • Tallassee
    • Confederate Armory. When Richmond was threatened by Union troops, the Confederacy moved its armory to Tallassee. It is the only Confederate armory to survive the war. Only the brick shell of the large building survives. There is a historical marker.[139]
    • Confederate Officers' Quarters, 301, 303 (demolished), 305, and 307 King Street. Made necessary by the relocation of the armory. After the Civil War, Confederate Brigadier-General Birkett Davenport Fry lived at 301 King Street until 1880. The building is currently used as a law firm office, but there is a historical marker.[140]
  • Troy: "Comrades" Confederate Monument (1908) Pike Monumental Association, UCV, and UDC of Pike County, Alabama[141]
  • Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Civil War Memorial, South entrance of Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library (1914) by UDC, Alabama Division[142]
  • Tuscaloosa County: UDC monument (1977) at Tannehill Ironworks, where Confederate munitions and iron were manufactured[143]

Private monumentsEdit

 
Mesopotamia Cemetery, Eutaw, Alabama

Inhabited placesEdit

Parks, water features and damsEdit

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

City symbolsEdit

  • Mobile: city flag includes the city seal which incorporates a small Confederate Battle Flag along with other flags.[1]
  • Montgomery:
    • The red and gray city flag includes a strip of stars from the Confederate Battle Flag.
    • The city seal of Montgomery (seen here) includes the words "Cradle of the Confederacy" and "Birthplace of the Civil Rights Movement"

     

AlaskaEdit

  • Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch"[160] and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 20th century, though only Union Gulch was mined.[161]

ArizonaEdit

There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.[162]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 1961 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[163]  
Public Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorates the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags.[163][164][165]  
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[163][166]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[163]  
Road 1943 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[163][167]

ArkansasEdit

There are at least 57 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[8]

State capitolEdit

MonumentsEdit

 
Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

Courthouse monumentsEdit

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
 
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery

Inhabited placesEdit

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

State symbolsEdit

 
Flag of Arkansas since 1913
  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join.[79] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[191]

CaliforniaEdit

There are at least eight public spaces with Confederate monuments in California.[8]

MonumentsEdit

  • San Diego: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1948), at city-owned Mount Hope Cemetery[192]
  • Santa Ana: CSA monument with the inscription "to honor the sacred memory of the pioneers who built Orange County after their valiant efforts to defend the Cause of Southern Independence" in Santa Ana Cemetery. Installed in 2004.[193][194]

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009[196] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreationEdit

MineEdit

 
Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
  • San Diego County: Stonewall Jackson Mine (1870-1893), the richest gold mine in southern California history[201]

ColoradoEdit

 
Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

SchoolsEdit

  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[202]

MonumentEdit

MineEdit

DelawareEdit

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[8]

District of ColumbiaEdit

FloridaEdit

There are at least 61 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[8]

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[212]

State capitolEdit

State symbolEdit

 
Flag of Florida since 1900
  • The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.[215][216][79][217] The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
 
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
  • Lakeland: Confederate soldier statue in Munn Park in downtown, created by the McNeel Marble Works (1910)[30]:34 In May 2018, the Lakeland City Commission approved the removal of the statue to Veterans Park.[239]
  • Leon County: A plaque commemorating Robert E. Lee and the Dixie Highway on Thomasville Road (U.S. Highway 319), one mile from the Georgia state line. Erected 1926 by the Anna Jackson Chapter of Daughters of the Confederacy.[220]
  • Madison: Confederate monument, Four Freedoms Park (1909). Lists names of men who died from county. Nearby sits a momument to former slaves in the county.[220][30]:35
  • Miami: Confederate monument, Confederate Circle in City Cemetery (1914 at the Dade County Courthouse, was moved to cemetery in 1927)[240][30]:36
 
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
  • Olustee:
    • Battlefield monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). Inscription: Here was fought on February 20, 1864 the Battle of Ocean Pond under the immediate command of General Alfred Holt Colquitt, "Hero of Olustee." This decisive engagement prevented a Sherman-like invasion of Georgia from the south. Erected April 20, 1936, by the Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy Ga. Div.
    • CSA Brigadier General Joseph Finnegan Monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). "Placed by The United Daughters of the Confederacy Florida Division In Memory of Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan Commander of the District of Middle and East Florida So well did he perform his part that a signal victory over the Federals was won in the Battle of Olustee Feb. 20, 1864"
  • Pensacola:
    • Florida Square was renamed Lee Square in 1889.[241]
    • A 50-foot monument to Our Confederate Dead, erected in 1891, is in Lee Square.[242] It commemorates Jefferson Davis, Pensacolian Confederate veterans Stephen R. Mallory (Secretary of the Confederate Navy) and Edward Aylesworth Perry (Confederate General and Governor of Florida 1885-1889), and "the Uncrowned Heroes of the Southern Confederacy." The mayor of Pensacola has called for its removal.[241]
  • Perry: Confederate monument, Taylor County Sports Complex (2007)[243][244]
  • Quincy: Confederate memorial, Soldiers Cemetery within Eastern Cemetery, part of the town's National Register Historic District (2010). The memorial also notes the restoration of the historic fence.[245][246]
  • St. Augustine:
    • Confederate monument, on the Plaza de la Constitución (1879).[247] "The Confederate Memorial Contextualization Advisory Committee, a seven-member task force comprised mostly of historians", in 2018 recommended to the City Commission that the monument be kept, with the addition of "some necessary context".[248]
    • Memorial to William Wing Loring, on the Plaza de la Constitución, erected behind the Government House (1920)[249]
  • St. Cloud: Confederate monument, Veterans Park (2006)[250]
  • St. Petersburg: Confederate monument, Greenwood Cemetery (1900)[251]
  • Tampa: There is a stained-glass window donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1906 in honor of Father Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy", in the Sacred Heart Catholic Church.
  • Trenton: Confederate monument, across from Gilchrist County Courthouse in Veterans' Park (2010)[252]
  • White Springs: Confederate monument and large flag, along Interstate 75 (2002)[253]
  • Woodville: In Loving Memory Monument, Natural Bridge Battlefield Historic State Park (1922)[30]:37 A plaque placed at the base of the monument in 2000 lists the names of those who died as a result of the battle.[254]

Private monumentsEdit

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery (2002) by the Alachua Lions Club[255]
  • Bradfordville, unincorporated community in Leon County: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[256][257]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery (2010)[258]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery (1958)[259]
  • Holly Hill: The American, South Carolina, and Confederate flags were erected in 2017 on private land along Florida Highway 176 west of town, along with a sign with the Sons of Confederate Veterans name. It has been vandalized. On July 9, 2018, residents protested to the City Commission what they called the "blatant racism" of the display.[260] The city and the Ministerial Alliance of Eastern Orangeburg County had asked the SCV not to erect the flag.[261][262]
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[263][264]
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[265][266]
  • Seffner: Confederate Memorial Park, large flag visible at the intersection of Interstates 4 and 75 near Tampa (2009). At the time it was built the flag was the largest Confederate flag ever made. Its owner, Marion Lambert, descendant of three Confederate soldiers, said the origin of his project was when then-governor Jeb Bush took down the Confederate flag that flew over a door at the Florida State Capitol. He sued his home county, Hillsborough, for taking the flag out of the county seal, and lost.[267][268] Granite markers there were splashed with red paint and defaced with graffiti in August 2017.[269]

Inhabited placesEdit

CountiesEdit

MunicipalitiesEdit

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

Schools and librariesEdit

  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[285]
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[286] In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[287]
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[288]
  • Jacksonville[289]
  • Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[290]
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[291] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[292]

City symbolsEdit

  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal.

GeorgiaEdit

There are at least 174 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[8]

HawaiiEdit

IdahoEdit

There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho.[8] The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[293][294][295]

Inhabited placesEdit

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community[296][295]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a government campground[297]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[298]

Natural features and recreationEdit

IllinoisEdit

 
Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

The only memorials in Illinois are in cemeteries and connected with prisoners of war.

Federal cemeteriesEdit

Federal plot within private cemeteryEdit

IndianaEdit

 
Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis

IowaEdit

There are at least two public spaces with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[8]

KansasEdit

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.[8]

  • Humboldt: Confederate Soldier Shot Historical Marker. The marker sits at the site of where the Union Flag was flying in Humboldt, Kansas, when a Confederate Soldier attempted to chop down the Union flag pole. The Confederate Soldier was shot as he tried to remove the flag. The marker is less of a monument to the Confederacy, and more of a historical marker describing the events when Humboldt was raided by Confederate Captains John Mathews and his friend Tom Livingston; they led other white Confederate proslavers, Southern-sympathizing Indians, and Missouri bushwhackers seeking fugitive slaves from Missouri who were hiding in Humboldt.[315]

PlacesEdit

KentuckyEdit

There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[8]

State capitolEdit

  • Jefferson Davis Statue, Kentucky Capitol Rotunda, 1936. (Jefferson Davis was born in Kentucky.) In 2015, the all-white[316] state Historic Properties Advisory Commission voted against removing the statue.[317] In 2017 several prominent Republicans called for its removal.[318]

MonumentsEdit

 
Confederate Monument, Georgetown
 
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
 
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
 
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah

BridgeEdit

HouseEdit

Inhabited placesEdit

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

HighwaysEdit

SchoolsEdit

LouisianaEdit

There are at least 91 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[8]

State capitolEdit

  • Gov. Francis T. Nicholls Statue (1934). Nicholls was a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army.
  • Gov. Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1934). Allen was a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. He is buried on the Old Louisiana State Capitol grounds.
  • "Silent Sentinel" Monument, officially the Confederate Soldiers of East and West Baton Rouge Parishes Memorial. Plinth erected 1886 and statue in 1890. Dedicated by Gov. John McEnery. Original granite and marble plinth cracked; replaced in the 1960s with a small brick plinth that was aesthetically unappealing. Formerly at North Boulevard and 3rd Street, near City Hall. In 2012, to make room for Town Square construction, it was moved to the nearby Old Louisiana State Capitol, now a museum.[340] Plaque reads: "Erected by the men and women of East and West Baton Rouge to perpetuate the heroism and patriotic devotion of the noble soldiers from the two parishes who wore the gray and crossed the river with their immortal leaders to rest under the shade of the trees. Original monument erected 1886 A.D."

BuildingsEdit

 
Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

  • Alexandria: Rapides Parish Confederate Monument (1914)
  • Benton: Confederate Soldier Monument (1910)
  • East Feliciana Parish – Confederate Soldiers Monument in Front of the East Feliciana Courthouse Clinton Louisiana[342]
  • Franklin: Confederate Monument (1913)
  • Lake Charles: South's Defenders Monument (1915)
  • Opelousas: Confederate Monument (1920)
  • Port Allen: Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1962)
  • Shreveport: Confederate Monument, on grounds of the Caddo Parish courthouse, dedicated in 1906 by UDC, NRHP-listed.[343] The Caddo Parish Commission voted to remove it; a legal challenge by the UDC was unsuccessful.[344]
  • St. Francisville: Confederate Monument (1903). Has Confederate flag above the inscription: "In memory of West Feliciana's Confederate dead, wherever at rest. Co. C 1st Regt. La. Cavalry".
  • Tallulah: Confederate Monument (1912)
  • Winnfield: Confederate Monument (1926)

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
 
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
 
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans

Inhabited placesEdit

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[8]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City:
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Dreux Avenue, named for Confederate General Charles Didier Dreux
    • Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, white supremacist and financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.[354]
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.[352]
    • Lee Circle[8]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

SchoolsEdit

Confederate flag displayEdit

MarylandEdit

 
The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore

State symbolsEdit

  • Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists and Confederates during the American Civil War.[359][360][361][362] The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.

MonumentsEdit

Public monumentsEdit

 
Talbot Boys, Easton

Private monumentsEdit

 
Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland

Inhabited placesEdit

RoadsEdit

FerryEdit

 
Gen. Jubal A. Early

GalleryEdit

MassachusettsEdit

There are no public spaces dedicated to the Confederacy in Massachusetts.[8]

Private memorialsEdit

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page ([2]) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

There are at least 20 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[8]

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri

Other public monumentsEdit

 
UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, MI
 
Union Confederate Monument, Kansas City, Missouri

Inhabited placesEdit

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

MontanaEdit

There is at least one public space[clarification needed] dedicated to the Confederacy in Montana.[8][dead link]

New JerseyEdit

 
Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[8]

New MexicoEdit

New YorkEdit

 
Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[8][398]

MonumentsEdit

Private monumentsEdit

RoadsEdit

Governor Andrew Cuomo has twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[403]

North CarolinaEdit

There are at least 140 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[8]

Governor Roy Cooper "has called for the removal of monuments honoring Confederate soldiers and generals", including the Chapel Hill Silent Sam statue. He has called for the repeal of a 2015 law requiring legislative approval to remove Confederate monuments.[405]

State capitolEdit

 
State Confederate Monument to the west of the state capitol
  • North Carolina State Capitol. The Capitol currently houses the offices of the Governor of North Carolina. The legislature relocated to its current location in the North Carolina State Legislative Building in 1963.
    In 2017, Governor Roy Cooper unsuccessfully petitioned the North Carolina Historical Commission to move the following three Confederate monuments from the grounds of the state Capitol to the Bentonville Battlefield, a Civil War site in Johnston County.[406][407] The Commission found that the 2015 law prohibited their removal, but recommended signage to add context to the monuments, including noting that slavery was a cause of the Civil War. The Commission also found unanimously that the Capitol monuments are "an overrepresentation and over-memorialization" of the Confederacy and Civil War in Georgia. The Commission urged the state’s Department of Natural and Cultural Resources to plan and raise money for a monument recognizing the contributions of African Americans to Georgia's history.[408]
    • North Carolina State Confederate Monument (1895), also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. "This 75-foot-tall monument to fallen Confederate soldiers is located on the State Capitol grounds. At the top of the column is a statue depicting a Confederate artillery soldier holding a gun. Near the bottom of the column are two statues, one representing the Confederate infantry and the other a Confederate cavalryman. Two 32 pounder naval cannons stand on each side of the monument."[409] Contains the Seal of North Carolina. Front: "To Our Confederate Dead." Rear: "First at Bethel, last at Appomattox".
    • Monument to North Carolina Women of the Confederacy, also called Confederate Women's Monument (1914). "The seven foot tall monument, made possible through a private donation, honors the hardships and sacrifices of North Carolina women during the Civil War. A bronze sculpture depicts an older woman, a grandmotherly figure, holding a book as she sits next to a young boy holding a sword. It sits on top of a granite base with bronze bas-relief plaques. The woman, representing the women in the South as the custodians of history, imparts the history of the Civil War to the boy. The two relief plaques portray the Civil War; the eastern side shows soldiers departing for war and leaving their loved ones behind, while the western side depicts a weary or injured Confederate soldier returning home."[410]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Monument (1912). He was the first Confederate soldier to die in battle. Inscriptions:
      Front: HENRY LAWSON WYATT / PRIVATE CO. A / BETHEL REGIMENT / NORTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEERS / KILLED AT BETHEL CHURCH / JUNE 10, 1861 / FIRST CONFEDERATE SOLDER | TO FALL IN BATTLE IN THE | WAR BETWEEN THE STATES.
      Rear: WYATT'S COMRADES / IN DASH TO BURN THE HOUSE / GEORGE T. WILLIAMS / JOHN H. THORPE / ROBERT H. RICKS / ROBERT H. BRADLEY / THOMAS FALLON / ERECTED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA | DIVISION, UNITED DAUGHTERS | OF THE CONFEDERACY. / JUNE 10, 1912
      Base, east face: GORHAM. Co. FOUNDERS.[411]
  • In addition, the following Civil War monuments are on the Capitol grounds:
    • A statue of Confederate Colonel Zebulon Baird Vance, Governor during the Civil War, 1862–1865.
    • Monument to Civil War Captain and North Carolina legislator Samuel A'Court Ashe (1940), two plaques on a large granite block.[412]

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Zebulon Baird Vance Monument in Asheville, North Carolina
  • Albemarle: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1925)[413]
  • Asheville:
    • Zebulon Baird Vance Monument, a granite obelisk erected in 1896.[414] Near the obelisk, a small granite marker memorializes the Dixie Highway, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee, and Col. John Connally, a Confederate officer who was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg. Near the Buncombe County Courthouse entrance, a smaller obelisk memorializes Confederate soldiers from Buncombe County who fought at Chickamauga and in other Civil War battles.[414] The monument was vandalized in August 2017 and 4 individuals out of 30–40 protesters were arrested for trying to remove it with crowbars.[415][416]
    • Monument to 60th Regiment North Carolina Volunteers (1905)
    • Memorial plaque to Lieutenant William Henry Hardy (1930), "the First Soldier from Buncombe County to Fall in the War Between The States"[417]
  • Bakersville: Mitchell County's Confederate Dead Monument (2011) commemorates 79 men "who died for their freedom and independence. And not for slavery."[322]
  • Burgaw: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914)
  • Burnsville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2009)
  • Clinton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916). "In honor of the Confederate soldiers of Sampson County who bore the flag of a nation's trust and fell in a cause though lost still just and died for me and you."[89]
  • Columbia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902); "In appreciation of our faithful slaves"[418]
 
Confederate Soldiers Monument at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse, Concord, North Carolina
  • Concord: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1892) at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse[413]
  • Currituck: Confederate Soldiers Monument "To Our Confederate Dead 1861–1865" (1918)[419]
  • Dallas: Gaston County Confederate Soldier Monument (2003)
  • Danbury: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1990)
  • Dobson: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2000)
  • Elizabeth City: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1911)
  • Gastonia: Confederate Soldiers Monument, Gaston County Courthouse, dedicated November 21, 1912[413]
  • Graham: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914), Alamance County Courthouse.[413] Demonstrators called for its removal in 2017, and the matter was discussed at an Alamance County Commission meeting.[420]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914)
  • Hendersonville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1905)[413]
  • Hertford: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1912)
  • Laurinburg: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1912), sponsored by UDC. "The Scotland County monument has been moved several times in the years since first being placed. Originally it sat in the middle of the road in front of the courthouse at Main and Church streets. It was then moved onto the grounds of the courthouse after becoming a traffic hazard. When the new courthouse was completed in the 1960s, the monument moved with it and was placed in its current location.... [T]he inside contains time capsules."[421]
  • Lincolnton: Confederate Soldiers Memorial Drinking Fountain (1911)
  • Louisburg: The Confederate Memorial Drinking Fountain (1923) is dedicated to North Carolinian Orren Randolph Smith, who designed the Stars and Bars, the first official flag of the Confederacy. It is five feet high, six feet across, and has separate "white" and "colored" drinking fountains.[413][422] A similar marker is in Wilson, North Carolina (below).
  • Lumberton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1907)
  • Marion: Veterans Memorial
  • Morganton: Confederate Soldiers Monument at Old Courthouse (1918)[413]
  • Newton: Catawba County Confederate Soldiers Monument (1907), Old Catawba County Courthouse[413][423]
  • Oxford: the Granville Gray- originally dedicated directly in front of the Granville County Courthouse it was moved to the local library after the 1970 protests following the murder of Henry Marrow
 
Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Joseph E. Johnston, Bentonville
 
Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) in Fayetteville
 
Fort Fisher Confederate Monument, Kure Beach
 
Lenoir, North Carolina
 
Lexington, North Carolina (ca. 1920)
 
New Bern, North Carolina
 
Henry Lawson Wyatt in Raleigh, North Carolina
 
Confederate graves and monument, Historic Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh
 
Gloria Victis, Salisbury
  • Asheboro: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1911)
  • Asheville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903), Newton Academy Cemetery[413]
  • Beaufort: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1926), Carteret County Courthouse[413]
  • Bentonville: Monuments located at the Battle of Bentonville site include:
  • Unincorporated Cabarrus County, near Concord: Stonewall Jackson Youth Development Center (a correctional facility)
  • Charlotte:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1977)
    • Jefferson Davis Plaque (1960)
    • Last Meetings of the Confederate Cabinet Marker (1915)
    • 1929 Confederate Reunion Marker (1929). "Erected by citizens of City of Charlotte and County of Mecklenburg commemorating the 39th Confederate Reunion June 4–7, 1929." Currently (2018) protected by a glass enclosure.[430]
    • Judah P. Benjamin Memorial "erected in His Honor by Temple Israel and Temple Beth El, the Jewish Congregations of Charlotte, as a Gift to the North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy" (1948)[431]
  • Concord:
  • Cornelius: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910), Mt. Zion United Methodist Church. 19600 Zion Avenue.[433]
  • Edenton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909); moved from courthouse in 1961[413]
  • Enfield: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1928) at Elmwood Cemetery. Originally located in downtown Enfield, the sculpture contains a drinking fountain.[413]
  • Faison: Monument to the "Confederate Grays" 20th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (1932)[413]
  • Fayetteville:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) at Cross Creek Cemetery; the first Confederate monument in North Carolina[413]
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902)[413]
    • Confederate Arsenal (1928)
    • Judah P. Benjamin marker (1944)[434]
  • Fletcher:
    • Jefferson Davis marker (1931), recognizing Davis as "A Statesman with Clean Hands and Pure Heart"[435]
    • Orren Randolph Smith marker (1930)[436]
    • Henry Timrod marker (1930), recognizing Timrod as "Laureate of the Confederacy"[437]
    • Matthew Fontaine Maury marker (1932). A Confederate Navy commander and slave owner, Maury investigated resettling American slaves in Brazil.[438][439]
    • Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway marker (1926), "In Loving Memory of Robert E. Lee...'The Shaft Memorial and Highway Straight Attest His Worth – He Cometh to His Own'"[440]
    • Zebulon Baird Vance marker (1928)[441]
    • Albert Pike marker (1928), "Arkansas Poet of the Confederacy"[442]
    • Calvary Episcopal Church Memorial (1927), "During the Civil War this Church was Used as Barracks by Confederate Troops"[443]
  • Forest City: Forest City Confederate Monument (1932)
  • Franklin: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1909)
  • Gatesville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)[413]
  • Greensboro:
  • Halifax: General Junius Daniel marker (1929)[445]
  • Harnett County: Confederate Monument (1872) at Chicora Civil War Cemetery to soldiers killed at the Battle of Averasborough, "In Memory of our Confederate Dead Who Fell Upon That Day"[446]
  • Hendersonville: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1926; re-dedicated 2008)[447]
  • High Point: Confederate Monument (1899), Oakwood Cemetery[448]
  • Holly Springs: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1923)
  • Jacksonville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1957)
  • Justice: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1912) at Stallings Memorial Park[413]
  • Kinston:
  • Kure Beach:
    • Confederate Memorial (1921)[citation needed]
    • Fort Fisher Confederate Monument (1932); UDC monument erected at former site of Fort Fisher headquarters building[449]
  • Lenoir: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910) in town square[413]
  • Lexington: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1905)[413]
  • Louisburg:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914) to "Our Confederate Dead".[450] The monument was formerly on the street in front of Louisburg College, but the College has grown to surround the monument. Some on campus want it removed. "It's not clear whether the town owns the statue, or whether it belongs to the county or to the quiet but still active Joseph J. Davis 537 chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy."[451]
  • Middletown: Confederate Soldiers war Monument (2001)
  • Mocksville: Davie County War Memorial (1987)
  • Monroe: Located at the Old Union County Courthouse; the obelisk (1910) was erected by the UDC Monroe chapter[452]
  • Morgantown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1918)
  • New Bern: Confederate Monument (1885), Cedar Grove Cemetery[453]
  • Oxford: Granville Gray (1909), a memorial to the Confederate Veterans of Granville County
  • Raleigh:
  • Reidsville: From 1910 to 2011, the monument stood in Reidsville's downtown area. In 2011, a motorist hit the monument, shattering the granite soldier which stood atop it. Placing the monument back in the center of town sparked a debate between local officials, neighbors and friends – which resulted in it being placed at its current site – the Greenview Cemetery. The new site contains a brand new statue. The original 101-year-old statue was completely destroyed.[454]
  • Rockingham: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1930)
  • Rocky Mount: Nash County Confederate Monument (1917), honoring Confederate war dead in Edgecombe County and Nash Counties; rededicated to all veterans of all wars in 1976
  • Salisbury: Gloria Victis ("Glory to the Defeated"), also called Fame Confederate Monument. Cast in Brussels in 1891, Gloria Victis is one of two nearly-identical sculptures by Frederick Ruckstull (the other being the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, removed from public display in Baltimore in 2017). Gloria Victis appeared first at an exhibition in Paris, and then at a studio in a New York City, where it was purchased by the UDC as a Confederate monument for Salisbury. The 23 ft (7.0 m) high bronze statue features an allegorical angel with outstretched wings dressed in robes with a laurel wreath on her head. In one hand she supports a dying soldier holding a battered rifle, while in her other hand—held high—she holds a second laurel wreath with which to place on the soldier when he expires. Anna Morrison Jackson, widow of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, attended the 1909 dedication in Salisbury.[455][456][457] In 2018 the monument was covered in white paint, apparently a response to distributing KKK flyers in black neighborhoods.[407]
  • Selma: The Last Grand Review Monument (1990)[458]
  • Stanley: Monument at Stanley Community Center and Polling Place[citation needed]
  • Sylva: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)
  • Tarboro:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1904)[413]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Memorial Fountain (1910)[413]
  • Thomasville: Thomasville and Davidson County Civil War Memorial (1910)
  • Tuxedo: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1927)[459]
  • Washington, Virginia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1888), Oakdale Cemetery[413]
  • Weaverville: Zebulon Vance Birthplace
  • Weldon: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908; relocated 1934)[413]
  • Wentworth: Rockingham County Confederate Monument (1998)[460]
  • Wilmington:
  • Windsor: Memorial to the Confederate Dead, erected in 1896 by the Confederate Veterans Associations of Bertie County[461]
  • Yanceyville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1921), Old Caswell County Courthouse[413]

Private monumentsEdit

  • Durham: Confederate memorial, Maplewood Cemetery. About 40 Confederate veterans are buried at the site. Erected in 2015 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans at a cost of about $3,000. Vandalized shortly thereafter with "Black Lives Matter" and "Tear It Down".[462]

BuildingsEdit

Inhabited placesEdit

CountiesEdit

TownsEdit

Natural featuresEdit

  • North Carolina Confederate Veterans Forest (1956)[463] 125,000 spruce pine trees were planted by the UDC in the 1940s as a living memorial to North Carolina Confederate Veterans. The forest was rededicated in 2001. The area is located beneath Mt. Hardy near the Blue Ridge Parkway.

RoadsEdit

  • Asheville:
    • Vance Crescent Street, named for Zebulon Vance (see above)
    • Vance Gap Road,
    • Vance Place Drive
  • Black Mountain
    • Vance Avenue
  • Charlotte:
    • Jefferson Davis Street
    • E & W Stonewall Streets[464]
    • E & W Hill Streets[464]
  • Clinton: General Lee Lane
  • Creedmoor:
  • Dunn: General Lee Avenue
  • Fayetteville: General Lee Avenue
  • Flat Rock: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hope Mills: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Kinston: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Lexington: Confederate Street
  • Mebane:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Hill Lane
    • Pickett Lane
    • Stonewall Drive
    • Stuart Lane
  • Monroe: Confederate Street
  • Salisbury:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Sanford: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Spencer:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Spring Lake: General Lee Street
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Street
  • Watha: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Wilmington: (all within the Pine Valley neighborhood)
  • Windsor: Confederate Street
  • Zebulon: Vance Street

SchoolsEdit

  • Asheville
    • Vance Elementary School
  • Charlotte
    • Zebulon B. Vance High School
  • Henderson
    • Kerr-Vance Academy
    • Northern Vance High School
    • Vance Charter School
    • Vance County Early College High School
    • Vance County Middle School
    • Vance County High School
    • Zeb Vance Elementary School
  • Ralrigh:
    • Vance Elementary School

OhioEdit

MonumentsEdit

 
Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
 
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[465]

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[469]
  • Mcconnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[469]

OklahomaEdit

There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[8]

BuildingsEdit

  • Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.[470][471]

MonumentsEdit

 
Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
 
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol

SchoolsEdit

 
Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

Inhabited placesEdit

  • Jackson County (1907) sources dispute if the name is for the CSA General or President Jackson
  • Town of Stonewall (1874) for Stonewall Jackson

RoadsEdit

  • Jay: Stand Watie Road

OregonEdit

SchoolsEdit

  • Albany: South Albany High School. After splitting from "Albany Union" school in 1971, the new "south" school embraced a Confederate theme. The mascot is the "Rebel", athletic teams are nicknamed "the Rebels", the school colors are red and gray, and a Confederate flag hung in the gymnasium until it was removed during the 1989-90 school year.[479]

PennsylvaniaEdit

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[8]

MonumentsEdit

 
Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
 
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

RoadsEdit

  • Gettysburg: Confederate Avenue
  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane

South CarolinaEdit

There are at least 112 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[8]

The state restricted the removal of memorials and statues with the South Carolina Heritage Act (2000), which states that "no historical monument can be altered or moved without a two-thirds vote in both chambers of the state's General Assembly".[483]

South Carolina State HouseEdit

In August 2017, "a coalition of Columbia-area groups is calling for the S.C. Legislature to remove several monuments on the State House grounds."[484]
  • South Carolina's Confederate Dead (1879), also known as the South Carolina Soldiers Monument.[485] It was unveiled before a crowd of 15,000.[486] The monument was largely destroyed by lightning in 1882, but was replaced by the state two years later.[486] It is positioned on the northern end of the State House grounds. After a decision by the Legislature to remove the Confederate flag from the dome of the State House, where it had flown since 1962, the monument flew a traditional version of the Confederate Battle Flag from 2000 to 2015; the flag was the subject of protests and national level political debate.[487][488] In 2015 it was removed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of the Legislature.[489] It is displayed in the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room & Military Museum.
  • Monument to the South Carolina Women of the Confederacy (1912),[8] a bronze monument by Frederic W. Ruckstull.[485]
  • Wade Hampton III Confederate Monument (1906),[8] 16-foot bronze equestrian statue, also by Frederick Ruckstull. There is also a statue of him within the Capitol.[490]

State holidayEdit

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Greenwood County Courthouse, Greenwood, South Carolina
  • Anderson: Anderson County Confederate Memorial, "Our Confederate Dead," dedicated in 1902.[492] The inscription reads: "The world shall yet decide, in truth's clear, far-off light, that the soldiers who wore the gray, and died with Lee, were in the right."[322]
  • Bamberg: Bamberg County Confederate Monument[8]
  • Bishopville: Lee County Monument to the Confederate Dead at Lee County Courthouse (1913)[493]
  • Darlington: Monument to the Confederate Dead (1880)
  • Edgefield Confederate Monument (1900)
  • Greenwood: Confederate Monument (1903)[494]
  • Lancaster: Our Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909)
  • Lexington: Lexington Confederate Monument (1886)
  • Manning: Confederate Monument (1914)
  • St. Matthews: "Lest We Forget" Monument (1914)
  • Union: Union County Confederate Memorial (1917)
  • Walterboro: Confederate Monument (1911)
  • York County: County removed a Confederate flag and portraits of CSA leaders from inside the court room. Being challenged in court.[495]

Other public monumentsEdit

  • Charleston:
    • Monument "To the Confederate Defenders of Charleston — Fort Sumter 1861–1865" and around the bottom of the base, "Count Them Happy Who For Their Faith And Their Courage Endured A Great Fight", and "H. A. MacNeil Alexis Rudier, Fondeur Paris" (1932).[497] Contains two bronze allegorical statues. The male figure, nude, is the defending warrior, with a sword in his right hand and a shield bearing the Seal of South Carolina in his left hand. The female figure, in a long dress, "represents the City of Charleston. She holds in her right hand a garland of laurel, symbolizing immortality, and with her left hand points towards the sea to the enemy. On the base are scenes in relief of figures repairing the shattered walls of Fort Sumter with sand bags. Eleven stars on the lower base represent the eleven Confederate states."[498] Defaced with "Black Lives Matter" and "Racism" in 2015. A monument to John C. Calhoun was defaced with "racist" and "slavery" at about the same time.[499]
    • Monuments in Washington Square, in front of the South Carolina Historical Society:
  • Chester Confederate Monument[8]
  • Chester County: UDC monument to Confederate dead at Fishing Creek Presbyterian Church cemetery[501]
  • Clemson: Old Stone Church Confederate Memorial
  • Clinton Confederate Monument[8]
  • Columbia:
  • Conway: Our Confederate Dead Monument
  • Cross Hill: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Fort Mill:
    • Catawba Indian Monument (1900)
    • Defenders of State Sovereignty Monument (1891)
    • Faithful Slaves Monument (1895). Local cotton mill owner Samuel E. White and the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association dedicated the memorial to honor the "faithful slaves who loyal to a sacred trust toiled for the support of the army with matchless devotion and sterling fidelity guarded our defenceless homes, women and children during the struggle for the principles of our Confederate States of America."[502] This monument is seen as an example of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy movement.
  • Gaffney: Cherokee County Confederate Monument (1922)[503]
 
Monument at Battery White
 
Orangeburg
  • Orangeburg:
    • Confederate Monument (1893)
    • Confederate Flag and Monument (2001)
    • Memorial in memory of Confederate soldiers buried in Old Pioneer Graveyard (at the Dixie Library Building)
  • Prosperity: Confederate Veterans Monument (1928)
  • Rock Hill: Ebenezer Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Salem Confederate Monument (2004)
  • Seneca: UDC Memorial Gateway (1933) dedicated to Confederate soldiers at entrance to Mountain View Cemetery[505]
  • Spartanburg: Confederate Soldier Monument (1910)
  • Walhalla: "Our Confederate Dead" Monument (1910)
  • Westminster Confederate Monument (1980)
  • Williamston: Confederate Monument (1942)
  • Winnsboro: Confederate Memorial (1901)
  • York: York County Confederate Monument (1906)

Private monumentsEdit

  • Abbeville: The S.C. Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans is erecting an 11.5 feet (3.5 m) foot monument on Secession Hill, dedicated to the 170 signers of South Carolina's Ordinance of Secession. The monument will be unveiled on November 10, 2018.[506]
  • Aiken: A granite memorial dedicated to Confederate soldiers was erected in 2017.[506]

Inhabited placesEdit

ParksEdit

  • Charleston: Hampton Park
  • Columbia: Hampton Park

RoadsEdit

  • Aiken: Beauregard Lane
  • Anderson:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Bonham Court
  • Beaufort
    • Beauregard Court
    • Hampton Street
  • Bluffton: Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Charleston:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Hampton Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
  • Clinton:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Columbia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bonham Road
    • Bonham Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Hampton Hills (neighborhood)
    • South Bonham Road
  • Cowpens: Stonewall Drive
  • Daufuskie Island: Beauregard Boulevard
  • Duncan: Hampton Street
  • Early Branch: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Easley: Stonewall Drive
  • Fort Mill: Confederate Street
  • Greenville
    • Stonewall Lane
    • Wade Hampton Boulevard
    • Wade Hampton School Road
  • Greenwood: Bonham Court
  • Greer
    • Beauregard Court
    • Wade Hampton Boulevard
  • Hartsville: Stonewall Street
  • Honea Path: Beauregard Drive
  • Lake City: Beauregard Street
  • Lancaster: Confederate Avenue
  • Lyman: Wade Hampton Boulevard
  • Modoc: Beauregard Drive
  • Mountville: Jefferson Davis Road
  • Orangeburg:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Street
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
    • Stonewall Jackson Street Southwest
  • Rock Hill
    • North Stonewall Street
    • South Stonewall Street
    • Wade Hampton Boulevard
  • Saluda
    • Bonham Avenue
    • Bonham Road
  • St. Matthews: Stonewall Lane
  • Summerville:
    • Beauregard Court
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Taylors
    • Wade Hampton Boulevard
  • Timmonsville:
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Trenton: Thomas S. Jackson Road
  • Union:
    • Bonham Station Road
    • General Lee Drive
  • Wagener: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Walterboro:
    • Hampton Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Westminster: Stonewall Drive
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive

SchoolsEdit

OtherEdit

  • Greenville: Wade Hampton Fire Department

TennesseeEdit

There are at least 80 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[8] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[33]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[509] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

BuildingsEdit

  • Greeneville: General Morgan Inn, located at the spot where Confederate general John Hunt Morgan was killed.
  • Murfreesboro: Forrest Hall at Middle Tennessee State University. The Tennessee Board of Regents has unanimously recommended the name change, on the recommendation of a campus task force, and the university president, but it has yet to pass the Tennessee Historical Commission, which plans "public hearings."[510][511]

Inhabited placeEdit

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
 
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
 
Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee

Private monumentsEdit

  • Nashville
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Statue, made of fiberglass over foam, 25 feet high, on private land[526] near Interstate 65, installed in 1998, built with private money. It is surrounded by Confederate battle flags, constituting what the owner calls "Confederate Flag Park." (No government recognizes it as a park, and the entrance is chained shut with a "No Trespassing" sign.) The giant statue is visible from the highway to anyone entering the city from the south.[527] It has been called "hideous"[527] and "ridiculous."[528] There have been numerous calls for its removal. Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam said: "It's not a statue that I like and [ sic ] that most Tennesseans are proud of in any way."[529] Former Nashville Mayor Megan Barry called the statue "an offensive display of hatred."[529] In 2015, Nashville's Metro Council voted to petition the Tennessee Department of Transportation to plant obscuring vegetation;[530] the Department declined, because it is private land.[527] ("Never mind that the T.D.O.T. itself removed the obscuring vegetation back in 1998, when the statue was first erected."[527][529]) There has been occasional vandalism; in December 2017 it was covered in "pussy-hat pink" paint,[527] which Bill Dorris, current owner of the land, says he intends to leave.[531] He also said that if trees are planted to block the view from I-65, he "would make the statue taller."[526] It was sculpted, at no charge, by notorious racist Jack Kershaw, an attorney for Martin Luther King's murderer, famous for having said "Somebody needs to say a good word for slavery."[532][533]

ParksEdit

RoadsEdit

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Confederate Drive
    • General Forrest Court
    • Robert E. Lee Court
    • Robert E. Lee Drives (two different streets with the same name)
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[8]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

SchoolsEdit

  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School
  • Nashville: Father Ryan High School, named for Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School
  • Sewanee: The University of the South: "Nowhere is the issue of Confederate remembrance more nettlesome than at Sewanee, whose origin[s] are entwined with the antebellum South and the Confederacy."[534] Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel, as is the Seal of the Confederacy.[534] It benefited greatly at its founding by a large gift from John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the country. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth".[535] Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics".[536] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, "an ardent defender of slavery,"[534] who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[537] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called "Sewanee's Fighting Bishop"), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. However, his portrait was moved from Convocation Hall to Archives and Special Collections in 2015.[538] The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963 (see A Call for Unity), prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[536]
    • The Vice Chancellor is the chief academic officer at the university; the chancellor is a bishop of the Episcopal church. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee both turned down offers of the position.[539] (Sewanee has a portrait of Davis.[540]) The first vice chancellor was Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, called "chaplain of the Confederacy". He compiled the Confederate Soldiers' Pocket Manual of Devotions (Charleston, 1863).[541]
    • The university's chief donor was John Armfield, at the time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest slave-trading firm in the U.S. He purchased the site and gave the university an endowment of $25,000 a year. In addition to Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first and only Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America, and Bishop James Hervey Otey, later prominent in the Confederacy, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas, and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance.
    • Monument to Edmund Kirby Smith, Texas Avenue. Smith was, after the war, a Sewanee professor of botany and mathematics.[534]
  • Tullahoma: Robert E. Lee Elementary (1964)
 
Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Theme parkEdit

  • Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns.[550][551][552] In 2018 it is operating under the name Dollywood.

TexasEdit

There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[553][8] "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."[554]

State capitolEdit

  • "The Texas Capitol itself is a Confederate monument," according to then-Land Commissioner Jerry E. Patterson.[555] The Texas Confederate Museum was once housed in the Capitol.
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903) features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry, and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them.[556] The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."[557]
    • Hood's Texas Brigade, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy".[558] "The monument includes a depiction of a Confederate soldier, quotes by Confederate leaders, a flag of the Confederacy and the Confederate battle flag."[559] These are the only Confederate flags currently (2017) visible in the Capitol.[560] Representative Eric Johnson has called for its removal.[559]
    • Terry's Texas Rangers Monument, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy"[558] (1907).
    • Children of the Confederacy Creed plaque (1959). It reads:

Because we desire to perpetuate, in love and honor, the heroic deeds of those who enlisted in the Confederate Services, and upheld its flag through four years of war, we, the children of the South, have united in an Organization called the “Children of the Confederacy,” in which our strength, enthusiasm and love of justice can exert its influence.

We, therefore pledge ourselves to preserve pure ideals; to honor the memory of our beloved Veterans; to study and teach the truths of history (one of the most important of which is, that the War Between the States was not a rebellion, nor was its underlying cause to sustain slavery). and always to act in a manner that will reflect honor upon our noble and patriotic ancestors.
Speaker Joe Straus in 2017 called for its removal, citing the statement "was not a rebellion, nor was its underlying cause to sustain slavery" as "not accurate, and Texans are not well-served by incorrect information about our history," in a letter to the State Preservation Board that oversees the Capitol grounds.[561] Texas House Representative Eric Johnson has joined in the call for its removal.[562] By July, 2018, more than 40 state lawmakers had called for its removal.[563]

State symbolsEdit

  • The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

State holidayEdit

BuildingsEdit

MonumentsEdit

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[564][565]

Courthouse monumentsEdit

  • Alpine: Confederate Colonel Henry Percy Brewster (1963)[566]
  • Aspermont: Historical marker, "County Named for Confederate Hero Stonewall Jackson", Stonewall County Courthouse (1963)
  • Bastrop: Monuments at Bastrop County Courthouse include:
  • Bay City: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1913), Matagorda County Courthouse[569][570]
  • Belton: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Bell County Courthouse[571]
  • Bonham: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1905), Fannin County Courthouse[572]
  • Bryan: Commemorative marker, erected 1965, to the Brazos County Confederate Commissioners Court.[573]
  • Comanche: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (2002), Comanche County Courthouse[574]
  • Corsicana: Call to Arms (Confederate Soldiers' Monument), by Louis Amateis (1907), Navarro County Courthouse.[575][576] A Civil War bugler stands in uniform holding a bugle to his mouth with his proper right hand. He holds a sword in his proper left hand at his side. He wears a hat with a feather in it and knee-high boots. A bedroll is slung over his proper left shoulder and strapped across his chest and proper right hip. The sculpture is mounted on a rectangular base.[577] "Isaac O'Haver was a member of Co K of the 17th VA Cavalry. He was a 17 year-old bugler for his unit. He was born Sep. 20, 1844 and died at the age of 27 on March 30, 1872. He is buried at the Ladoga Cemetery."[578] The plaques on the monument read:
    • South side: The Call to Arms Erected 1907 by Navarro chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy To commemorate the valor and heroism of our Confederate Soldiers It is not in the power of mortals to command success The Confederate Soldier did more - he deserved it. "But their fame on brightest pages penned by poets and by pages Shall go sounding down the ages"
    • West side: "Nor shall your glory be fought while fame her record keeps or honor points the hollowed spot where valor proudly sleeps" "Tell it as you may It never can be told Sing it as you Will It never can be sung The Story of the Glory of the men who wore the gray"
    • East side: "It is a duty we owe the dead who died for us: - But where memories can never die - It is a duty we owe to posterity to see that our children shall know the virtues And rise worthy of their sires".
    • North side: The soldiers of the Southern Confederacy fought valiantly for The liberty of state bequeathed them By their forefathers of 1776 "Who Glorified Their righteous cause and they who made The sacrifice supreme in That they died To keep their country free"[577]
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Red River County County Courthouse[579]
  • Denton: Denton Confederate Soldier Monument, Denton County Courthouse.[580] Cost $2,000; a project of the Denton Chapter, UDC. Dedicated June 3, 1918, Jefferson Davis's birthday.[581] It had "whites only" drinking fountains on each side.[582] In 2015 it was defaced with the words "THIS IS RACIST" in red paint.[583] The twenty-year campaign of a Denton resident, Willie Hudspeth, to have the monument removed was the subject of a Vice news video in 2018.[582] After the wave of Confederate monument removals that followed the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, and in large part as a result of Hudspeth's campaign, a county 15-person Confederate Memorial Committee met for three months in 2017–18 and recommended "adding context" — two video kiosks and a large plaque, "with interviews about local veterans and the history of slavery"[584] — to the monument rather than removing it, a suggestion accepted unanimously by the county commissioners. Once the nature of the historical context has been determined, approval of the Texas Historical Commission will be required.[585] As of September, 2018, "the county still does not have a timeline for completing the project and...there were no updates to report".[586] The video caught the attention of Kali Holloway, director of the Make It Right Project, which is working to remove Confederate monuments. She added the Denton monument to the group's "top 10 list" of monuments they consider priorities.[306][586]
  • Fort Worth: Monument to "Confederate Soldiers and their Descendents" (1953), Tarrant County Courthouse[587]
 
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
  • Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor.[588][589] It was "erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America." An inscription on the plaque reads, "there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America."[557]
  • Gainesville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Cooke County Courthouse (1911)[590][591]

Other public monumentsEdit

 
Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
 
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Amarillo: Confederate Soldier Statue (1931)[588]
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[621] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading "Confederate Memorial Plaza." A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[557]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Hood's Texas Brigade Monument, Texas State Capitol
    • Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
    • Texas Confederate Women's and Men's Historical Markers, at 3710 Cedar St. and 1600 W. Sixth, commemorate campgrounds built to house and care for widows, wives, and veterans of the Confederacy.[558]
  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912)
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2010)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August 2017 the Chancelor of the university, John Sharp, confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[622]
  • Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her.[588] "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".[623]
  • Dallas: Confederate War Memorial. Originally erected in City Park in 1897, but relocated to Pioneer Park Cemetery in 1961 due to highway construction.[624] Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings called in 2017 for a task force to decide what to do it, as well as the statue of Lee in Lee Park.[403]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917), Farmersville City Park[625]
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldier Memorial (1939), Oakwood Cemetery[588]
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[626][627]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[628][629]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
 
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[588]

Private monumentsEdit

 
Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas
  • Austin: Confederate monument, Oakwood Cemetery. Erected in 2016 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[632]
  • Belton: Monument to Confederate Sargeant Jacob Hemphill. Erected 2016 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[633]
  • Crowley: "Confederate Veterans Memorial Monument honoring The Confederate Veterans of Crowley and the surrounding area interred at the Crowley Cemetery." Erected 2011 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[633]
  • Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
  • Orange: The Confederate Memorial of the Wind, located on Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, but visible from I-10, has been under construction since 2013, and will be the largest Confederate monument built since 1916, according to the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[554] A center stone ring is held aloft by 13 pillars, one for each state that seceded. There are twenty commemorative flagpoles.
  • Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013), funded by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans[634]

Inhabited placesEdit

CountiesEdit

MunicipalitiesEdit

MuseumsEdit

ParksEdit

  • Davis Mountains State Park (1938) named for the mountain range
  • Davis Mountains (geographic feature in West Texas around and named for Fort Davis)
  • Fort Worth: Jefferson Davis Park.[639]
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Campground
  • Lakeside, Tarrant County: Confederate Park. The two Confederate flags displayed on each side of the park's marker were removed by the Texas Department of Public Transportation in 2017. Marker text:

    Site of Confederate Park // Local businessman Khleber M. Van Zandt organized the Robert E. Lee Camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889. By 1900 it boasted more than 700 members. The Club received a 25-year charter to create the Confederate Park Association in 1901, then purchased 373 acres (151 ha) near this site for the “recreation, refuge and relief of Confederate soldiers" and their families. Opening events included a picnic for veterans and families on June 20, 1902, and a statewide reunion September 8–12, 1902, with 3,500 attendees. The park thrived as a center for the civil and social activities on Texas Confederate organizations. By 1924 the numbers [ sic ] of surviving veterans had greatly diminished, and the Confederate Park Association dissolved when its charter expired in 1926.[639]

RoadsEdit

  • Austin:
    • In July, 2018, at approixmately the same time that Robert E. Lee Road and Jeff Davis Avenue were renamed, the city's Equity Office recommended changing the names of seven more streets:
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hillsboro: Confederate Drive
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Tuam Street, a major artery named for CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace, Tuam, Irelamd.
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

SchoolsEdit

 
Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas
  • Dallas:
    • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School
    • John H. Reagan Elementary School
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School (1939)
  • Denton: Lee Elementary School (1988)[8]
  • Eagle Pass: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Edinburg: Lee Elementary School[8]
  • El Paso: Lee Elementary School[8]
  • Evadale: Evadale High School. The school uses a Confederate flag-inspired crest. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels".[647]
  • Fort Davis:
  • Gainesville: Robert E. Lee Intermediate School
  • Grand Prairie: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1948)
  • Houston:
  • Marshall: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Midland:
  • North Richland Hills, home of the Richland High School "Rebels" and "Dixie Belles". The school mascot is "Johnny Rebel".[649]
  • Port Arthur: Lee Elementary School (1959)[8]
  • Robert Lee:
    • Robert Lee Elementary School
    • Robert Lee High School
  • Rosenberg: B. F. Terry High School. Named for Confederate hero Benjamin Franklin Terry.
  • San Angelo: Lee Middle School (1949)[8]
  • San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted in August 2017 to change the name of the school.[650] In October, district trustees voted 5-2 to name the school Legacy of Educational Excellence, or LEE High School.[651] Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.[557]
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Elementary School
  • Tyler:
    • Hubbard Middle School (1964), named for Confederate Col. Richard B. Hubbard
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September, 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song ("Dixie"), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."[652]

UtahEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[8] more than in any other state.[654][655]

State holidayEdit

BridgeEdit

BuildingsEdit

HighwaysEdit

  • General Mahone Highway, a large portion of U.S. Route 460, between Petersburg and Suffolk.
  • Jefferson Davis Highway, also called Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway. In 2011, the County Board of Arlington County, Virginia, voted to change the name of Old Jefferson Davis Highway, the original route of Jefferson Davis Highway in the county, to Long Bridge Drive, after the board's chairman made disparaging remarks about Davis. However, the name of Jefferson Davis Highway itself, a portion of U.S. 1 that only the Virginia General Assembly could rename, remained unchanged.[659] In February 2016, the Virginia Attorney General's office issued an advisory opinion that the City of Alexandria, unlike the neighboring Arlington County, had the legal authority to change the name of the portion of Jefferson Davis Highway that was within the city's jurisdiction.[660] In September 2016, the Alexandria City Council voted unanimously to change the name of the city's portion of the highway.[661]
  • Jubal Early Highway, a section of Virginia Rt. 116 in Franklin County, Virginia[662]
  • Lee Highway in Fairfax, Virginia[8][dead link]
  • Lee Jackson Memorial Highway in Chantilly, Virginia.
  • Stonewall Jackson Highway

MonumentsEdit

Courthouse monumentsEdit

 
Charlottesville
 
Leesburg

Other public monumentsEdit

  • Alexandria:
    • Plaques (1870) of Robert E. Lee and George Washington hang on either side of the altar at Christ Church, where both were parishioners. Following a unanimous vote of its board in 2017, the church announced the plaques would be removed in 2018 once a new location of "respectful prominence" is identified.[668][669][670]
    • Appomattox (1899), a statue dedicated to the Confederate dead at the intersection of Washington and Prince streets. The Mayor and the City Council voted unanimously in September 2016 to move the statue to a museum, and are awaiting permission from the Virginia Legislature to do so.[671]
 
Robert E. Lee hitched his horse in Berryville, Virginia while on his march to Gettysburg
 
Lee-Jackson Bivouac Shaft, Chancellorsville
  • Chancellorsville: Confederate monuments at the site of the Battle of Chancellorsville include:
    • Jackson Memorial Boulder and Tablet (1888), placed by former members of Stonewall Jackson's staff[674]
    • General Thomas J. Jackson Shaft (1888), "On this spot fell mortally wounded Thomas J. Jackson Lt. Gen. C.S.A. May 2nd 1863"[675]
    • Lee-Jackson Bivouac Shaft (1903), "Bivouac, Lee and Jackson, night of May 1, 1863"[675]
    • Lee-Jackson Bivouac Tablet (1937)[675]
    • Brigadier General Elisha F. Paxton Tablet (1980), "In this vicinity Brig. Gen. E. F. Paxton, C.S.A. Aged 35 years, of Rockbridge County, VA. was killed on the morning of May 3, 1863 while leading his command, the Stonewall Brigade in the attack on Fairview"[675]
 
Robert Edward Lee, Charlottesville
 
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, Charlottesville
  • Charlottesville
    • Robert Edward Lee (sculpture), Henry Shrady and Leo Lentelli, sculptors, 1924. Ther eis no historical link between Lee and Charlottesville, and the City Council of Charlottesville voted in February, 2017, to remove it, and to rename Lee Park, Emancipation Park. This led to the white supremacist Unite the Right rally in August, 2017, in which there were three fatalities. A lawsuit, unresolved as of October, 2018, generated an injunction prohibiting the city from removing the statue or "adding context". The statues were then shrouded in black, but the shrouds were removed in 2018. In the City Council meeting of July, 2018, the name of the park was changed again, to Market Street Park.[676]
    • Thomas Jonathan ("Stonewall") Jackson (sculpture), by Charles Keck, erected in 1921. Originally the Charlottesville City Council had intended to leave it, but following the violence of the Unite the Right rally of August 10–11 (provoked by the decision to remove the Lee statue), the Council voted on September 5, 2017, to remove it, and the park it was located in was renamed Justice Park. A lawsuit blocked immediate removal or "adding context". The statue was also shrouded in black.[677] Legal action forced the removal of the shroud in 2018. At the City Council meeting of July, 2018, the park name was changed a second time, to Court Square Park. As of October, 2018, the fate of the two statues is unresolved.
    • University of Virginia Cemetery: Confederate monument (1893), by Caspar Buberl.[665] Juslin Greenlee draws a parallel between the erection of this monument, at whose dedication slavery was denied as a cause of the Civil War, and the adjacent cemetery for slaves, which was robbed of bodies for dissection in UVA's School of Medicine and Anatomy.[678]
  • Culpeper County: UDC monument (1929) commemorating Confederate victory in the Battle of Brandy Station[679]
  • Farmville: Virginia Defenders of State Sovereignty Confederate Soldier Monument (1900)
  • Fairfax, Virginia: John Quincy Marr monument, dedicated to the first Confederate officer killed in the Civil War during the Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1861) Erected 1904.
  • Franklin: Confederate Monument (1911)
  • Fredericksburg
    • Confederate Monument (2009)
    • "The Angel of Marye's Heights" Monument, statue of Sergeant Richard Rowland Kirkland giving water to fallen union soldier. (1965)[680][681]
    • The Heights at Smith Run (2014)
    • Thomas R.R. Cobb Monument and Marker (1888)
  • Glen Allen: J.E.B. Stuart Memorial (1888)
  • Gloucester: Confederate Monument (1889)
  • Goshen Pass: Maury Memorial, stone monument marker (1923)
  • Hanover: Confederate Monument (1914)
 
Big Bethel UDC Monument, Langley Air Force Base, Hampton
 
Lebanon, Virginia
 
Mount Jackson
  • Mount Jackson: "Our Soldiers Cemetery" statue (1903)
  • New Kent: Confederate Monument (1934)
  • New Market: This Rustic Pile Monument (1909)
  • Newport News: Confederate Soldier Monument (1909)
  • Nickelsville: Nickelsville Spartan Band Monument (2000)
  • Norfolk: Confederate Monument (1907). According to a statement by Mayor Kevin Cooper Alexander dated August 16, 2017, the Norfolk City Council, in 2015, voted unanimously to leave it in place. In response to the "tragic events in Charlottesville," the question is being reexamined.[693]
 
Lee to the Rear!, Wilderness Battlefield, Orange County, Virginia
  • Orange County: Confederate monuments at Wilderness Battlefield include:
    • Wilderness Battlefield Tablet (1927), UDC monument[675]
    • Colonel James D. Nance Tablet (1912), marks where Nance was killed[675]
    • Texas Brigade Shaft (1964), "'Who are you my boys?' Lee cried as he saw them gathering. 'Texas boys,' they yelled, their number multiplying each second."[675]
    • "Lee to the Rear!" Tablet (1903), "Lee to the Rear! Cried the Texans. May 6, 1864"[675]
  • Parksley: Confederate Monument (1899). Inscriptions read: "They died for the principles upon which all true republics are founded"; "They fought for conscience sake [ sic ] and died for right"; "At the call of patriotism and duty, they encountered the perils of the field and were faithful even unto death." The front of the monument gives this information: "Erected by Harmanson-West Camp Confederate Volunteers in memory of their dead comrades from Accomack and Northampton Counties." The monument was made by Gaddess Brothers of Baltimore of Barre granite, and is about 30 feet tall.[666]
  • Petersburg:
    • Petersburg National Battlefield
    • Hagood's Brigade, a monument in the Petersburg National Battlefield. Text on front: "Here a brigade composed of the 7th battalion, the 11th, 21st, 25th and 27th regiments South Carolina Volunteers, commanded by Brig. Gen. Johnson Hagood, charged Warren’s Federal Army Corps, on the 21st day of August 1864, taking into the fight 740 men, retiring with 273. // No prouder fate than theirs who gave their lives to liberty." Text on rear: "Placed here by Wm. V. Izlar, a survivor of the charge, aided by other South Carolinians."
    • Old Men and Boys Monument (1909), in Petersburg National Battlefield. Text: "This stone marks the spot where the old men and boys of Petersburg under Gen. R.E. Colston and Col. F.H. Archer 125 strong on June 9th, 1864 distinguished themselves in a fight with 1,300 Federal Cavalry under Gen. Kautz, gaining time for the defeat of the expedition. // Placed by the Petersburg Chapter U.D.C. May 1909"
    • Mahone Monument, Battle of the Crater, Petersburg National Battlefield (1927), erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy
    • Monument where A. P. Hill was killed during the Third Battle of Petersburg[694]
    • Monument where John Pegram was killed during the Battle of Hatcher's Run[695]
  • Portsmouth: Confederate Monument, listed on the NRHP. Local politicians "have been contemplating the fate of the Confederate statue since 2015, and the town's mayor recently called for it to be moved to a local cemetery instead." In August 2017 the mayor announced that it would be relocated to a cemetery.[696]
  • Pulaski: In Memory of the Confederate Soldiers of Pulaski County, 1861–1865 Monument (1906)
  • Reams: North Carolina Monument
 
Howitzer Monument, Richmond, Virginia
 
Memorial Granite Pile, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia. Photo by William Henry Jackson.
 
Williams Carter Wickham, Richmond, Virginia
  • Richmond:
    • Howitzer Monument, Caspar Buberl, sculptor, (1892)
    • A.P. Hill Monument, Caspar Buberl, (1892)[697] Defaced with red paint the night of August 21–22, 2018.[698]
    • Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Libby Hill Park (1894). Defaced with graffiti in 2015.[699]
    • The Memorial Granite Pile, Confederate Section, Hollywood Cemetery
    • Monument Avenue features monuments of Confederate leaders.[700] Richmond citizens immediately after the war intended to erect three statues of Virginians defending the city (two were killed in the defense), and it was twenty years later before an actual plan was proposed.[701] In 2017, city officials started to hold public meetings for community input on the future of the city's many Civil War monuments and statues.[403]
    • Williams Carter Wickham Monument (1891). Paid for by the general's comrades and employees of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway; placed in Monroe Park. Two young descendants of the late general, who do not necessarily speak for the entire family, are now calling for the removal of this statue.[704]
  • Stephenson: Memorial to Lieutenant Colonel Richard Snowden Andrews and Men of 1st Maryland Battery, CSA (1920)
  • Strasburg: Confederate Monument (1896), Strasburg Presbyterian Church Cemetery[675]
 
Cedar Hill Cemetery, Suffolk, Virginia
 
Monument near where Stonewall Jackson's arm was buried, Wilderness, Virginia
  • Wilderness: Monument (1903) near where Stonewall Jackson's amputated arm was buried[675]
  • Winchester: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916)

Private monumentsEdit

  • Blairs
  • Potomac Falls
    • At the Trump National Golf Club there is a monument to the "River of Blood", saying that “Many great American soldiers, both of the North and South, died at this spot, 'The Rapids', on the Potomac River. The casualties were so great that the water would turn red and thus became known as The River of Blood. 'It is my great honor to have preserved this important section of the Potomac River.' – Donald John Trump". Numerous historians have said that no important Civil War action occurred anywhere near that point of the Potomac River. No historian supports Trump.[707]

ParksEdit

 
Jefferson Davis Memorial Park at Fort Monroe, Virginia

RoadsEdit

  • Alexandria:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bragg Street
    • Braxton Place
    • Breckinridge Place
    • Chambliss Street
    • Dearing Street
    • Donelson Street
    • Early Street
    • Floyd Street
    • French Street
    • Frost Street
    • Gordon Street
    • Hardee Place
    • Hume Avenue
    • Imboden Street
    • Iverson Street
    • Jackson Place
    • Janney's Lane
    • Jordan Street
    • Jubal Avenue
    • Lee Street[8]
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Maury Lane
    • Pegram Street
    • Quantrell Avenue
    • Reynolds Street
    • Rosser Street
    • Van Dorn Street
    • Wheeler Avenue
  • Annandale:
    • John Marr Drive
    • Lanier Street
    • Rebel Drive
  • Blackstone: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Bland: Jeb Stuart Street
  • Boones Mill: Jubal Early Highway
  • Bristow: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Centreville:
    • Confederate Ridge Lane
    • General Lee Drive
  • Chantilly:
  • Culpeper:
    • General A.P. Hill
    • General Jackson Avenue
    • General Jeb Stuart Lane
    • General Lee Avenue
    • General Longstreet Avenue
    • General Winder Road
  • Damascus: Jeb Stuart Highway
  • Fairfax:
    • Confederate Lane
    • Mosby Woods Drive
    • Old Lee Highway[710]
    • Pickett Road
    • Rebel Run
  • Foster: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hopewell: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Ivor: General Mahone Boulevard
  • Lynchburg: Early Street
  • Manassas:
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Lee Avenue[8]
  • Martinsville:
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Middleburg: John Mosby Highway
  • Natural Bridge Station:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • New Market:
    • Confederate Street
    • Lee Street[8]
    • Stonewall Street
    • Stuart Street
  • Petersburg: Confederate Avenue
  • Powhatan: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Purcellville: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Rhoadesville: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Richmond:
  • Sandston:
    • Carter Avenue
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Early Avenue
    • Garland Avenue
    • J.B. Finley Avenue
    • Jackson Avenue
    • Kemper Court
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Wilson Way
  • Staunton:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • J.E.B. Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
  • Verona: Confederate Street
  • Virginia Beach:
    • General Beauregard Drive
    • General Hill Drive
    • General Jackson Drive
    • General Lee Drive
    • General Longstreet Drive
    • Hood Drive
  • Waynesboro:
    • Davis Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
  • Winchester: Jubal Early Drive
  • Woodford:
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Road

SchoolsEdit

Washington StateEdit

There is at least one building in Washington state named for an officer who served the Confederacy.[8]

 
3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonny Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

The monument has been vandalized repeatedly. In 2005, "the flag insignia, bayonets, and a plaque with Robert E. Lee on it were stolen, but then restored".[728] Following the Charleston church shooting of 2015, "Fuck White Supremacy" was painted on it. On July 5, 2018, "several parts of the 10-ton piece of granite [were] smashed, including a portion of the monument's inscription, insignia, and relief of Robert E. Lee."[729]
Also in 2015, a petition was started to have it removed.[730] In 2017 Seattle Mayor Ed Murray called for it to be taken down, saying it represents "historic injustices" and is a symbol of hate, racism, and violence. After the Mayor's statement, the Cemetery closed for several days because of threats related to the monument.[731]

West VirginiaEdit

There are at least 17 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[8]

State capitolEdit

MonumentsEdit

 
First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
  • Clarksburg: Bronze equestrian statue of Stonewall Jackson created by Charles Keck (1953) by the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). Jackson was born in Clarksburg.
  • Charles Town: It was in Charles Town, in the Jefferson County Courthouse, that abolitionist John Brown was tried; he was hung nearby.[735] In 1986, the UDC, who oppose memorials to John Brown, erected at the entrance to the Jefferson County Courthouse a bronze plaque "in honor and memory of the Confederate soldiers of Jefferson County, who served in the War Between the States". The local newspaper, Spirit of Jefferson, and a group of local African Americans have called for its removal.[736] On September 7, 2017, the Jefferson County Commission voted 5-0 to let the plaque be.[737] The group Women's March West Virginia attends each County Commission meeting holding signs that say "Remove the plaque".[738]
  • Charleston - See West Virginia State Capitol, above.
  • Harpers Ferry: Heyward Shepherd Monument (1931). Although Shepherd was a black freeman working for the railway when killed in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, the monument was erected by UDC and Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). They called the project the "Faithful Slave Memorial" for many years and saw it as a way to emphasize their idea that blacks enjoyed being slaves and that men like Shepherd were victims of those seeking to free slaves.[739]
  • Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse (dedicated May 1914)[740] The base of the monument carries the inscription: "(North base:) This monument erected in honor of American valor as displayed by the Confederate soldiers from 1861 to 1865, and to perpetuate to remotest ages the patriotism and fidelity to principles of the heroes who fought and died for a lost cause. (East base:) sacred to the memory of the noble women of the Confederacy, who suffered more and lost as much, with less glory, than the Confederate soldier. (South base:) erected in the year 1914 by Camp Allen Woodrm Confederate veterans and Camp Bob Christian sons of Confederacy veterans and their friends. (West base:) This monument is dedicated to the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier and New River valleys who followed Lee and Jackson.[741]
  • Lewisburg: Confederate Monument (1906) The Confederate "monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at a cost of $2,800. The monument was originally located on the campus of the Greenbrier College, but moved to its present location when U.S. Route 60 was relocated."[742] It is now located on the lawn of the old public library in Lewisburg. Some residents have suggested interpretive signage for the statue.[743] The inscription on the base reads, "In memory of our Confederate dead."[744]
  • Mingo: Confederate Soldier Monument (1913/2013) The inscription reads in part, "TO THE MEMORY OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF RANDOLPH COUNTY AND VICINITY THIS INCLUDES ALL SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN VALLEY MOUNTAIN"[745]
  • Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, (1908) The monument was created by Leon Hermant and the inscription reads in part, " IN MEMORY OF OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD ERECTED BY PARKERSBURG CHAPTER UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY"[746]
  • Romney: First Confederate Memorial (1867) Carved on the main facade are the words, "The daughters of Old Hampshire erect this tribute of affection to her heroic sons who fell in defense of Southern Rights."[747]
  • Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument (1901); marble statue inscribed "There is a true glory and a true honor. The glory of duty done, the honor of integrity of principle. R. E. Lee"[748]

Inhabited placesEdit

Parks and water featuresEdit

RoadsEdit

SchoolsEdit

  • Charleston: Stonewall Jackson Middle School occupies the building that housed the former Stonewall Jackson High School.

WisconsinEdit

  • Prairie du Chien: United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) monument to Jefferson Davis at Fort Crawford Cemetery Soldiers' Lot. Davis served briefly at Fort Crawford.[751] The text on the plaque reads, "JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808 - 1889, Lieutenant United States Army, Assigned Fort Crawford 1831, Served here with distinction during Black Hawk War, Hero in Mexican War 1846-1848, United States Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, President Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, Erected by The United Daughters of the Confederacy"[752]
  • Wisconsin Dells: The Confederate spy Belle Boyd (1844-1900) is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery in Wisconsin Dells. She would go on tour in the United States and speak about being a spy for the Confederacy. Boyd also wrote a book about her career. Belle Boyd was to speak at a Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) post in Kilbourn City, Wisconsin (now Wisconsin Dells) when she died from a heart attack. Members of the local GAR post served as pallbearers at her funeral and was buried at the cemetery. Her grave is marked with a Confederate flag.[753]

WyomingEdit

Natural FeaturesEdit

  • Yellowstone National Park: The Lamar River (named 1884–85) is named for L.Q.C. Lamar, a secessionist who drafted the instrument of Mississippi's secession and raised a regiment for the Confederates with his own money. He served as a Confederate ambassador to Russia. The river was named while he served as the United States Secretary of the Interior after the war. The Lamar Valley and other park features or administrative names which contain Lamar are derived from this original naming.[754]

InternationalEdit

BrazilEdit

  • In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil, which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourage cotton production.[755] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was erected in the city of Americana, São Paulo state, Brazil.[756]

CanadaEdit

  • Kitchener, Ontario: Eastwood Collegiate Institute (1956), a public high school, replaced its Johnny Rebel mascot and Confederate imagery, perceived as associated with white bigotry, with Rebel Lion in 1999. The school retains the Rebel name for its teams.
  • Montreal, Quebec: A plaque on a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis' brief stay in the city was installed by UDC in 1957; it was removed in 2017 following the attack against counter protesters committed by a white supremacist in Charlottesville.[757][758]

IrelandEdit

  • Tuam: Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"

ScotlandEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that SPLC deemed largely historical in nature"[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth, ed. "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 6, 2017. In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally [of 1,503], the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature.
  2. ^ a b c d Palmer, Brian; Wessler, Seth Freed (December 2018). "The Costs of the Confederacy". Smithsonian Magazine.
  3. ^ Criss, Doug; Elkin, Elizabeth (June 5, 2018). "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". CNN.
  4. ^ Shaffer, Josh (October 25, 2018). "NC's highest court will review courtroom portraits amid complaint about pro-slavery judge". Island Packet.
  5. ^ Kytle, Ethan J.; Roberts, Blain (June 25, 2015). "Take Down the Confederate Flags, but Not the Monuments". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Confederate Statues Were Built To Further A 'White Supremacist Future'". npr.org. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Cox, Karen L. (16 August 2017). "Analysis – The whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy". Retrieved 21 September 2017 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth, ed. "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  9. ^ CNN (August 16, 2017). "Actually, Robert E. Lee was against erecting Confederate memorials". WPTV. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  10. ^ Maxwell, Hu (1897). History of Hampshire County, West Virginia: from its earliest settlement to the present. Morgantown, W. Va: A.B. Boughner, printer.
  11. ^ "Monuments and Memorials". Vicksburg National Military Park. National Park Service. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  12. ^ Leib, Jonathan I.; Webster, Gerald R.; Webster, Roberta H. (2000-12-01). "Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States". GeoJournal. 52 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1023/A:1014358204037. ISSN 0343-2521.
  13. ^ American Historical Association, AHA Statement on Confederate Monuments (August 2017)
  14. ^ "Durham Confederate statue: tribute to dying veterans or political tool of Jim Crow South?". heraldsun.com. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  15. ^ Confederate Monuments and Civic Values in the Wake of Charlottesville. Dell Upton, Society of American Historians, 13 September 2017
  16. ^ Confederate monuments: What to do with them?. Grier, Peter. Christian Science Monitor, 22 August 2017
  17. ^ Dotinga, Randy (2017-06-14). "Inside the hidden history of confederate memorials". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  18. ^ Winsboro, Irvin D.S. (2016). "The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study" (PDF). The George Wright Forum. 33: 217–29.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference Wiggins was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference ForsythPark was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ Mills, Cynthia; Simpson, Pamela H. (2003). Monuments to the Los Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. University of Tennessee Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-1572332720.
  22. ^ Gulley, H.E. (1993). "Women and the Lost Cause: preserving a Confederate identity in the American Deep South". Journal of Historical Geography. 19 (2): 125–41. doi:10.1006/jhge.1993.1009.
  23. ^ Fisher, Marc (2017-08-18). "Why those Confederate soldier statues look a lot like their Union counterparts". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-09-16. Because of technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries, the price of these statues came way down
  24. ^ "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 21, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2017. The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists. These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War
  25. ^ Holpuch, Amanda; Chalabi, Mona (2017-08-16). "'Changing history'? No – 32 Confederate monuments dedicated in past 17 years". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
  26. ^ "Mecklenburg Confederate statue still stands after Anonymous announces threat | South Boston Virginia News | TheNewsRecord.com". www.sovanow.com. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  27. ^ "Confederate statue removed from University of Louisville campus rededicated in Kentucky". Fox News. 2017-05-30. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  28. ^ "FPAN - Destination: Civil War - - Ocala". fpan.us. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  29. ^ "Rededicating a Confederate monument to peace". myajc. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Widener, Ralph W. (1982). Confederate monuments: Enduring symbols of the South and the War Between the States. Andromeda Associates. OCLC 8697924.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g John J. Winberry (2015). "'Lest We Forget': The Confederate Monument and the Southern Townscape". Southeastern Geographer. 55 (1): 19–31 – via Project MUSE. (Subscription required (help)).
  32. ^ "US Confederate monuments: What is the debate about?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  33. ^ a b Harrop, Katelyn (June 13, 2017). "BTW, These Four States Legally Protect Confederate Monuments". Vice Impact. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  34. ^ Harrison, Bobby (May 28, 2017). "Mississippi law prohibits removal of historical markers". Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  35. ^ Cote, Rachel Vorona. "Heritage Act Keeps Confederate Flags Flying in South Carolina". Jezebel. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  36. ^ a b Reynolds, Jacob (August 17, 2017). "Georgia state law makes it difficult to completely remove or hide Confederate monuments". WMAZ. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  37. ^ Olivo, Antonio (August 25, 2017). "After Charlottesville, Va. Democrats see opening to change 114-year-old monuments law". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  38. ^ "A majority of Americans want to preserve Confederate monuments: Reuters/Ipsos poll". 21 August 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017 – via Reuters.
  39. ^ "Reuters/Ipsos Data: Confederate Monuments". ipsos.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  40. ^ Edwards-Levy, Ariel (23 August 2017). "Polls Find Little Support For Confederate Statue Removal -- But How You Ask Matters". Retrieved 20 October 2017 – via Huff Post.
  41. ^ "HuffPost: Confederate Flag, August 15–16, 2017 – 1000 US Adults" (PDF). huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  42. ^ Ford, Matt (August 17, 2017). "Will Congress Remove Confederate Statues From the Capitol?". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  43. ^ DeBonis, Mike (June 23, 2015). "A field guide to the racists commemorated inside the U.S. Capitol". Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  44. ^ a b Brockell, Gillian; Brockell, Gillian (August 16, 2017). "How statues of Robert E. Lee and other Confederates got into the U.S. Capitol". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  45. ^ "Robert E. Lee". Architect of the Capitol. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  46. ^ "Zebulon Vance". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  47. ^ "Uriah Milton Rose". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  48. ^ Florida Senate (March 19, 2018). "SB 472: National Statuary Hall". Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  49. ^ "Joseph Wheeler". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  50. ^ "Alexander Hamilton Stephens". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  51. ^ "Wade Hampton". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  52. ^ "Jefferson Davis". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  53. ^ "James Zachariah George". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  54. ^ "Helen Keller". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
  55. ^ "The Beginnings of Arlington National Cemetery". Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial. National Park Service. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  56. ^ "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  57. ^ Visitor Information: Monuments and Memorials: Confederate Memorial Archived July 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Arlington National Cemetery website, accessed April 24, 2010
  58. ^ Pilitowski, Tom. "Information about the Stone Mountain Half Dollar coin". U.S. Rare Coin Investments. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  59. ^ "1937 Four-Cent Army Stamp: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, and Stratford Hall". hobbylark.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  60. ^ "Robert E. Lee on U.S. Postage Stamps". civilwartalk.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  61. ^ a b Sims, Cliff (2015-06-30). "Pentagon won't rename Alabama's Ft. Rucker, named after Confederate officer". Yellowhammer News. Yellowhammer Multimedia. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
  62. ^ Bergengruen, Vera (2017-08-16). "Ten major Army bases honor Confederate generals, and there are no plans to change that". McClatchy DC Bureau. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  63. ^ "Camp Beauregard, near Alexandria Louisiana in World War II". Alexandria-louisiana.com. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  64. ^ "The world's biggest military bases". Army Technology. September 4, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  65. ^ Malanowski, Jamie (June 14, 2013). "Why Fort Hood needs a new name". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  66. ^ Carola, Chris (August 17, 2017). "2 NY lawmakers: Strip Robert E. Lee's name from West Point". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  67. ^ a b Witte, Brian (August 23, 2017). "Confederate names at Naval Academy could face rough seas". Fox News. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  68. ^ Diana Fontaine Maury-Corbin "Life of Matthew Fontaine Maury USN & CSN" Life of Matthew Fontaine Maury, U.S.N. and C.S.N.
  69. ^ "Troopships of World War II: Liberty Ships". www.skylighters.org.
  70. ^ GRubb, Tammy (October 16, 2018). "A Chapel Hill highway no longer honors a Confederate leader. But what about the sign?". Herald Sun.
  71. ^ Subberwal, Kaeli (2017-08-18). "Several States Have Erected Laws To Protect Confederate Monuments". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  72. ^ Edgemon, Erin (2017-08-17). "AG files lawsuit against Birmingham over Confederate monument". AL.com. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  73. ^ "Alabama Lawmaker sponsors bills to repeal legislation preserving Confederate Monuments". The Birmingham Times. 2017-08-28. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  74. ^ Alabama Confederate Monument. Archived March 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Conservation Solutions Inc., accessed April 24, 2010
  75. ^ Charles, Dean (24 June 2015). "Alabama Gov. Bentley removes Confederate flags from Capitol grounds". The Birmingham News. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  76. ^ Jefferson Davis Star-Montgomery, Alabama. Waymarking.com. Accessed August 16, 2017
  77. ^ Parish (November 19, 2004), Alabama State Capitol, Montgomery, Bronze star marking where Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as the first president of the CSA on the front steps, Emporis, retrieved December 10, 2017
  78. ^ Jefferson Davis – Montgomery, Alabama. Waymarking.com. Accessed August 16, 2017
  79. ^ a b c "These 5 states still use Confederate symbols in their flags". Msnbc.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  80. ^ a b Coski, John M. (2005). The Confederate Battle Flag: America's Most Embattled Emblem. United States of America: First Harvard University Press. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-0-674-01983-6. Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved March 8, 2016. The flag changes in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida coincided with the passage of formal Jim Crow segregation laws throughout the South. Four years before Mississippi incorporated a Confederate battle flag into its state flag, its constitutional convention passed pioneering provisions to 'reform' politics by effectively disenfranchising most African Americans.
  81. ^ a b c "State of Alabama 2018 Official State Holidays" (PDF). Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  82. ^ White, Marjorie Longenecker, Richard W. Sprague, G. Gray Plosser Jr. Editors, Downtown Birmingham Architectural and Historical Walking Tour Guide, Birmingham Historical Society, The First National Bank of Birmingham, 1980 p. 91
  83. ^ "Confederate Soldiers Monument, Ashville, Alabama". Civilwaralbum.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  84. ^ a b c d Davis, Michael. In Remembrance: Confederate Funerary Monuments in Alabama and Resistance to Reconciliation, 1884–1923. Master's thesis, Auburn University. Accessed August 15, 2017
  85. ^ "The Choctaw County Courthouse". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  86. ^ "Things to Do – Pickens County Alabama". Pickenscountyal.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  87. ^ Confederate Veterans Memorial – Centre, AL Waymarking.com. Accessed August 18, 2017
  88. ^ "National Register of Historic Places, Centreville Historic District, registration form" (PDF).
  89. ^ a b c Winberry, John J. (1983). ""Lest We Forget": The Confederate Monument and the Southern Townscape". Southeastern Geographer. 23 (2): 107–21. doi:10.1353/sgo.1983.0008. ISSN 1549-6929.
  90. ^ Eufaula and Barbour County in Vintage Postcards. Arcadia. 2004. p. 97. ISBN 9780738515953.
  91. ^ "Confederate Memorial Monument – Decatur, AL – American Civil War Monuments and Memorials". Waymarking. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  92. ^ Moore, Ellis O. Francis Moore: A Musician's Life. Xlibris, 2007, p. 303
  93. ^ "History & Race in Florence". Projectsaysomething.org. June 17, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  94. ^ Gattis, Paul (May 16, 2017). "Remove Confederate monument in Huntsville, petition says". AL.com. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  95. ^ Tribune, The Texas; Blanchard, Bobby (2017-08-21). "Texas has more than 180 public symbols of the Confederacy. Explore them here". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  96. ^ Shumate, Joyce Nunn. The Confederate monument in Jasper, Alabama on the national register of historic places. Accessed August 15, 2017
  97. ^ Confederate Monument. Our Southern Home (May 6, 1908). Accessed August 16, 2017
  98. ^ "Nicola Marschall". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  99. ^ Lawrence County Confederate Veterans Memorial – Moulton, AL. Waymarking.com. Accessed August 18, 2017
  100. ^ Colbert County Confederate Veterans Memorial – Tuscumbia, AL Waymarking.com Accessed August 16, 2017
  101. ^ Major John Pelham – Anniston, AL Waymarking.com. Accessed October 6, 2017
  102. ^ Suerth, Jessica (August 17, 2017). "Confederate statues and memorials to be removed across US". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  103. ^ Almond, Mark (July 2, 2015). A close-up look at Birmingham's embattled Confederate monument. Al.com. Accessed August 15, 2017
  104. ^ "Alabama". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  105. ^ Edgemon, Erin (July 16, 2016). "Alabama police officer crashes into Confederate Monument while on patrol". AL.com. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  106. ^ Montgomery, David (August 6, 2017). "A car crash topples a Confederate statue – and forces a Southern town to confront its past". The Week. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  107. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Demopolis Public Square
  108. ^ Johnston, Patrick (June 11, 2010). "Confederate monument needs to be moved". The Eufaula Tribune. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  109. ^ "James Cantey". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  110. ^ Graham, Kelsey (August 2, 2013). Fort Payne celebrates Confederate Monument. Times Free Press. Accessed August 15, 2017
  111. ^ Crownover, Danny (April 1, 2016) The Vagabond – 109 Years Ago Unveiling of the Emma Sansom Statue. Gadsden Messenger. Accessed August 15, 2017
  112. ^ Crownover, Danny (June 27, 2014). The Vagabond: A decision in Gadsden. Gadsden Messenger. Accessed August 16, 2017
  113. ^ Historic Downtown Greenville, Alabama. Brochure. Greenville-alabama.com. Accessed August 16, 2017
  114. ^ Henry County Confederate Memorial. Hmdb.org Accessed August 16, 2017
  115. ^ a b Tutor, Philip (January 17, 2016). "Memory or History? Insight: Throughout the South, memorials with difficult histories pose vexing problems". Anniston Star.
  116. ^ "Confederate Memorial – Midway, AL – Alabama Historical Markers". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  117. ^ North American Preservation of Monuments. Alabama. Napom.org. Accessed August 16, 2017
  118. ^ Sons of Confederate Veterans: Raphael Semmes Camp 11. Statue of Admiral Semmes Overlooking Bankhead Tunnel in Downtown Mobile. Scvsemmes.org. Accessed August 16, 2017
  119. ^ "Mobile National Cemetery". U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. August 28, 2017.
  120. ^ "Dexter Avenue". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  121. ^ Yawn, Andrew J. "MPS to 'look at' relocating school's Robert E. Lee statue". The Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
  122. ^ Miller, Rex, Croxton's Raid, p.82
  123. ^ "Monument at Opelika, Ala." Confederate Veteran 19, no. 5 (May 1911): 250–51
  124. ^ "The Battle of Newton - Newton, Alabama". Explore Southern History. March 17, 2014. Archived from the original on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  125. ^ "Janney Furnace Memorial Park". Calhoun County Alabama. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  126. ^ Catoe, Laura (October 21, 2012). "History Is Alive At Janney Furnace Park In Ohatchee". The Gadsten Times.
  127. ^ a b c "Committee Work of Confederation: Complete Record of Monuments and Memorials." Bulletin (Sons of Confederate Veterans) 1, no. 6 (June 1910): 180
  128. ^ "The Prattville Dragoons". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  129. ^ Historical Marker Database. General Joseph Wheeler. Hmdb.com Accessed August 18, 2017
  130. ^ Finch, Ginny. "We Shall Overcome – Selma-to-Montgomery March". Nps.gov.
  131. ^ "Defense of Selma Memorial Historical Marker". hmdb.org. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  132. ^ "Selma Navy Yard and Ordnance Works Marker – Historic Markers Across Alabama". www.lat34north.com. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  133. ^ "Council Moves Forward with Plans to Sell Confederate Circle". Selma Times-Journal. September 11, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  134. ^ "Monument is now headless". Selma Times-Journal. March 13, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  135. ^ Evans, Daniel (May 23, 2015). "Forrest bust back at Old Live Oak." Selma-Times Journal. Accessed August 16, 2017
  136. ^ Teague, Matthew (March 6, 2015). "Selma, 50 years after march, remains a city divided". LA Times. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  137. ^ "Live Oak Cemetery, Selma, Alabama". www.civilwaralbum.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  138. ^ Elodie Todd Dawson Monument in Selma's Old Live Oak Cemetery. Ruralswalabama.org. Accessed August 16, 2017
  139. ^ Alabama Historical Association (1965). "Tallassee Armory". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  140. ^ Alabama Historical Association (2014). "Brigadier General Birkett Davenport Fry, CSA / Tallassee Confederate Officers Quarters". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  141. ^ Historical Marker Database. Confederate Memorial. Hmdb.org Accessed August 16, 2017
  142. ^ Latitude 34 North. Historic Markers Across Alabama. Lat34north.com Accessed August 16, 2017
  143. ^ "Tannehill Furnaces". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  144. ^ a b c Confederated Southern Memorial Association, History of the Confederated Memorial Associations of the South (New Orleans: Graham Press, 1904), pp. 48–49
  145. ^ a b Johnson, Alex (August 28, 2017). "A New Confederate Monument Goes Up in Alabama". NBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  146. ^ Okeowo, Alexis (2017-08-29). "Witnessing a Rally for a Brand-New Confederate Monument". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  147. ^ Simelton, Benard (August 24, 2017). "State NAACP opposes new Confederate statue". The Tuskegee News.
  148. ^ Almond, Mark (July 2, 2015). "A close-up look at Birmingham's embattled Confederate monument". AL.com. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  149. ^ "Confederate Rest". Admiral Raphael Semmes Camp #11.
  150. ^ Alabama Historical Association and Autauga County Heritage Association (1996). "Mulbry Grove Cottage". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  151. ^ "Chapter History". Amelia Gayle Gorgas Chapter 2117
    United Daughters of the Confederacy
    . Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  152. ^ "Macon County Confederate Memorial – Tuskegee, Alabama". waymarking.com. June 5, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  153. ^ Associated Press (August 9, 2018). "History shared but unreconciled in city's Confederate statue". Columbia Daily Herald.
  154. ^ iconions (Dec 12, 2012). Confederate Soldiers Memorial – Union Springs, AL Waymarking.com Accessed September 26, 2017
  155. ^ "McFarland Park and Recreation Area Marker – Historic Markers Across Alabama". Lat34north.com. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  156. ^ Alabama Historical Commission, State Historic Preservation Office. History of Confederate Memorial Park. Accessed August 15, 2017
  157. ^ a b Gelbert, Doug (2005). Civil War Sites, Memorials, Museums and Library Collections: A State-by-State Guidebook to Places Open to the Public. McFarland. pp. 9, 137. ISBN 9780786422593.
  158. ^ a b c "Confederate schools, mascots, and monuments around Alabama". AL.com. 2017-06-02. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  159. ^ "About The School / School Profile". www.lee.k12.al.us. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  160. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Confederate Gulch
  161. ^ Maddren, A. G. (1913). "The Koyukuk-Chandalar Region, Alaska" (PDF). United States Government Printing Office.
  162. ^ Galvan, Astrid (2017-06-05). "Black Leaders: Remove Confederate Monuments From Arizona". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2017-09-04.
  163. ^ a b c d e "Slideshow: Where are Arizona's Confederate monuments?". KMOV. August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  164. ^ Sameer Rao (June 5, 2017). "Black Leaders Fight to Remove Arizona's Confederate Monuments". ColorLines.com.
  165. ^ Schladebeck, Jessica (2017-06-08). "Arizona civil rights leaders call to remove Confederate memorials". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  166. ^ "Southern Memorial Cemetery". Arizona Department of Veterans' Services.
  167. ^ Simpson, Ian (2017-08-18). "Statue defaced as U.S. Confederate monument protests grow". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
  168. ^ a b "A Walk on the Hill" (PDF). Arkansas.gov.
  169. ^ a b c d National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Registration Form: Civil War Commemorative Sculpture in Arkansas, 1886–1934, 1996.
  170. ^ Cynthia DeHaven Pitcock (July 29, 1997). "Old State House – National Historic Landmark Nomination" (PDF). National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  171. ^ QuesterMark. "Little Rock Defenders Memorial Plaque – Little Rock, Arkansas". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  172. ^ QuesterMark. "Old State House Civil War Memorial Plaque – Little Rock, Arkansas". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  173. ^ Roberts, Adam (August 19, 2017). "The Bentonville Confederate Monument's history". KHBS/KHOG Fort Smith-Fayetteville.
  174. ^ "National Register Listings: Clarksville Confederate Monument" (PDF). Arkansas Historic Preservation Program.
  175. ^ Christ, Mark K.; Slater, Cathryn H. (2000). Sentinels of History: Reflections on Arkansas Properties on the National Register of Historic Places. University of Arkansas Press. p. 108. ISBN 9781557286055.
  176. ^ "Battle of Jenkins' Ferry". HMdb.org. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  177. ^ "Monuments". Conserve ART. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  178. ^ "Little Rock Confederate Memorial" (PDF). National Park Service. March 6, 1996.
  179. ^ "Confederate Generals Memorial". Waymarking.com. silverquill. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  180. ^ "Reunited Soldiery Monument – Pea Ridge Battlefield". Waymarking.com. silverquill. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  181. ^ "Pea Ridge Texas Monument". The Civil War Muse.
  182. ^ "Smithville". Civil War Buff.
  183. ^ "Fairview Cemetery – Confederate Memorial – Van Buren, AR". Waymarking.com. iconions. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  184. ^ "Washington Confederate Monument". National Park Service.
  185. ^ "National Register Listings: Washington Confederate Monument" (PDF). Arkansas Historic Preservation Program.
  186. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 84.
  187. ^ "Faulkner County History". Faulkner County Arkansas. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  188. ^ "About Forrest City". City of Forrest City. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  189. ^ "Lee County". Arkansas Municipal League. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  190. ^ "NRHP nomination for Confederate Mothers Memorial Park" (PDF). Arkansas Preservation. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  191. ^ Ark. Code Ann. (1987), Section 1–4–101; cited in B.F. Shearer and B.S. Shearer (2002), State Names, Seals, Flags, and Symbols, Greenwood Press, p. 54
  192. ^ Dotinga, Randy (August 18, 2017). "San Diego's Other Confederate Memorial Sits in a City-Owned Cemetery". Voice of San Diego.
  193. ^ Arellano, Gustavo (August 17, 2017). "California's Last Confederate Monument is at Santa Ana Cemetery – And It Was Erected in 2004".
  194. ^ "Future of Confederate monument at Santa Ana Cemetery in question after Charlottesville clash". August 18, 2017.
  195. ^ "J. D. Highway". Rootsweb.ancestry.com. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  196. ^ "School board rejects bid to restore 'Rebel' statue". ocregister.com. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  197. ^ "Jeff Davis Peak : Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering : SummitPost". www.summitpost.org. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  198. ^ Erwin E. Gudde, California Place Names
  199. ^ "Pickett Peak : Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering : SummitPost". www.summitpost.org. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  200. ^ "Camping at Pickett Peak Campground near Mad River – California". www.campscout.com. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  201. ^ Peterson, Richard H. (July 2001). "The Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, California". ICMJ Prospecting and Mining Journal.
  202. ^ Redmond, James (2017-08-26). "Confederate-themed mascot at Weld Central High School stirs up controversy". The Greely Tribune. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  203. ^ "Colorado Confederate Veterans Memorial - Riverside Cemetery, Denver, CO - American Civil War Monuments and Memorials on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com.
  204. ^ Keller, Steve (2007). Colorado in Depth. Lulu. p. 290. ISBN 9781430311942.
  205. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Robert E Lee Mine
  206. ^ Fishman, Margie (2017-08-15). "Delaware leaders make no moves to oust Confederate monument". The News Journal. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  207. ^ Tavernise, Sabrina (2017-08-30). "A Boom in Confederate Monuments, on Private Land". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
  208. ^ Trentanove, Gaetano (1899). Brigadier General Albert Pike. Washington Granite Monumental Company, Fonderia Galli.
  209. ^ Goode, James M. (November 1974). The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C.: A Comprehensive Historical Guide (1st Edition/ 2nd Printing ed.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst Press. p. 228. ISBN 9780874741490.
  210. ^ Jacob, Kathryn Allamong; Remsberg, Edwin H. (1998-09-01). Testament to Union: Civil War Monuments in Washington, D.C. Baltimore, Md.; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 62. ISBN 9780801858611.
  211. ^ Iacone, Amanda (August 16, 2017). "DC officials seek to remove statue of Confederate general". WToP. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  212. ^ a b Elias, Dave (August 18, 2017). "Fort Myers mayor considering options for removing Civil War pieces". WBBH. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  213. ^ "Leon County Civil War Monument Historical Marker". Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  214. ^ "Permanent Exhibits". Florida Historic Capitol Museum. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  215. ^ Williams, Dave (17 September 2000). "Flag debate spreading across Deep South". Savannah Morning News. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  216. ^ Ingraham, Christopher (21 June 2015). "How the Confederacy lives on in the flags of seven Southern states". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  217. ^ "State Flag – Florida Department of State". dos.myflorida.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  218. ^ "Bartow". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  219. ^ "Confederate Soldiers' Memorial, Brooksville, FL". UNF Digital Commons. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  220. ^ a b c d e "Big Bend peppered with Confederate monuments". tallahassee.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  221. ^ "Jefferson County Confederate Memorial – Monticello, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  222. ^ "Ocala". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  223. ^ "Putnam County Confederate Memorial". Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  224. ^ "Quincy". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  225. ^ "American Veteran Monument". Florida Public Archaeology Network. University of West Florida. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  226. ^ "FPAN – Destination: Civil War – Confederate Monument". Flpublicarchaeology.org.
  227. ^ "Judah P. Benjamin Confederate Memorial at Gamble Plantation Historic State Park". Floridastateparks.org.
  228. ^ "Gamble Plantation". Florida Division UDC. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017.
  229. ^ Feldman, Ari (August 20, 2017). "Why Are There No Statues Of Jewish Confederate Judah Benjamin To Tear Down?". Forward. Retrieved September 6, 2017. There is only one known statue of a Jewish Confederate leader. It depicts David Levy Yulee, an industrialist, plantation owner and Confederate senator from Florida, and it shows him sitting on a bench.
  230. ^ "Robert E. Lee Bust". Artswfl.com.
  231. ^ Elias, Dave (August 18, 2017). "Fort Myers mayor considering options for removing Civil War pieces". WBBH. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  232. ^ Newman, Allen George (January 1, 1914). "Florida's Tribute to the Women of the Confederacy". Siris-artinventories.si.edu.
  233. ^ Gancarski, A.G. (August 18, 2017). "Jax Chamber backs Confederate monument 'inventory'; Anna Brosche modifies position". floridapolitics.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  234. ^ "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List". New York Times. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  235. ^ "To the Memory of the Confederate Soldiers who Defended Jacksonville". Florida Public Archaeology Network. University of West Florida. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  236. ^ "Clinton Square Historical Marker". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  237. ^ Klingener, Nancy (August 25, 2015). "Key West Preserves Memorials To Confederate and Union Armies". WLRN Public Radio and Television. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  238. ^ "Lake City – Downtown Square". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  239. ^ Elmhorst, Rick (2018-05-07). "Lakeland commissioners OK statue move". Bay News 9. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  240. ^ "City of Miami Cemetery". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  241. ^ a b Buchanan, Drew (August 26, 2017). "Rally at Confederate monument in downtown Pensacola draws hundreds, one arrested". The Pulse.
  242. ^ "J. F. Manning Company, fabricator". SIRIS – Smithsonian Institution Research Information System.
  243. ^ "Perry". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  244. ^ "Confederate Monument – Perry, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  245. ^ "Soldiers Cemetery Confederate Memorial – Quincy, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  246. ^ "On the Trail in Historic Quincy" (PDF). Gadsden Arts Center & Museum.
  247. ^ "Confederate Memorial Obelisk, St. Augustine, FL". UNF Digital Commons.
  248. ^ Harding, Ashley; Calloway, Ethan (July 9, 2018). "Task force: Context needed for St. Augustine's Confederate memorial". WJXT.
  249. ^ "William Wing Loring Monument". Florida Public Archaeology Network.
  250. ^ "St. Cloud, Florida". Civil War Album. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  251. ^ "St. Petersburg – Greenwood Cemetery". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  252. ^ "Fallen Confederates honored Saturday". Gilchrist County Journal. April 29, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  253. ^ "White Springs". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  254. ^ "Confederate and Union Soldiers who died at Natural Bridge". Florida Public Archaeology Network.
  255. ^ "Newnansville Cemetery Confederate Veterans Memorial – Alachua, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  256. ^ "Bradfordville". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  257. ^ "Approved Minutes from October 10, 2013 Meeting". Tallahassee Historical Society. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  258. ^ "Pasco County Civil War Veterans Memorial-Dade City, Florida". Waymarking. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  259. ^ "Confederate Veteran Memorial – DeLand, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  260. ^ Hall, G.W. (July 18, 2018). "Confederate flag display 'blatant racism,' Holly Hill council told". Times and Democrat.
  261. ^ Hall, G.W. (April 4, 2017). "Holly Hill Town Council asks SCV not to display Confederate flag". Times and Democrat.
  262. ^ Hall, G.W. (April 10, 2017). "SCV: 'No compromise' on Confederate flag display". Times and Democrat.
  263. ^ "Lake City – Last Confederate War Widow". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  264. ^ "Florida Civil War Heritage Trail" (PDF). Florida Department of State.
  265. ^ "Lake City – Battle of Olustee Soldiers Plot". Florida Public Archaeology Network. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  266. ^ "Monument in Oaklawn Cemetery : Lake City, Florida". Florida Memory, State Library & Archives of Florida.
  267. ^ McNeill, Claire; Geurts, Jimmy; Samman, Shaker (June 21, 2015). "In Hillsborough County, renewed debate over giant Confederate flag". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  268. ^ "Huge Confederate flag near Interstate is one man's mission". idahostatesman.com. Retrieved August 24, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  269. ^ Marrero, Tony (August 15, 2017). "Volunteers stand guard over Confederate monument in downtown Tampa". Tampa Bay Times.
  270. ^ a b c "County Name Origins". Florida Department of State: Division of Historical Resources. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  271. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 184.
  272. ^ "Polk County Courthouse". Florida 10th Judicial Circuit. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  273. ^ "City Name Origins". Florida Department of State: Division of Historical Resources. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  274. ^ a b "Name Origins of Florida Places: Florida OCHP". Flheritage.com. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  275. ^ "Gamble Plantation Historic State Park". Florida State Parks. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  276. ^ Cox, Dale. "Camp Walton - Confederate Fort at Fort Walton Beach, Florida". www.exploresouthernhistory.com. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  277. ^ "Confederate Park History". Metro Jacksonville. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  278. ^ "Confederate Memorial – Hemming Plaza – Jacksonville, FL". Waymarking. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  279. ^ "Hemming Plaza". apps2.coj.net. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  280. ^ "Wynwood Walls "Stories Through The Walls"". September 11, 2015. p. 14. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  281. ^ Elfrink, Tim (August 17, 2017). "Activists Want to Erase Wynwood's Robert E. Lee Park, but Officials Say It Doesn't Actually Exist". Miami New Times. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  282. ^ "Stonewall Jackson Memorial Highway". Waymarking. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  283. ^ "Stonewall Jackson Memorial Highway Terminus". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  284. ^ Frago, Charlie (August 15, 2017). "Kriseman removes Confederate marker from St. Pete's waterfront". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  285. ^ "J.J. Finley Elementary School History". J.J. Finley Elementary School History. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  286. ^ "Kirby Smith School 2, Gainesville, FL". UNF Digital Commons. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
  287. ^ "Alachua County School Board Changing Name". WCJB. August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  288. ^ "Page Not Found". www.tampabay.com. Retrieved August 26, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  289. ^ Bennett, Erica (August 15, 2017).