Modern display of the Confederate battle flag

Variations of the battle flag of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia (also known as the Southern Cross, Beauregard battle flag, rebel flag, or Dixie flag) continue to be displayed in modern times, most frequently in the United States.[1] This occurs despite the Confederacy's duration of just four years, lack of official recognition as a state, and total collapse at the end of the American Civil War.

Most common modern variation
Second Navy Jack of the Confederate States
Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Prominent alt-rightists were instrumental in organizing the August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia; pictured are rally participants carrying Dixie flags, Gadsden flags, and a Nazi flag.

The phenomenon began in the late-19th century; the use and acceptance of the flag generally expanded during the nadir of American race relations and the Jim Crow era.[2] In the run-up to the 1948 United States presidential election it was adopted by the Dixiecrats, a short-lived political party which defended racial segregation and opposed civil rights for African Americans.[3][4] The flag was also deployed in direct opposition to the Brown v. Board of Education decision, civil rights movement, and passage of federal civil rights laws in the 1950s and '60s.[5]

The display of flags associated with the Confederacy, especially the battle flag, is thus controversial. It is commonly associated with racism, slavery, segregation, white supremacy, Neo-Nazism, the alt-right, racially motivated violence, treason, pride in Southern heritage, defense of states' rights, historical commemoration of the Confederacy, glorification of the Civil War, and adherence to the pseudohistorical ideology of the Lost Cause.[6][7][8]

In 2015, the Charleston church shooting prompted a widespread debate regarding the flag's display on public grounds after it was revealed that the perpetrator had posted numerous pictures of himself with the flag and other white supremacist iconography on his personal website.[9][10] Less than a month after the mass shooting, the South Carolina General Assembly voted by a wide margin to remove the flag from the statehouse grounds. Following then-Governor Nikki Haley's signature of the bill, the flag was taken down.[11][12]

The May 2020 murder of George Floyd and ensuing protests renewed the intensity of the debate. The US Department of Defense banned exhibition of the flag by uniformed military personnel and on all US military installations around the world.[13] After pressure from both the Southeastern Conference and NCAA, the Mississippi Legislature passed a bill in June 2020 to abolish the state flag (the last to include a Confederate battle flag), remove it from public institutions within 15 days of enactment, and create a nine-member commission to design a replacement that would exclude the battle flag and include the motto "In God We Trust".[14] Governor Tate Reeves signed the bill into law on June 30, 2020.[15][16] The flag commission accepted submissions for a new design from the public and the winner was put to referendum on November 3, 2020. Mississippi voters approved the measure by a wide margin and the new flag went into effect on January 11, 2021.[17]

During the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, several rioters carried the Confederate battle flag into the building.[18] This was the first time in U.S. history that the Confederate flag was brought within six miles of the Capitol, let alone inside, in an act of insurrection.[19][20]


National flagsEdit

The three flag designs
used by the Confederate States of America

The Confederate States of America used three national flags during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, known as the "Stars and Bars" (1861–1863), the "Stainless Banner" (1863–65), and the "Blood-Stained Banner" (1865).

The "Stars and Bars" was unpopular among Confederates for its resemblance to the United States flag, which caused confusion during battle.[21][22] Criticism of the first national flag led to the rise of the battle flag design, which was incorporated by the "Stainless Banner" and the "Blood-Stained Banner". Both subsequent national designs also failed to gain traction in the South. The "Stainless Banner" was criticized for its excessive white design, creating fears that it could be mistaken for a flag of truce and causing it to be easily soiled.[23] The "Blood-Stained Banner", issued a little over a month before the Confederacy's surrender, was seldom used due to few flags being manufactured.[24]

The vernacular "Confederate flag"Edit

1896 lithograph of the three Confederate national flags and the battle flag

Designed by William Porcher Miles, the chairman of the Flag and Seal Committee of the Confederate Provisional Congress, the flag now generally known as the "Confederate flag" was first proposed and rejected as the national flag in 1861. However, the design was adopted as a battle flag by the Army of Northern Virginia (ANV) under General Robert E. Lee[25] and grew in popularity throughout the Confederacy.

To conserve material, the ANV changed Miles' design from a rectangle to a square for the battle flag. The rectangular version, similar to the battle flag used by the Army of Tennessee under General Joseph E. Johnston,[26][27] is the most popular today and common in modern reproductions. Despite never having historically represented the Confederacy as a country nor been officially recognized as one of its flags, it is commonly referred to as "the Confederate Flag" and has become a widely recognized symbol of the American South.[28] It is also called the "rebel flag", "Dixie flag", "Confederate battle flag", "Southern cross", or, for those who consider it a dog-whistled nod to white supremacy, "Dixie swastika".[29][30] Due to misconceptions of this design being the Confederacy's national flag, it is often incorrectly called the "Stars and Bars" after the original national design.[31] The self-declared Confederate exclave of Town Line, New York, lacking a genuine Confederate flag, flew a version of this flag prior to its 1946 vote to ceremonially rejoin the Union.[32][33]

Revival and controversyEdit

During the "memorial period" that ran from the late 19th century through the 1920s, the use of Confederate flags broadened and became the symbolic embodiment of the Lost Cause.[34] The Confederate battle flag was added to the state flags of three former Confederate states. The flag of Mississippi included the battle flag from 1894 until 2020 and the flag of Georgia did from 1956 until 2003.[35] The 50th anniversary reunion at Gettysburg in 1913 was a turning point in obtaining national acceptance of the flag and other Confederate symbols. The flag appears prominently in The Birth of a Nation (1915), a highly successful and influential film. Margaret Mitchell's novel, Gone with the Wind, led to a brief but intense period of nostalgia for the Old South during which the Confederate flag appeared widely.[2] In the film adaptation, the flag flutters over a scene of vast carnage.

Military useEdit

Notification to remove all depictions of the Confederate Battle Flag from U.S. Marine Corps installations

During World War II, several U.S. military units either using Southern nicknames or composed largely of Southerners made the flag their unofficial emblem. Some soldiers carried Confederate flags into battle. After the Battle of Okinawa a Confederate flag was raised over Shuri Castle by a Marine from the self-styled "Rebel Company" (Company A of the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines). It was visible for miles and was taken down after three days on the orders of General Simon B. Buckner Jr. (son of Confederate general Simon Buckner Sr.), who stated that it was inappropriate as "Americans from all over are involved in this battle". It was replaced with the regulation, 48-star flag of the United States.[36] By the end of the war, the use of the Confederate flag in the military was relatively rare.[37] In 1952, Destroyer Division 122 (known as the "Dixie Division" because its four commanders were from the South) was ordered to stop flying the Confederate flag.[38]

Following the May 2020 murder of George Floyd and ensuing protests, Commandant of the Marine Corps David Berger directed Marine Corps leaders to remove all Confederate-related items from all the Corps' bases throughout the world.[39] The entire U.S. Navy soon followed suit, disallowing the exhibition of the Confederate battle flag in all public places on installations, ships, and aircraft.[40] After the branch-specific bans, Secretary of Defense Mark Esper issued guidance in July that effectively forbade the display of the battle flag by all uniformed American military personnel and at all US military installations around the world.[13][41]

Political groupsEdit

The 1948 Dixiecrat political party extensively used Confederate symbols, including the battle flag, and it contributed to the flag's post-World War II re-popularization.[42] According to historian John Coski, segregationists utilized Confederate symbols since both they and the Confederates had similar goals, that is, opposition to efforts to "change the South's racial status quo". As a result, Coski stated that "There could be no more fitting opposition" to desegregation "than the Confederate battle flag. Although segregationists lost their battle and their cause was discredited, attitudes of white supremacy live on."[43]

In Georgia, the Confederate battle flag was reintroduced as an element of the state flag in 1956, just two years after the Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education. It was considered by many to be a protest against school desegregation.[44] It was also raised at the University of Mississippi during protests against integration of schools.[45]

Members of the Detroit-based National Socialist Movement marching at Market Square in Knoxville, Tennessee - August 14, 2010

Supporters of the flag's continued use claim that it is a symbol of Southern ancestry and heritage as well as a symbol of the cultural tradition of the Southern United States which is distinct and independent from the cultural tradition of the rest of the country. Some groups use the "southern cross" as one of the symbols which are associated with their organizations, including groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.[46] However, the flag of the United States is commonly used in its place. For other supporters, the Confederate flag only represents a past era of Southern sovereignty.[47] As the public display of Nazi flags (or any other flags) within United States borders is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees the right to freedom of speech,[48] both the Nazi-era Reichskriegsflagge, and the original style of Nazi Party flag used by the Third Reich, have also been seen on display at white supremacist events within United States borders, side by side with the Confederate flag,[49]

Historian John Coski noted that the Sons of Confederate Veterans, the "most visible, active, and effective defender of the flag", "carried forward into the twenty-first century, virtually unchanged, the Lost Cause historical interpretations and ideological vision formulated at the turn of the twentieth."[50] Coski wrote concerning "the flag wars of the late twentieth century":

From the ... early 1950s, SCV officials defended the integrity of the battle flag against trivialization and against those who insisted that its display was unpatriotic or racist. SCV spokesmen reiterated the consistent argument that the South fought a legitimate war for independence, not a war to defend slavery, and that the ascendant "Yankee" view of history falsely vilified the South and led people to misinterpret the battle flag.[51]

The allied United Daughters of the Confederacy and other historical societies also used the flag as one of their symbols.

In Petersburg, Virginia, the Ladies Memorial Association of Petersburg in 1909 had a Tiffany stained-glass Confederate flag included in a window over the door to the former Blandford Church.[52]

Religious groupsEdit

At its annual meeting In 2016, the Southern Baptist Convention passed a resolution calling for Southern Baptist churches to stop displaying the Confederate flag, as a "sign of solidarity of the whole Body of Christ."[53]

Public opinion (2011–2017)Edit

The Confederate flag is a controversial symbol for many Americans today. A 2011 Pew Research Center poll revealed that 30% of Americans had a "negative reaction" when "they saw the Confederate flag displayed."[54] According to the same poll, 9% of Americans had a positive reaction. A majority (58%) had no reaction. Among black Americans, 41% had a negative reaction, 10% had a positive reaction and 45% had no reaction. A similar poll taken in 2015 revealed little change from 2011.[55]

In an October 2013 YouGov poll, a plurality (38%) of those polled disapproved of displaying the flag in public places.[56] In the same poll, a plurality (44%) of those asked viewed the flag as a symbol of racism, with 24% viewing it as exclusively racist and 20% viewing it as both racist and symbolic of pride in the region. 35% viewed it exclusively as a symbol of regional pride.[56]

In a national survey in 2015 across all races, 57% of Americans had the opinion that the Confederate flag represented Southern pride rather than racism. A similar poll in 2000 had a nearly identical result of 59%. However, poll results from only the South yielded a completely different result: 75% of Southern whites described the flag as a symbol of pride. Conversely, 75% of Southern blacks said the flag symbolized racism.[57]

Another poll, administered by Economist / YouGov after racially motivated violence in Charleston in August 2017, showed that by a 5% margin – 43% to 38% – the Confederate Flag was viewed as a symbol of southern pride rather than racism. However, participants of color were 32% more likely than their white neighbors to see it as a sign of racism.[58]

Historical and modern meaningEdit

Confederate flag made out of flowers at the Confederate Statue in Jasper, Alabama. 2010

As a result of these varying perceptions, there have been a number of political controversies surrounding the use of the Confederate battle flag in Southern state flags, at sporting events, at Southern universities, and on public buildings.[59] In their study of Confederate symbols in the contemporary Southern United States, the Southern political scientists James Michael Martinez, William Donald Richardson, and Ron McNinch-Su wrote:

The battle flag was never adopted by the Confederate Congress, never flew over any state capitols during the Confederacy, and was never officially used by Confederate veterans' groups. The flag probably would have been relegated to Civil War museums if it had not been resurrected by the resurgent KKK and used by Southern Dixiecrats during the 1948 presidential election.[60]

Southern historian Gordon Rhea further wrote in 2011:

It is no accident that Confederate symbols have been the mainstay of white supremacist organizations, from the Ku Klux Klan to the skinheads. They did not appropriate the Confederate battle flag simply because it was pretty. They picked it because it was the flag of a nation dedicated to their ideals: 'that the negro is not equal to the white man'. The Confederate flag, we are told, represents heritage, not hate. But why should we celebrate a heritage grounded in hate, a heritage whose self-avowed reason for existence was the exploitation and debasement of a sizeable segment of its population?[61]

Symbols of the Confederacy remain a contentious issue across the United States and their civic placement has been debated vigorously in many southern U.S. state legislatures since the early 1990s, such as the effort that led to the replacement of Georgia's flag in 2001.[62] Supporters have labeled attempts to display the flag as an exercise of free speech in response to bans in some schools and universities, but have not always been successful in court[63] when attempting to use this justification.

In a 2001 essay, "Old Times There Are Best Forgotten", Emory University professor Lucas Carpenter observed that "Contemporary Confederate sympathizers want free use of Confederate symbolism because they say it represents their 'heritage.' It does, of course, but it is heritage chiefly characterized by its brutal oppression of the enslaved and their 'free' descendants. The most important thing to know about the South is that until recently it was a region ruled by slavery and apartheid."[64]

The Anti-Defamation League says the flag is "still used by non-extremists, especially in the South, as a symbol of Southern heritage or history."[65]

Popularity outside the Southern U.S.Edit

The flag has found some popularity in places far outside of the former Confederacy, especially in rural areas in the United States.[66]

Pacific NorthwestEdit

When researching his ethnography of white Americans, Searching for Whitopia, scholar Rich Benjamin kept a notepad while traveling the Pacific Northwest. "I remember driving through swaths of Washington and Oregon and seeing a lot of Confederate flags", Benjamin explained to journalist Matthew Novak. "There are a lot of refugees from the South who seem attracted to Oregon not because they're racists, but because Oregon has a racial homogeneity and a conservatism and a gun culture that they really appreciate." The Pacific Northwest offers a cultural collision between the Confederate flag, other emblems of racism, and its new technological profit hubs.[67]

3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonnie Blue Flag at Jefferson Davis Park, Washington, 2018

Calls for the removal of Confederate flags from Jefferson Davis Park in southwestern Washington state began in 2015, after the Charleston church shooting, by Rev. Marva Edwards, the president of Vancouver's NAACP chapter.[68][69] Even though the markers and flags are located on private property, they are and were intended to be highly visible (to all cars traveling Interstate 5). Their visibility, and events in other parts of the nation regarding Confederate memorials, still make these symbols a local focus of strong emotions, especially in the aftermath of the white nationalist Unite the Right rally August 11–12, 2017.[70][71]

San Francisco City HallEdit

Eighteen flags fly at Civic Center Plaza in front of the San Francisco City Hall, each representing important events in United States history.[72] These include several related to the American Revolution, along with the original flags of the Republic of California and the Republic of Texas.[72] It also briefly included the Confederate flag, but it was removed in 1964 in response to protests by civil rights activists.[72]

At European far-right eventsEdit

In a "limited" degree of reciprocity with its use beside the First Amendment-protected display of Nazi flags at far-right events within the United States, there has increasingly been seen at far-right group gatherings within some European nations' borders, the use of the rectangular "rebel flag" form of the Confederate naval jack, in place of often-banned Third Reich flags.[73] In Ukraine, a Confederate flag was prominently displayed in the hall of Kiev's city council following the Maidan revolution.[74]

"Southern pride" in Italy's football stadiumsEdit

Washington Post reporter Adam Taylor, in an article of June 22, 2015 about use of Confederate flag in Italy, reports that the first time S.S.C. Napoli supporters were noticed flying the flag abroad was during their quarterfinal match of the UEFA Champions League against English side Chelsea in 2012. He quotes an explanation, given several years before to historian Don Harrison Doyle and reported in "Divided Nations" (2002) by a professor of American Literature in Naples: "We too are a defeated people. Once we were a rich and independent country, and then they came from the North and conquered us and took our wealth and power away to Rome."[75]

Writer Vladimiro Bottone, in an article of July 15, 2004[76] on Naples newspaper Corriere del Mezzogiorno, adds that stadium is the "place [where] the first virulent and explicit opposition between North and South of the post-war period was made visible in a mass dimension” [...]. For Napoli FC supporters, [...] “Napoli is what it could have been if the robbery of Savoy sneaky team (aiming to Juventus FC, main team of Turin, town of the Savoy, the Italian Royal family, ndr) was not able to perpetrate its damage, to the point of colonizing the Belpaese football with the violence of fraud, thus distorting the development of what should be a fair competition between territories."

In film and televisionEdit

Media that does not reference the civil war in a historical context (such as media set in the time period of the civil war, museum displays, or depictions of reenactments.)

The 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit, set in the Southern United States, featured a 1977 Pontiac Trans Am displaying the Georgia state flag on the front license plate of the vehicle; the 1956-2001 Georgia state flag prominently featured the Confederate battle flag.

The 1979–1985 American television series The Dukes of Hazzard, set in a fictional Georgia county, featured the General Lee stock car with the flag prominently painted over its roof throughout the series' run.

The 1980 film Battle Beyond the Stars shows a spaceship used to haul freight piloted by a man calling himself Cowboy. The space truck sports a rectangular variant of the Mobile Depot flag.[77]

The 1985 film The Breakfast Club has a portrayal of the 1956 Georgia state flag which incorporates the battle flag design.

Kelly (in the 1987–1997 television sitcom Married... with Children) wears the rebel flag as one of many patches on her jacket in early episodes of the show.

The 1989 film Shag has a character wearing wearing a flag bikini.[78]

Thelma (in the 1991 film Thelma & Louise) wears a shirt with this flag as part of a larger motif.

The 2005 film The Dukes of Hazzard and its 2007 prequel The Dukes of Hazzard: The Beginning both feature the General Lee car from the TV series complete with Confederate flag paint job.[79]

Use by musiciansEdit

The Southern rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd has made heavy use of the flag. In 2012, it tried to distance itself from the flag because of its divisive history as a symbol of racism. In an interview with CNN, Gary Rossington stated, "We just had it in the beginning because we're Southern and that was our image back in the '70s and late '60s. But I think people through the years, people like the KKK and the skinheads…kidnapped the Dixie rebel flag, the Southern tradition and the heritage of the soldiers, you know, that's what it was about. We didn't want that to go to our fans or show the image like we agreed with any of the race stuff or any of the bad things."[80] Two weeks later, after backlash from fans, they resumed using it, with Rossington stating on the band's website, "We know what the Dixie flag represents and its heritage; the Civil War was fought over States rights."[81]

Until July 2015, the metal band Pantera sold numerous items that featured the flag in its official online store.[82] Founding member Dimebag Darrell, who was shot and killed in 2004, used a Dean ML guitar customized with the flag covering the guitar's body. As of July 2015, singer Phil Anselmo distanced himself from usage of the flag.[83]

The hip-hop group Lil Jon and the East Side Boyz used the flag (burning) on the cover of its 2001 album Put Yo Hood Up, as well as in the music video for its single "Bia' Bia'".[84]

The rockabilly musician Ray Campi played an upright bass with a customized image of the flag on the back of the instrument. At some point prior to 2009, he changed the image to the Texan flag.[85]

The Southern rocker Tom Petty used the Confederate flag in his 1985 Southern Accents tour, tying its imagery to the lead character in his song "Rebels". In 2015, he disclaimed his use of the flag as "downright stupid," saying "It's like how a swastika looks to a Jewish person."[86]

Despite hailing from Michigan, the singer Kid Rock prominently displayed the Confederate flag on his tours starting with his 2001 album Cocky, but by 2011, he had quietly abandoned his use of the flag.[87]

The instrumental guitarist Duane Eddy, along with his backing band, "The Rebels," used the Confederate flag and symbolism during his early career.[88]

End of Use on TwitchEdit

In December 2020, Twitch announced a new policy towards harassment and hateful content, to take effect on January 22, 2021, aimed to better protect marginalized users of the service. While the new policy is more strict, Twitch said that this also includes a larger sliding scale of remedies or punishments to better deal with edge cases, such as temporarily blocking one's channel for a short time rather than a full ban. The new policy includes a ban on imagery containing the Confederate flag.[89]

University of Mississippi statueEdit

On February 16, 2014, University of Mississippi campus police discovered the James Meredith memorial statue, erected in October 2006, surrounded with pre-2003 Georgia State Flags (containing the Confederate Flag) and a rope tied into a noose around the neck of the statue. Meredith, an alumnus of the University of Mississippi, was, in October 1962, the first African American to attend the school.[90] The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Oxford, Mississippi Police Department conducted an investigation shortly after the event which led to the arrest of Graeme Phillip Harris, a former freshman at the university. Harris pleaded guilty in June 2015 to a misdemeanor for using threat of force to intimidate African-American students and employees. U.S. District Judge Michael P. Mills sentenced Harris to six months in prison, followed by twelve months of supervision after release.[91] A second student, Austin Reed Edenfield, 21, was sentenced to a year of probation in addition to 50 hours of community service.[92] A third student has yet to be charged.[93]

House bill banning the flag at Veterans Administration cemeteriesEdit

On May 19, 2016, the United States House of Representatives voted to ban the display of Confederate flags on flagpoles at Veterans Administration cemeteries, by a 265–159 vote. The ban was contained in an amendment (House Amendment 592, 114th Congress) to House bill 2822, an appropriations bill.[94] The author of the amendment was California congressman Jared Huffman, who stated that the flag represented "racism, slavery and division."[95][96]

In June 2016, Republicans in Congress attempted to attach an amendment to a bill funding the fight against the Zika virus epidemic that would have reversed the flag ban. It was just one provision of several that Republicans had attached, including an amendment cutting Planned Parenthood funding. Senate Democrats blocked the bill through filibuster.[97][98]

Six Flags Over TexasEdit

In August 2017, in response to the controversial Unite the Right rally that was held in Charlottesville, the park Six Flags Over Texas replaced its six flags (which had included the first Confederate flag) with six American flags. A representative of the park told KXAS-TV, "We always choose to focus on celebrating the things that unite us versus those that divide us. As such, we have changed the flag displays in our park to feature American flags."[99]

Display at American UniversityEdit

On September 27, 2017, ten Confederate flag posters bearing chunks of cotton were found on the campus of American University.

The date coincided with the presentation by historian Ibram Kendi to introduce the Anti-racist Research and Policy Center.

State of New York's ProhibitionEdit

On December 15, 2020, the State of New York passed a law "to prohibit the sale or display of hate symbols in public buildings and public grounds including state and local fairs, unless serving an educational or historical purpose." The law defines hate symbols as, "The term "symbols of hate" shall include, but not be limited to, symbols of white supremacy, Neo-Nazi ideology or the Battle Flag of the Confederacy.[100][101][102]

Official usage in Southern U.S. statesEdit

In the years after the end of the American Civil War, many former slave states that were members of the Confederacy during the war adopted new state flags. Incorporating in their new flags' designs were motifs that were used in the Confederacy's flags, such as the St. Andrew's cross. In the case of Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama these new state flags were adopted around the same time that new Jim Crow segregation laws were being enacted. These laws, combined with poll taxes, literacy tests, and extrajudicial violence such as lynchings, disenfranchised African American voters for the next ninety years.[103] According to historian John M. Coski:

The flag changes in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida coincided with the passage of formal Jim Crow segregation laws throughout the South. Four years before Mississippi incorporated a Confederate battle flag into its state flag, its constitutional convention passed pioneering provisions to 'reform' politics by effectively disenfranchising most African Americans.[103]

State flagsEdit


The current Flag of Alabama (the second in Alabama state history) was adopted by Act 383 of the Alabama state legislature on February 16, 1895:[104]

The flag of the State of Alabama shall be a crimson cross of St. Andrew on a field of white. The bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side." – (Code 1896, §3751; Code 1907, §2058; Code 1923, §2995; Code 1940, T. 55, §5.)

An article in the October 1917 National Geographic magazine posited that "the purpose in inacting the state flag law was to preserve in permanent form some of the distinctive features of the Confederate Battle Flag."[105]


The flag of Arkansas contains four blue stars within a diamond representing the four countries that historically controlled the territory; one of these stars represents the Confederate States of America.[106][107] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[108] In 2019, the Arkansas legislature did not approve a bill that would have redefined the star as referring to Native Americans.[109]


The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the Cross of Burgundy. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.[110][111] The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation. However, some historians believe the flag dates back to the original flag the Spanish flew over Florida in the 16th century.[112]


In 1956 the Georgian state flag was redesigned to incorporate the Confederate battle flag. Following protests over this aspect of the design in the 1990s by the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and other groups, efforts began in the Georgia General Assembly to remove the battle flag from the state flag's design. These efforts succeeded in January 2001 when Georgia Governor Roy Barnes introduced a design that, though continuing to depict the Battle Flag, greatly reduced its prominence.

The following year, amidst dwindling demands for the return of the 1956 design ("Battle Flag" version) and lesser opposing demands for the continued use of the new "Barnes'" design, the Georgia General Assembly redesigned the flag yet again; it adopted a "compromise" design using the 13-star First National Flag of the Confederacy (the "Stars and Bars"), combined with a simplified version of Georgia's state seal placed within the circle of 13 stars on the flag's canton.

The city flag of Trenton, Georgia, United States, was adopted in 2001 as a protest following the change of the state flag of Georgia. The flag has been controversial because it incorporates the Confederate Battle Flag.

Recent flags of Georgia


City Hall in Laurel, Mississippi in 2012

The Confederate battle flag became a part of the flag of Mississippi in 1894. In 1906, the flag statutes were omitted by error from the new legal code of the state, leaving Mississippi without an official flag. The omission was not discovered until 1993, when a lawsuit filed by the NAACP regarding the flag was being reviewed by the Supreme Court of Mississippi. In 2000, Governor Ronnie Musgrove issued an executive order making the flag official, which it did in February 2001. After continued controversy, the decision was turned over to citizens of the state, who, on April 17, 2001, voted 2:1 to keep the Confederate Battle Flag a part of the current state flag.[113]

Following the Charleston church shooting in June 2015 and subsequent discussion of the flying of the Confederate Battle Flag at the South Carolina State House, Speaker of the Mississippi House of Representatives Philip Gunn publicly called for the removal of the Confederate Battle Flag from the flag of Mississippi.[114]

During the George Floyd protests, more discussion about changing the flag was held, with legislation being introduced into the state legislature.[115] On June 27, 2020, the Mississippi Legislature voted to suspend rules in order to debate over and vote on a bill to address the flag issue.[116] On June 28, both houses passed a bill to abolish the state flag, remove the flag from public institutions within 15 days of its enactment, and create a nine-member commission to design a replacement that would exclude the Confederate battle flag and include the motto "In God We Trust".[117][118][119][120] Governor Tate Reeves signed the bill into law on June 30, 2020.[121]

North CarolinaEdit

The first flag of North Carolina which was adopted in 1861 had two ribbons. On one of the ribbons is emblazoned "May 20th, 1775". The other one had the inscription "May 20, 1861".[122]

The new flag which was adopted in 1885 has a modified design with other colors and the date of the North Carolina's secession was replaced by "April 12, 1776".[123][124]


The current Flag of Tennessee was designed by Colonel Lee Roy Reeves, an attorney and officer of the Tennessee National Guard.[125] The flag was officially adopted in 1905, replacing the original post-Civil War state flag. Although the symbolism is reported as referencing only the State of Tennessee, its color scheme, symbolism, and design evoke the flags of the Confederacy. The red field and blue charge with white fimbriation evoke the Confederate Battle Flag, and the placement of the vertical bar at the fly of the field evokes the Third National Flag of the Confederacy.[126] The language the designer used to describe the three central stars ('the indissoluble trinity', albeit regarding the three 'Grand Divisions of Tennessee') and their central placement evokes the cross of St. Andrew of the Confederate Battle Flag. Vexillologist Steven A. Knowlton, an assistant professor and collection development librarian of the University Libraries of the University of Memphis,[127] believes the relationship of the current Tennessee State Flag and the flags of the Confederacy is one of "pragmatic unity" with a "deeper symbolic recognition" linking it to the Confederacy.[126] While there is no explicit evidence of any intention on the part of the designer to create a link, Knowlton believes many Tennesseans have perceived and continue to perceive a link, given the cultural and historical context.[128] Christopher Ingraham of the Brookings Institution, citing Professor Knowlton, considers this a case of "plausible deniability" and that the flag is one of seven state flags visually continuing the legacy of the Confederacy.[129]

State symbolEdit

Stone Mountain, Georgia, is a "monument to the Confederacy"[130] that was paid for and is owned by the state of Georgia. Stone Mountain Park opened 100 years to the day after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.[131] It is the most visited destination in the state of Georgia.[130]

Four flags of the Confederacy are flown at Stone Mountain.[132] In addition, the Stone Mountain Memorial Lawn "contains...thirteen terraces — one for each Confederate state.... Each terrace flies the flag that the state flew as member of the Confederacy."[133]

State sealsEdit

The first Confederate flag, together with five other nations that have had sovereignty over Texas (Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, United States) appear above one of the side entrances to the Capitol. They also appear on the reverse of the Seal of Texas, which is the subject of a floor mosaic in the Capitol Extension. The reverse of the seal was proposed by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas and approved by the Texas Legislature and Governor in 1961, modified in 1991.[134]

The Alabamian coat of arms features the Confederate battle flag's saltire in its design. Similar to Texas, the saltire on the coat of arms represents one of the five countries which have held sovereignty over part or all of Alabama.

The shield of the Confederacy was found in the Rotunda of the Florida Capitol, together with those of France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States – all of them treated equally as "nations" that Florida was part of or governed by. The five flags "that have flown in Florida" were included on the official Senate seal, displayed prominently in the Senate chambers, on its stationery, and throughout the Capitol. On October 19, 2015, the Senate agreed to change the seal so as to remove the Confederate battle flag from it.[135] The new (2016) Senate seal has only the flags of the United States and Florida.[136]

Vehicle license platesEdit

In Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee, vehicle owners can request a state-issued license plate featuring the Sons of Confederate Veterans logo, which incorporates the square Confederate battle flag.[137]

In 1998, a North Carolina appellate court upheld the issuance of such license plates in the case Sons of Confederate v. DMV, noting: "We are aware of the sensitivity of many of our citizens to the display of the Confederate flag. Whether the display of the Confederate flag on state-issued license plates represents sound public policy is not an issue presented to this Court in this case. That is an issue for our General Assembly."[138]

In 2015, the dispute over Texas vanity plates that would have displayed the logo ended up before the United States Supreme Court.[139] In its decision in Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, the court ruled that license plates are governmental speech, so the government may decide what to have printed on them. Texas's refusal to issue flag-emblazoned license plates therefore didn't violate petitioners' right to free speech.[140]

In 2015, Virginia recalled its vanity plates with the Confederate flag emblem pictured within the logo of the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[141] To holders of SCV plates, the state mailed replacements without the emblem. The old design with the emblem was invalidated and driving with such Virginia tags was made a misdemeanor similar to driving an unlicensed vehicle, though in October 2015 a SCV legal team tried fighting the ban in court.[141]

Display at the South Carolina State CapitolEdit

The flag flying at the South Carolina Confederate Monument in Columbia, South Carolina

The Confederate battle flag was raised over the State House on April 11, 1961, at the request of Representative John May,[citation needed] ostensibly as a part of opening celebrations of the Confederate War Centennial, according to Dr. Daniel Hollis, an appointed member of the centennial commission. Many historians point out that the appearance of the flag likely had a more nefarious purpose: to symbolize Southern defiance in the face of a burgeoning Civil Rights Movement. In March 1962, lawmakers passed a resolution directing the flag be flown over the State House.[142][143][144] As Time magazine later noted, the move was "a states'-rights rebuff to desegregation."[145] In 1996, then-governor David Beasley advocated for the removal of the flag from the Capitol dome, but later backtracked and was voted out of office.[146]

On April 12, 2000, the South Carolina State Senate passed a bill to remove the Confederate flag from the top of the State House dome by a majority vote of 36 to 7.[147] "...[T]he new bill specified that a more traditional version of the battle flag would be flown in front of the Capitol next to a monument honoring fallen Confederate soldiers." The bill also passed the state's House of Representatives, but not without some difficulty. On May 18, 2000, after the bill was modified to ensure that the height of the flag's new pole would be 30 feet (9 m), it was passed by a majority of 66 to 43.[148] Governor Jim Hodges signed the bill into law five days later after it passed the state Senate. On July 1, 2000, the flag was removed from atop the State House by two students (one white and one black) from The Citadel;[149] Civil War re-enactors then raised a Confederate battle flag on a 30-foot pole on the front lawn of the Capitol[149] next to a slightly taller monument honoring Confederate soldiers[150] who died during the Civil War. State law prohibited the flag's removal from the State House grounds without additional legislation.

In 2005, two Western Carolina University researchers found that 74% of African Americans polled favored removing the flag from the State House altogether.[151] The NAACP and other civil rights groups attacked the flag's continued presence at the state capitol. The NAACP maintained an official economic boycott of South Carolina for 15 years, citing the state's continued display of the battle flag, until the flag was eventually removed completely from the State House grounds.[152][153]

In 2000, the National Collegiate Athletic Association "announced that it will cancel future Association-sponsored events in South Carolina if that state doesn't take action to remove the Confederate battle flag from atop its state capitol." The association said that "many coaches and student-athletes feel that an inhospitable environment is created by the display of the Confederate flag over the South Carolina state house", and its chair said "there is no question that to a significant number of our constituents, the flag is a symbol of oppression." This has prevented South Carolina from hosting any championship sporting events in which the sites are determined in advance.[154] This NCAA ban on postseason championships in South Carolina was strictly enforced, with the exception of HBCU Benedict College. In both 2007 and 2009, the school hosted the postseason Pioneer Bowl game, in violation of the NCAA ban, though no action was taken.[155] On April 14, 2007, Steve Spurrier, coach of the University of South Carolina football team, made an acceptance speech for a community service award in which he referred to the flag on the State House grounds as "that damn flag." This statement was also inspired by the actions of, as Spurrier said, "some clown" who waved the battle flag while being videotaped for SportsCenter.[156] On July 6, 2009, the Atlantic Coast Conference announced a decision to move three future baseball tournaments out of South Carolina citing miscommunications with the NAACP concerning the display of the Confederate flag in the state.[157]

In June 2015, Bree Newsome, filmmaker and activist, climbed the flagpole and removed the flag in the wake of the Charleston church shooting.[158]

On July 10, 2015, Republican governor Nikki Haley ordered the flag removed,[159][160] and it was given to the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room & Military Museum.[161]

July 10 a flash point in ColumbiaEdit

Dueling groups have been competing over the issue of what commemoration of the flag, if any, should by held on the anniversaries of its removal on July 10. After 2015, the South Carolina Secessionist Party has sometimes raised the flag on a temporary flagpole at the capitol on July 10, to mark the anniversary of the flag's removal.[162] This was permitted because the group applied for and got permission to hold an event on the Capitol grounds, the flag was never left unattended, and the temporary flagpole and flag were removed, as required, at the end of the event. Protestors far ounumbered the two dozen flag supporters.[163]

  • In 2019, the permit of the South Carolina Secessionist Party was only valid from 6 to 8 AM, as a competing group, South Carolinians for Racial Justice, having requested it earlier than the Secessionists, had reserved the rest of the day specifically so that the flag could not be erected.[164]
  • In 2020, competing applications were received simultaneously. The State House Memorial Honor Guard flew the flag from 8 to 11:45 AM;[165] the South Carolina Secessionist Party is defunct.[166]

Marion County, FloridaEdit

A Confederate flag flies on the grounds of the Marion County Courthouse.[167]

Remington, VirginiaEdit

From 1985 to late 2020, the town of Remington, Virginia, had a Confederate flag in its municipal seal.[168][169] A variation of the seal, Confederate flag included, appeared on their police uniform shoulder patches.[170][171]

The Remington town council voted to remove the Confederate flag from its seal on July 20, 2020.[172] Remington was perhaps the last town to remove the Confederate flag from its municipal emblem.

Official use in Americana, BrazilEdit

From 1975 to 1998, a version of the Confederate battle flag appeared in the coat of arms and flag of Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, a city settled by Confederate expatriates.[173]

Presence in other parts of the worldEdit

Two Swedish raggare sporting the Confederate battle flag

American culture is exported all over the world and as a result, noticeable display of the Confederate flag is not confined to North America. Various overseas groups, movements and communities make use of it, albeit sporadically in most instances.[174] Much like in the United States, the flag is displayed for range of reasons,[175] but is most often associated with slavery and racism.[174][176] In Germany and Poland, countries where most symbols of the Third Reich are prohibited by law; far-right and Neo-Nazi groups often fly the Confederate flag at rallies as a stand in.[29] In Italy, some Southern soccer fans display the Confederate flag as a symbol of Southern Italy's long-standing dissatisfaction with the North.[177]

As in the U.S., some display the flag as a light hearted symbol of "rebellion"; without latching any significant political meaning to it. Fans of both Cork GAA and Cork F.C., have waved the flag at intercounty and league matches; reflecting the nickname of County Cork as "the Rebel County" for its prominence in historical Irish rebellions, and red as the county color GAA Hurling is the most popular sport in Ireland, and the Cork team is called "The Rebels."[178] In 2017, the Cork GAA president appealed to fans not to use such flags, and his successor in 2020 said they would in future be confiscated at Cork stadiums.[178] While the Republic of Ireland is noted for a lack of nativist or far-right activism; Northern Ireland, in contrast has long suffered, often violently, from sectarian division.[179] Confederate symbols, including the battle flag, are often utilized by Ulster Loyalists on far-right. These groups usually passively condone the flag's association with racism and white supremacy, while also invoking the shared Ulster-Scot heritage between some leaders of the Confederacy and Northern Irish Protestants.[180][181] Several loyalist paramilitary groups have been known to display confederate symbols; most notably the Red Hand Defenders, a designated terrorist group in the U.S., Ireland and the U.K. for their role in sectarian violence, including murder, during the 1990s.[182][183][184][185]

The car-centered subculture raggare of Sweden sometimes use the flags on their vehicles and clothing as a kitsch symbol to represent America, without political meanings, along with other American symbols such as cowboy hats, old American muscle cars and other Americana.[174]

In none of these instances is the Confederate flag necessarily a long-standing or ubiquitous symbol of the movement or group known for either now or in the past openly displaying it. Both Southern Italian and Cork sports fans are known to display other, most often local symbols, far more widely than they have the confederate flag. For far-right groups outside of the U.S., the Confederate flag is only one of several flags prominently displayed, often alongside those of other historical imperial and/or fascist regimes associated with white supremacy, such as the many flags associated with White and Apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia.[186][187]

Reactions to the Charleston church shootingEdit

On June 18, 2015, the day after a deadly church shooting was perpetrated in Charleston, South Carolina, by white supremacist Dylann Roof, whose website contained pictures of him holding the Confederate Battle Flag, many flags were flown at half-staff, including those at the South Carolina State House. The Confederate battle flag flying over the South Carolina Confederate Monument[150] near the state house was not at half-staff, as South Carolina law prohibits alteration of the flag without the consent of two-thirds of the state legislature.[188] The flagpole lacked a pulley system, and thus the flag could not be flown at half-staff, only removed or left in place, as it was.[188]

Flags flying over Fort Sumter in 2009, including Confederate national flags

In June 2015, the National Park Service ceased flying Confederate flags over Fort Sumter.[189]

On June 23, 2015, three state governors—Terry McAuliffe of Virginia (a Democrat), Pat McCrory of North Carolina (a Republican), and Larry Hogan of Maryland (a Republican)—announced plans to seek discontinuation of their states' Confederate-flag specialty license plates. In addition to the Charleston killings, the governors cited the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, issued days earlier, in which the Court affirmed that states are not constitutionally obligated to issue Confederate specialty plates.[190]

On June 24, 2015, Robert Bentley, governor of Alabama, ordered the removal of the Confederate flag from a memorial on the state capitol grounds. A spokeswoman for Governor Robert Bentley told the Montgomery Advertiser on Wednesday that he did not want the flag to be a "distraction".[191] Speaking with, Bentley said he made the decision himself to take the flag down.[192]

Removal from the South Carolina State CapitolEdit

Following the Charleston shooting, many commentators questioned the continued display of the Confederate flag on the South Carolina State House grounds.[193][194][195][196][197] Calls to remove the Confederate flag from the State House grounds, as well as debates over the context of its symbolic nature, were renewed after the attack[198][199] by several prominent figures, including President Barack Obama, Mitt Romney, and Jeb Bush.[200] On June 20, several thousand people gathered in front of the South Carolina State House in protest. An online petition at encouraging the removal of the flag had received over 370,000 signatures by that time.[201]

At a statehouse press conference on June 22, 2015, Governor Nikki Haley, flanked by elected officials of both parties, including U.S. Republican senators Lindsey Graham and Tim Scott, and former Republican Governor Mark Sanford, called for the flag to be removed by the state legislature, saying that while the flag was "an integral part of our past, it does not represent the future" of South Carolina.[202] "We are not going to allow this symbol to divide us any longer," she said. The legislature, scheduled to meet the following day for a budget session, must vote by a two-thirds majority to extend debate to the flag issue, and by two-thirds to remove the flag from statehouse grounds,[203] although the legality of that provision has been questioned by some lawmakers.[204] Haley said she would call for a special session if the legislature did not act.[202]

"With the winds that started blowing last week, I figured it would just be a matter of time," said Ken Thrasher, speaking for the South Carolina division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, which opposed the flag's removal. "Whatever the Legislature decides to do, we will accept it graciously."[204] A number of prominent Republicans who had previously appeared to struggle with the issue immediately endorsed Haley's call to remove the flag, including Kentucky Senator and Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus, and governors and presidential hopefuls Scott Walker and Rick Perry.[205]

On June 23, 2015, the South Carolina General Assembly added discussion of the flag to its special-session agenda in a procedural vote that indicated broad bipartisan support to remove the flag from the Statehouse grounds. The motion carried by a unanimous voice vote in the state senate and by a 103–10 vote in the state house. In the senate chamber, the desk of Clementa Pinckney, the pastor and state senator who died in the attack, was draped in black cloth with a white rose atop it. Among the legislators speaking in favor of removing the flag was Republican State Senator Paul Thurmond, son of Senator Strom Thurmond, whose 1948 "Dixiecrat" segregationist presidential campaign helped politically re-popularize the flag.[206][207]

Eulogizing the Rev. Clementa Pinckney on June 26, 2015, before 5,000 congregants at the College of Charleston, President Barack Obama acknowledged that the shooting had catalyzed a broad movement, backed by both Republicans and Democrats, to remove the flag from official public display. "Blinded by hatred, [the gunman] failed to comprehend what Reverend Pinckney so well understood: the power of God's grace," Obama said. "By taking down that flag we express God's grace. But I don't think God wants us to stop there."[208][209]

In the weeks before the flag was officially removed, several men and women, including activist Bree Newsome, were arrested for removing or attempting to remove the flag as well as various other offenses stemming from the protests around the flagpole. The attempts to remove the flag were criticized by several South Carolina state legislators who supported the flag's removal because they said such actions could hurt their goal to have the flag permanently removed.[210][211][212][213][214]

On July 6, 2015, the South Carolina Senate voted, by the required two-thirds majority, to remove the Confederate flag from display on the grounds of the South Carolina State House. Following 13 hours of debate and over 60 attempts to amend the bill, the vote in the South Carolina House of Representatives to remove the flag was passed by a two-thirds majority (94–20) on July 9. Governor Nikki Haley signed the bill the same day.[215]

On July 10, the Confederate flag was removed from the State House grounds and placed in storage for later display at the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room & Military Museum.[158] Following the removal of the flag, the NAACP announced the end of its 15-year boycott of South Carolina.[153][216]

The Citadel's Summerall ChapelEdit

The Confederate naval jack, installed in The Citadel's chapel in 1939, with Flag of the United States Virgin Islands and Washington D.C. on display in September 2019

In June 2015 a controversy at The Citadel over a Confederate naval jack, model 1863–1865, ended when the school's Board of Visitors voted in favor of moving the flag from the Summerall Chapel to what was called "an appropriate location on campus."[217] As of September 2017, the flag had not yet been removed, nor had an "appropriate location" been selected.[218]

Retailer bansEdit

Following the Charleston shooting, the retailer Walmart announced that it would no longer sell items with the Confederate flag on them.[219] In a statement to the press, Walmart stated that "We never want to offend anyone with the products that we offer. We have taken steps to remove all items promoting the Confederate flag from our assortment – whether in our stores or on our web site."[220][221]

Shortly afterward, a number of other retailers, including, eBay, Etsy, Sears (which also operates Kmart) and Target announced that they would also be removing Confederate flag items from sale.[222][223] Google also pulled Confederate flag merchandise from their shopping site.[224] Smaller flag retailers are also ceasing to sell it.[225]

Valley Forge Flag, Annin Flagmakers, Eder Flag and the Dixie Flag Manufacturing Company, four of the largest U.S. flag manufacturers, also announced that they would cease selling Confederate flags.[224][226][227][228]

The "General Lee", 1969 Dodge Charger, featured in The Dukes of Hazzard

After the Charleston shooting, Warner Bros. announced that they were halting production of The Dukes of Hazzard "General Lee" toy cars, which prominently featured a Confederate flag on the roof of the car.[229] Reruns of The Dukes of Hazzard television show were also pulled from TV Land's schedule due to the controversy.[230] On July 2, 2015, professional golfer Bubba Watson announced that he would modify the General Lee car that he purchased at auction by painting an American flag over the Confederate flag that had appeared on the car's roof since it was customized for the TV series in 1978.[231][232] Actor Ben Jones, who portrayed Cooter in the original series, announced that his chain of Cooter's Place novelty stores would still sell merchandise featuring the flag.[233] Actor John Schneider, who portrayed Bo Duke in The Dukes of Hazzard television series, said he was "saddened" that Roof's murders could "cause one of the most beloved television shows in the history of the medium to suddenly be seen in this light."[234]

Also in June 2015, Apple's App Store began removing mobile apps featuring the flag.[235] Several U.S Civil War-based wargames were initially removed, but Apple later announced that they were only targeting apps "that use the Confederate flag in offensive or mean-spirited ways" and was working with developers who felt that their apps were wrongly removed.[235][236]

The U.S. National Park Service announced that it is requesting that its retail partners stop selling the Confederate flag, as well as other items that depict the flag as a stand-alone feature.[237][238]


The American auto racing sanctioning body NASCAR, which has roots in the Southern United States and has many fans who fly the Confederate flag at campsites, has previously prevented the Sons of Confederate Veterans organization from sponsoring cars bearing the flag twice in 1993 (intended to be driven by Clay Young) and 2009 (intended to be driven by James Hylton in an ARCA race during that year's Speedweeks). ARCA also banned the sponsorship after the SCV planned to run the planned sponsorship on a stand-alone ARCA event.[239]

Following the Charleston shooting, NASCAR supported Governor Haley's decision to remove the Confederate flag from the South Carolina State House. In addition, NASCAR chairman Brian France vowed that the members of NASCAR's sanctioning body would not associate themselves with the flag and they also wanted to eliminate the flag from races. NASCAR Sprint Cup Series drivers and teammates Dale Earnhardt Jr. and Jeff Gordon, along with team owner and former NBA player Brad Daugherty (at the time the only African-American team owner in NASCAR), also supported eliminating the Confederate flag from racing events.[240] Prior to the Coke Zero 400 race at Daytona International Speedway on July 5, 2015, the track announced fans can voluntarily exchange Confederate flags for American flags.[241] On July 2, 2015, the NASCAR tracks issued a joint statement calling for fans to refrain from flying the Confederate flag at races,[242] but many fans still continued the practice.[243] On June 10, 2020, amid the George Floyd protests, NASCAR announced that it would no longer permit the display of Confederate flags at its events.[244][245][246][247]

Washington National CathedralEdit

At the Washington National Cathedral, the Confederate battle flag appeared in two stained glass windows, which memorialize the Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. On June 8, 2016, Mariann Edgar Budde, bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington and the interim dean of the cathedral, said they would be removed "as soon as we can do it" and replaced, at least temporarily, with plain glass.[248]

The windows were installed in 1953 after lobbying from the Daughters of the Confederacy. The dean of the cathedral, the Very Rev. Gary Hall, said the Charleston shooting was the catalyst for the planned removal, saying "It seemed to me that we couldn't, with credibility, address the race agenda if we were going to keep the windows in there."[249][250] On September 6, 2017, the windows were removed.[251]

Backlash against removalEdit

Within a year of the shooting at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina, a backlash against the removal of Confederate flags that the shooting inspired was playing out across the country, according to Politico.[252] The backlash also extended to the national political scene.

  • In the first two months after the Charleston shooting, 173 Confederate flag rallies were held.[253]
  • Confederate flags were displayed at rallies supporting Donald Trump. A police officer, Michael Peters, resigned after being suspended for flying a Confederate flag from his pickup truck at a "Love Trumps Hate" rally, three days after Trump's presidential win.[254][255] Even though event organizers of rallies "...ask participants only to bring American flags to the rally, with no Confederate flags allowed",[256] they continued to be seen at rallies.[257] On July 6, 2017, a Confederate battle flag was waved to greet President Trump upon his arrival in Poland for a brief visit before the G20 summit in Hamburg.[258]
    While Trump expressed support for the removal of Confederate flags in 2015,[259] racists, anti-government radicals, and states’ rights activist believed that he offered dog-whistling encouragement to them during his 2016 presidential campaign.[252]

A display is vandalized in South CarolinaEdit

Three Sons of Confederate Veterans groups erected the flags of the United States, South Carolina, and the Confederacy on June 16, 2018, on private land which was located outside Holly Hill, South Carolina. A sign said that the Sons of Confederate Veterans is honoring "All of Our Ancestors."

A newspaper report dated June 21, 2018, said that graffiti that said "Move" and five dollar signs had been sprayed on the sign.

"Holly Hill Town Council asked the Confederate groups in April not to erect the display along U.S. 176. Mayor William Johnson said he was disappointed by the display."[260]

Removals due to the George Floyd protestsEdit

After both the Southeastern Conference and the NCAA threatened to ban games in Mississippi until the flag was changed, the Mississippi Legislature passed a bill in June 2020 to abolish the state flag, remove it from public institutions within 15 days of enactment, and create a nine-member commission to design a replacement that would exclude the battle flag and include the motto "In God We Trust".[261][262][263][264] Governor Tate Reeves signed the bill into law on June 30, 2020.[265] The flag commission accepted submissions for a new design from the public and the winner was put to referendum on November 3, 2020. Mississippi voters overwhelmingly approved the measure; the new flag went into effect on January 11, 2021.[266]

Display during the storming of the US CapitolEdit

During the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol several rioters carried Confederate battle flags.[267] This was the first time in U.S. history where the Confederate flag entered the Capitol building in an act of insurrection.[20]

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Merwin, Daniel K. (2015). "It Belongs in a Museum: The Confederate Flag and the Comic Corrective". Central States Communication Association.
  • Ladd, Donna (August 6, 2018). "Pride and prejudice? The Americans who fly the Confederate flag". The Guardian.
  • Blakemore, Erin (January 12, 2021). "How the Confederate battle flag became an enduring symbol of racism". National Geographic.


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  2. ^ a b Coski 2005, p. 90
  3. ^ Ogorzalek, Thomas; Piston, Spencer; Strother, Logan (2017). "PRIDE OR PREJUDICE?: Racial Prejudice, Southern Heritage, and White Support for the Confederate Battle Flag". Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race. 14 (1): 295–323. doi:10.1017/S1742058X17000017. ISSN 1742-058X.
  4. ^ Strother, Logan; Ogorzalek, Thomas; Piston, Spencer (June 12, 2017). "The Confederate flag largely disappeared after the Civil War. The fight against civil rights brought it back". The Washington Post. For more information see article "Racial Prejudice, Southern Heritage, and White Support for the Confederate Battle Flag", Du Bois Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2017.
  5. ^ Little, Becky (June 26, 2015). "Why the Confederate Flag Made a 20th Century Comeback". National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 7, 2021. The popularity of the Confederate battle flag today has more to do with the Civil Rights Movement than the Civil War.
  6. ^ Scott Eric Kaufman (July 9, 2015). "What tradition does the Confederate flag represent? Is it slavery, rape, genocide, treason, or all of the above?". Salon.
  7. ^ Ta-Nehisi Coates (June 22, 2015). "What This Cruel War Was Over". The Atlantic.
  8. ^ McWhorter, Diane (April 3, 2005). "'The Confederate Battle Flag': Clashing Symbols". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2021. . . .icon widely seen as the badge of white supremacy.
  9. ^ "Challenging Symbols · A Tribute to the Mother Emanuel Church · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative". Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  10. ^ Robles, Frances (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Roof Photos and a Manifesto Are Posted on Website". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  11. ^ Lerner, Adam B. "S.C. Senate votes by big margin to remove Confederate flag". POLITICO. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
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  14. ^ * "Mississippi to change state flag after pressure from NCAA, SEC". NBC Sports. June 29, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  15. ^ Ganucheau, Adam (June 30, 2020). "After waffling for years, Gov. Tate Reeves signs bill to change state flag". Mississippi Today. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  16. ^ MPB LIVE: Governor Tate Reeves signs bill removing state flag (Recorded livestream). Mississippi Public Broadcasting. June 30, 2020 – via YouTube.
  17. ^ Ulmer, Sarah (January 11, 2021). "Mississippi flies new flag over State Capitol". Y'all Politics.
  18. ^ Brasher, Jordan (January 14, 2021). "The Confederate battle flag, which rioters flew inside the US Capitol, has long been a symbol of white insurrection". The Conversation (Politics & Society). Retrieved November 14, 2021. Confederate soldiers never reached the Capitol during the Civil War. But the Confederate battle flag was flown by rioters in the U.S. Capitol building for the first time ever on Jan. 6.
  19. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott C. (January 7, 2021). "Before Wednesday, insurgents waving Confederate flags hadn't been within 6 miles of the US Capitol". CNN. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021.
  20. ^ a b Cramer, Maria (January 9, 2021). "Confederate Battle Flag in the Capitol: A 'Jarring' First in U.S. History". New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2021. The emblem has appeared in the Capitol before. ... But Wednesday was the first time that someone had managed to bring the flag into the building as an act of insurrection, according to historians.
  21. ^ Coski 2005, p. 8
  22. ^ "The Confederate Battle Flag". The New York Times. April 3, 2005. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  23. ^ Coski 2005, pp. 17–18
  24. ^ Cannon, Devereaux D., Jr. (May 11, 2000). "The Third Confederate National Flag (Flags of the Confederacy)". Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2007.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. ^ Geoghegan, Tom (August 30, 2013). "Why do people still fly the Confederate flag?". BBC News. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  26. ^ Dedmondt, Glenn (2001). The Flags of Civil War Alabama. Pelican Publishing. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9781455604319.
  27. ^ Maberry, Robert (2001). Texas Flags. Texas A&M University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9781603443692.
  28. ^ Chapman, Roger (2011). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M.E. Sharpe. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7656-2250-1. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
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  30. ^ "Dallas trio discusses what inspired 'stupid name' Dixie Chicks and when they noticed it didn't fit them". Dallas News. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
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