Marianna, Arkansas

Marianna is a town in and the county seat of Lee County, Arkansas, United States.[4] As of the 2010 census it had a population of 4,115,[5] and by 2018 the population had dropped to an estimated 3,477.[6]

Marianna, Arkansas
Clockwise, from top: Lee County Courthouse, Marianna Commercial Historic District, Lee County Historical Museum, and the General Robert E. Lee Monument in City Park
Location in Lee County, Arkansas
Location in Lee County, Arkansas
Coordinates: 34°46′25″N 90°45′27″W / 34.77361°N 90.75750°W / 34.77361; -90.75750Coordinates: 34°46′25″N 90°45′27″W / 34.77361°N 90.75750°W / 34.77361; -90.75750[1]
CountryUnited States
StateArkansas
CountyLee
Area
 • Total3.61 sq mi (9.36 km2)
 • Land3.61 sq mi (9.36 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation230 ft (70 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total4,115
 • Estimate 
(2019)[3]
3,402
 • Density941.34/sq mi (363.42/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
72360
Area code(s)870
FIPS code05-44120
GNIS feature ID2405017[1]

Located along the L'Anguille River in the Arkansas Delta just north of the St. Francis National Forest, the community was known as "Walnut Ridge" until 1852 when it became known as "Marianna". The town's economy has historically been based on agriculture, especially cotton production. The town is located along Crowley's Ridge Parkway and the Great River Road, both National Scenic Byways showcasing Crowley's Ridge and the Mississippi River.

HistoryEdit

The community was established by Col. Walter H. Otey in 1848, and was known as Walnut Ridge until 1852.

GeographyEdit

Marianna is located in the center of the county at the northwest tip of St. Francis National Forest. U.S. Route 79 passes through the north and west sides of the town, leading northeast 58 miles (93 km) to Memphis, Tennessee, and southwest 90 miles (140 km) to Pine Bluff. Arkansas Highway 1 passes through the west side of the town, leading north 18 miles (29 km) to Forrest City and south 16 miles (26 km) to Barton.

The town lies along the west side of the L'Anguille River two miles west of that stream's confluence with the St. Francis River within a break in elevation of Crowley's Ridge.[7]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.61 square miles (9.36 km2), all land.[8] The town's current mayor is Jimmy Williams, who took office on January 1, 2011.

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880627
18901,12679.6%
19001,70751.6%
19104,810181.8%
19205,0745.5%
19304,314−15.0%
19404,4493.1%
19504,5301.8%
19605,13413.3%
19706,19620.7%
19806,2200.4%
19905,910−5.0%
20005,181−12.3%
20104,115−20.6%
Est. 20193,402[3]−17.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]

As of the census[10] of 2010, there were 4,115 people, 1,664 households, and 1,068 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,440.0 people per square mile (555.7/km2). There were 2,196 housing units at an average density of 610.4 per square mile (235.5/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 20.9% White, 76.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.0% from other races, and 1.3% from two or more races. 0.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 1,664 households, out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.8% were married couples living together, 31.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 34.4% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 70.6 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $16,351, and the median income for a family was $29,624. Males had a median income of $28,542 versus $19,045 for females. The per capita income for the town was $10,253. About 32.8% of families and 37.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.2% of those under age 18 and 33.1% of those age 65 or over.

EducationEdit

As of 2011, there are five schools in Marianna, two of which are private. The public schools in Lee County School District are Lee High School, Anna Strong Middle School, and Whitten Elementary School. One of the private schools is Lee Academy.

Earthquake faultEdit

On January 21, 2009, the director of the Arkansas Earthquake Center at the University of Arkansas announced the discovery of a major fault line near Marianna which could generate a 7.0 earthquake in the future. The fault is close to, but appears to be separate from, the nearby New Madrid Seismic Zone.[11]

InfrastructureEdit

UtilitiesEdit

 
Water department
 
Lee County Courthouse in Marianna

The Marianna Water and Sewer Commission directs the Marianna Water Department, which treats and distributes potable water to the residents and commercial users of the town. The Department also owns and operates a wastewater collection system, which collects wastewater from over 4,000 service connections and uses a series of laterals, interceptors and five lift stations to gravity flow wastewater to the Marianna Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP).[12] At the WWTP, two lagoons are used to treats wastewater and discharge treated effluent to the L'Anguille River in accordance with the town's NPDES permit administered by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality.

The Lee County Water Association provides water to rural areas surrounding the town.

Notable peopleEdit

Notable businessesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Marianna, Arkansas
  2. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001), Marianna city, Arkansas". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  6. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  7. ^ Marianna, AR, 7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS, 1984 (1993 rev.)
  8. ^ "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Aug 22, 2018.
  9. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  11. ^ "Scientist Says Ark. Fault Could Generate 7 Temblor", Associated Press via Yahoo News (January 22, 2009)
  12. ^ Henderson, Steven L. (August 9, 2011). "Correspondence from ADEQ to Alton Yancey, Manager of Marianna Water and Sewer Commission" (PDF). Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). Retrieved August 10, 2014.