Southern Baptist Convention

The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), alternatively the Great Commission Baptists (GCB), is a Christian denomination based in the United States. It is the world's largest Baptist organization and the largest Protestant and second-largest Christian body in the United States.[1][2] In 1845, the Southern Baptists separated from the Triennial Convention in order to support slavery, which the southern churches regarded as "an institution of heaven".[3][4] During the 19th and most of the 20th century, it played a central role in Southern racial attitudes, supporting racial segregation and the Lost Cause of the Confederacy while opposing interracial marriage.[5] In 1995, the organization apologized for its history.[6] Since the 1940s, it has spread across the United States, having affiliated churches across the country and 41 affiliated state conventions.[7][8][9]

Southern Baptist Convention
AbbreviationSBC; GCB
ClassificationProtestant
OrientationBaptist
TheologyEvangelical Fundamentalist
PolityCongregational
PresidentBart Barber
RegionUnited States
OriginMay 8–12, 1845
Augusta, Georgia, U.S.
Separated fromTriennial Convention (1845)
Separations
Congregations47,198 (2022)
Members13,223,122 (2022)
Weekly attendance = 3,800,000 (2022)
Missionary organizationInternational Mission Board
Aid organizationSouthern Baptist Disaster Relief
Other name(s)Great Commission Baptists
Official websitesbc.net

Churches affiliated with the association are evangelical in doctrine and practice, emphasizing the significance of the individual conversion experience, which is affirmed by the person having complete immersion in water for a believer's baptism.[9] Other specific beliefs based on biblical interpretation can vary by congregational polity, to balance local church autonomy with accountability against abuses by ministers and others in individual churches.[10] These claims are disputed by pastors whose churches have been expelled because of their support for LGBTQ inclusion, which contradicts its confession of faith.[11] The association forbids women from becoming pastors,[12] and denounces same-sex marriage as an "abomination".[13]

Self-reported membership peaked in 2006 at roughly 16 million.[14] Membership has contracted by an estimated 13.6% since that year, with 2020 marking the 14th year of continuous decline.[15] Mean organization-wide weekly attendance dropped about 27% between 2006 and 2020.[14][16]

Name edit

The official name is the Southern Baptist Convention. The word Southern in "Southern Baptist Convention" stems from its having been organized in 1845 in Augusta, Georgia, by white Baptists in the Southern United States who supported continuing the institution of slavery and split from the northern Baptists (known today as the American Baptist Churches USA), who did not support funding slave-holding evangelists from the South.[4]

In 2012, the organization adopted the descriptor Great Commission Baptists after the election of its first African American president.[17] Additionally, in 2020, some leaders of the Southern Baptists wanted to change its name to "Great Commission Baptists" to distance itself from its white supremacist foundation, and because it is no longer a specifically Southern church. Several churches affiliated with the denomination have also begun to identify as "Great Commission Baptists".[18][19][20][21]

History edit

Colonial era edit

 
First Baptist Church in Charleston, South Carolina

Most early Baptists in the British colonies came from England in the 17th century, after conflict with the Church of England for their dissenting religious views.[22] In 1638, Roger Williams founded the first Baptist church in British America at the Providence Plantations, the first permanent European American settlement also founded by Williams in Rhode Island. The oldest Baptist church in the South, First Baptist Church of Charleston, South Carolina, was organized in 1682 under the leadership of William Screven.[23] A Baptist church was formed in Virginia in 1715 through the preaching of Robert Norden and another in North Carolina in 1727 through the ministry of Paul Palmer.

The Baptists adhered to a congregationalist polity and operated independently of the state-established Anglican churches in the South, at a time when non-Anglicans were prohibited from holding political office. By 1740, about eight Baptist churches existed in the colonies of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, with an estimated 300 to 400 members.[24] New members, both black and white, were converted chiefly by Baptist preachers who traveled throughout the South during the 18th and 19th centuries, in the eras of the First and Second Great Awakenings.[25]

Black churches were founded in Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia before the American Revolution. Some black congregations kept their independence even after whites tried to exercise more authority after Nat Turner's Rebellion of 1831.[26]

American Revolution period edit

Before the American Revolution, Baptist and Methodist evangelicals in the South promoted the view of the common man's equality before God, which embraced slaves and free blacks. They challenged the hierarchies of class and race and urged planters to abolish slavery. They welcomed slaves as Baptists and accepted them as preachers.[27]

During this time, there was a sharp division between the austerity of the plain-living Baptists, attracted initially from yeomen and common planters, and the opulence of the Anglican planters, the slave-holding elite who controlled local and colonial government in what had become a slave society by the late 18th century.[28] The gentry interpreted Baptist church discipline as political radicalism, but it served to ameliorate disorder. The Baptists intensely monitored each other's moral conduct, watching especially for sexual transgressions, cursing, and excessive drinking; they expelled members who would not reform.[29]

In Virginia and in most southern colonies before the American Revolution, the Church of England was the established church and supported by general taxes, as it was in England. It opposed the rapid spread of Baptists in the South. Particularly in Virginia, many Baptist preachers were prosecuted for "disturbing the peace" by preaching without licenses from the Anglican Church. Patrick Henry and James Madison defended Baptist preachers before the American Revolution in cases considered significant in the history of religious freedom.[30] In 1779, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, enacted in 1786 by the Virginia General Assembly. Madison later applied his ideas and those of the Virginia document related to religious freedom during the Constitutional Convention, when he ensured that they were incorporated into the national constitution.

The struggle for religious tolerance erupted and played out during the American Revolution, as the Baptists worked to disestablish the Anglican churches in the South. The Baptists protested vigorously; the resulting social disorder resulted chiefly from the ruling gentry's disregard for public need. The vitality of the religious opposition made the conflict between "evangelical" and "gentry" styles a bitter one.[31] Scholarship suggests that the evangelical movement's strength determined its ability to mobilize power outside the conventional authority structure.[32]

National unification and regional division edit

In 1814, leaders such as Luther Rice helped Baptists unify nationally under what became known informally as the Triennial Convention (because it met every three years) based in Philadelphia. It allowed them to join their resources to support missions abroad. The Home Mission Society, affiliated with the Triennial Convention, was established in 1832 to support missions in U.S. frontier territories. By the mid-19th century, there were many social, cultural, economic, and political differences among business owners of the North, farmers of the West, and planters of the South. The most divisive conflict was primarily over the issue of slavery and secondarily over missions.[33]

Divisions over slavery edit

The issues surrounding slavery dominated the 19th century in the United States.[34] This created tension between Baptists in northern and southern U.S. states over the issue of manumission. In the two decades after the American Revolution during the Second Great Awakening, northern Baptist preachers (as well as the Quakers and Methodists) increasingly argued that slaves be freed.[35] Although most Baptists in the 19th century south were yeomen farmers and common planters, the Baptists also began to attract major planters among their membership. The southern pastors interpreted the Bible as supporting slavery and encouraged paternalistic practices by slaveholders. They preached to slaves to accept their places and obey their masters, and welcomed slaves and free blacks as members, though whites controlled the churches' leadership, and seating was usually segregated.[35] From the early 19th century, many Baptist preachers in the South also argued in favor of preserving the right of ministers to be slaveholders.[36]

 
Gillfield Baptist Church was the largest Black American congregation within the Portsmouth Association of the Triennial Convention, preceding the north–south split and formation of Southern Baptists

Black congregations were sometimes the largest in their regions. For instance, by 1821, Gillfield Baptist in Petersburg, Virginia, had the largest congregation within the Portsmouth Association. At 441 members, it was more than twice as large as the next-biggest church. Before Nat Turner's Rebellion of 1831, Gillfield had a black preacher. Afterward, the state legislature insisted that white men oversee black congregations. Gillfield could not call a black preacher until after the American Civil War and emancipation.[37] After Turner's rebellion, whites worked to exert more control over black congregations and passed laws requiring white ministers to lead or be present at religious meetings. Many slaves evaded these restrictions.

The Triennial Convention and the Home Mission Society adopted a kind of neutrality concerning slavery, neither condoning nor condemning it. During the "Georgia Test Case" of 1844, the Georgia State Convention proposed that the slaveholder Elder James E. Reeve be appointed as a missionary. The Foreign Mission Board refused to approve his appointment, recognizing the case as a challenge and not wanting to violate their neutrality on slavery. They said that slavery should not be introduced as a factor into deliberations about missionary appointments.[38]

In 1844, University of Alabama president Basil Manly Sr., a prominent preacher and major planter who owned 40 slaves, drafted the "Alabama Resolutions" and presented them to the Triennial Convention. They included the demand that slaveholders be eligible for denominational offices to which the Southern associations contributed financially. They were not adopted. Georgia Baptists decided to test the claimed neutrality by recommending a slaveholder to the Home Mission Society as a missionary. The Home Mission Society's board refused to appoint him, noting that missionaries were not allowed to take servants with them (so he clearly could not take slaves) and that they would not make a decision that appeared to endorse slavery. Southern Baptists considered this an infringement of their right to determine their own candidates.[39] From the southern perspective, the northern position that "slaveholding brethren were less than followers of Jesus" effectively obligated slaveholding Southerners to leave the fellowship.[40] This difference came to a head in 1845 when representatives of the northern states refused to appoint missionaries whose families owned slaves. To continue in the work of missions, the southern Baptists separated and created the Southern Baptist Convention.[41]

Missions and organization edit

 
Original location of First Baptist Church in Augusta, Georgia

A secondary issue that disturbed the Southerners was the perception that the American Baptist Home Mission Society did not appoint a proportionate number of missionaries to the South. This was likely a result of the society's not appointing slave owners as missionaries.[42] Baptists in the North preferred a loosely structured society of individuals who paid annual dues, with each society usually focused on a single ministry.[43][page needed]

Baptists in Southern churches preferred a more centralized organization of churches patterned after their associations, with a variety of ministries brought under the direction of one denominational organization.[44] The increasing tensions and the discontent of Baptists from the South over national criticism of slavery and issues over missions led to their withdrawal from national Baptist organizations.[24]

The Southern Baptists met at the First Baptist Church of Augusta in May 1845.[45] At this meeting, they created a new convention—the Southern Baptist Convention. They elected William Bullein Johnson (1782–1862) as its first president. He had served as president of the Triennial Convention in 1841,[46] though he initially attempted to avoid a schism.

Formation and separation of Black Baptists edit

 
First African Baptist Church in Lexington, Kentucky

African Americans had gathered in their own churches early on, in 1774 in Petersburg, Virginia,[47] and in Savannah, Georgia, in 1788.[48] Some were established after 1800 on the frontier, such as the First African Baptist Church of Lexington, Kentucky. In 1824, it was accepted by the Elkhorn Association of Kentucky, which was white-dominated. By 1850, First African had 1,820 members, the largest of any Baptist church in the state, Black or white.[49] In 1861, it had 2,223 members.[50]

 
First African Baptist Church, Savannah, Georgia, constructed 1856

Southern whites generally required Black churches to have white ministers and trustees. In churches with mixed congregations, seating was segregated, with Blacks out of sight, often in a balcony. White preaching often emphasized Biblical stipulations that enslaved people should accept their places and try to behave well toward their masters. After the American Civil War, another split occurred when most freedmen set up independent black congregations, regional associations, and state and national conventions. Black people wanted to practice Christianity independently of white supervision.[51] They interpreted the Bible as offering hope for deliverance, and saw their own exodus out of enslavement as comparable to the Exodus,[52] with abolitionist John Brown as their Moses.[53] They quickly left white-dominated churches and associations and set up separate state Baptist conventions.[54][55] In 1866, Black Baptists of the South and West combined to form the Consolidated American Baptist Convention.[55] In 1895, they merged three national conventions to create the National Baptist Convention, USA.[54][55] With more than eight million members, it is today the largest African American religious organization and second in size to the Southern Baptists.

Free Black people in the North had founded churches and denominations in the early 19th century that were independent of white-dominated organizations. In the Reconstruction era, missionaries both Black and white from several northern denominations worked in the South; they quickly attracted tens and hundreds of thousands of new members from among the millions of freedmen. The African Methodist Episcopal Church attracted more new members than any other denomination.[54] White Southern Baptist churches lost Black members to the new denominations, as well as to independent congregations which were organized by freedmen.

During the civil rights movement, most Southern Baptist pastors and members of their congregations rejected racial integration and accepted white supremacy, further alienating African Americans.[56] According to historian and former Southern Baptist Wayne Flynt, "The [Southern Baptist] church was the last bastion of segregation."[57] But it has been acknowledged that the SBC integrated seminary classrooms in 1951.[58][59]

In 1995, the convention voted to adopt a resolution in which it renounced its racist roots and apologized for its past defense of slavery, segregation, and white supremacy.[60][61] This marked the denomination's first formal acknowledgment that racism had played a profound role in both its early and modern history.

 
U.S. President George W. Bush meets with the leadership of the Southern Baptist Convention in 2006 in the Oval Office at the White House. Pictured with the President are Morris Chapman, left, Frank Page and his wife Dayle Page.

Increasing diversity and policy changes edit

 
Fred Luter Jr. was the first African American president of the Southern Baptists

By the early 21st century, numbers of ethnically diverse congregations were increasing among the Southern Baptists. In 2008, almost 20% were estimated to be majority African American, Asian, or Hispanic and Latino. The SBC had an estimated one million African American members.[62] It has passed a series of resolutions recommending the inclusion of more black members and appointing more African American leaders.[56] At its 2012 annual meeting, it elected Pastor Fred Luter of the Franklin Avenue Baptist Church as its first African American president. He had earned respect by showing leadership skills in building a large congregation in New Orleans.[63]

The SBC's increasingly national scope inspired some members to suggest a name change. In 2005, proposals were made at the SBC Annual Meeting to change the name to the more national-sounding "North American Baptist Convention" or "Scriptural Baptist Convention" (to retain the SBC initials). These proposals were defeated.[64]

The messengers of the 2012 annual meeting in New Orleans voted to adopt the descriptor "Great Commission Baptists". The legal name remained "Southern Baptist Convention", but affiliated churches and convention entities could voluntarily use the descriptor.[17]

Almost a year after the Charleston church shooting, the denomination approved a resolution that called upon member churches and families to stop flying the Confederate flag.[65]

The church approved a resolution, "On Refugee Ministry", encouraging member churches and families to welcome refugees coming to the United States.[66] In the same convention, Russell Moore of the Southern Baptist Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission quickly responded to a pastor who asked why a member should support the right of Muslims living in the U.S. to build mosques. Moore responded, "Sometimes we have to deal with questions that are really complicated... this isn't one of them." Moore said that religious freedom must be for all religions.[67]

From February to June 2016, the denomination collaborated with the National Baptist Convention, USA on racial reconciliation.[68][69] SBC-GCB and NBC presidents Ronnie Floyd and Jerry Young assembled 10 pastors from each convention in 2015, discussing race relations; in 2016, Baptist Press and The New York Times revealed tension among National Baptists debating any collaboration with Southern Baptists, quoting NBC President Young:[69]

I've never said this to Dr. Floyd, but I've had fellows in my own denomination who called me and said: "What are you doing? I mean, are you not aware of the history?" And I say, obviously I'm aware. They bring up the issue about slavery and that becomes a reason, they say, that we ought not to be involved with the Southern Baptists. Where from my vantage point, that's reverse racism. I do understand the history, and I understand the pain of the past...But what I'm also quite clear about is, if the Gospel does anything at all, the Gospel demands that we not only preach but practice reconciliation.

— Dr. Jerry Young, NBC USA

After an initial resolution denouncing the alt-right movement failed to make it the convention floor, the denomination officially denounced the alt-right movement at the 2017 convention.[70] On November 5, 2017, a mass shooting took place at the First Baptist Church of Sutherland Springs.[71][72] It was the deadliest shooting to occur at any affiliated church in its history and, in modern history, at an American place of worship.[73]

In 2020, the denomination's convention was canceled due to COVID-19 concerns and eventually rescheduled for June 2021.[74]

In a Washington Post story dated September 15, 2020, Greear said some Southern Baptist Convention leaders wanted to change the official name of the church to "Great Commission Baptists" (GCB), to distance the church from its support of slavery and because it is no longer just a Southern church.[18] Since then, several leaders and churches have begun adopting the alternative descriptor for their churches.[21][75][76]

Sexual abuse scandal edit

In 2018, investigations showed that the SBC suppressed reports of sexual abuse and protected over 700 accused ministers and church workers.[77] In 2022, a report indicated church leaders had stonewalled and disparaged clergy sex abuse survivors for nearly two decades;[78] reform efforts had been met with criticism or dismissal from other organization leaders;[79] and known abusers had been allowed to keep their positions without informing their local churches.[80] On August 12, 2022, the denomination announced that it was facing a federal investigation into the scandal.[81]

On February 10, 2019, a joint investigation by the Houston Chronicle and the San Antonio Express found that there had been over 700 victims of sexual abuse by nearly 400 Southern Baptist church leaders,[82][83] pastors, and volunteers over the previous 20 years.[84][82][83]

In 2018, the Houston Chronicle verified details of hundreds of accounts of abuse. It examined federal and state court databases, prison records, and official documents from more than 20 states and researched sex offender registries nationwide.[85] The Chronicle compiled a list of records and information (current as of June 2019)[83][86][87] listing church pastors, leaders, employees, and volunteers who have pleaded guilty to or were convicted of sex crimes.[87][86][83]

On June 12, 2019, during their annual meeting, convention messengers, who assembled that year in Birmingham, Alabama, approved a resolution condemning sex abuse and establishing a special committee to investigate sex abuse, which will make it easier for churches to be excommunicated from the convention.[88][89] The Reverend J. D. Greear, president of the convention and pastor of The Summit Church in Durham, North Carolina, called the move a "defining moment".[88] Ronnie Floyd, president of the convention's executive committee, echoed Greear's remarks, calling the vote "a very, very significant moment in the history of the Southern Baptist Convention".[88]

In June 2021, letters from former policy director Russell D. Moore to convention leadership were leaked. In the letters, Moore described how the convention had mishandled claims of sexual abuse.[90]

On May 22, 2022, Guidepost Solutions, an independent firm contracted by the organization's executive committee, released a report detailing that church leaders had stonewalled and disparaged clergy sex abuse survivors for nearly two decades.[78] This was the largest investigation undertaken in the convention's history at the time, with $4 million reportedly spent by the organization to fund the inquiry.[79] The report also found that known abusers were allowed to keep their positions without informing their church or congregation.[80] The report alleged that while the convention had elected a president, J. D. Greear, in 2018 who made addressing sexual abuse a central part of his agenda, nearly all efforts at reform had been met with criticism and dismissal by other organization leaders.[79]

On June 14, 2022, the denomination voted "to create a way to track pastors and other church workers credibly accused of sex abuse and launch a new task force to oversee further reforms" after a consultant exposed that "Southern Baptist leaders mishandled abuse cases and stonewalled victims for years".[91] The new task force will operate for one year, with the option to continue longer.

On August 12, 2022, the organization announced that it was facing a federal investigation into the sex abuse scandal.[92] As revelations of sexual abuse and lawsuits continued to emerge in 2023,[93][94][95][96] the SBC's Abuse Reform Implementation Task Force announced continued development of the database of sexual offenders.[97][98]

Doctrine edit

 
Former Lifeway Christian Resources headquarters in Nashville, Tennessee.

The general theological perspective of the denomination's churches is represented in the Baptist Faith and Message (BF&M).[99] The BF&M was first drafted in 1925 as a revision of the 1833 New Hampshire Confession of Faith. It was revised significantly in 1963, amended in 1998 with the addition of one new section on the family, and revised again in 2000. The 1998 and 2000 changes were the subject of much controversy, particularly in regard to the role of women in the church.[100]

The BF&M is not considered a creed, such as the Nicene Creed. Members are not required to adhere to it, and churches and state conventions belonging to the global body are not required to use it as their statement of faith or doctrine, though many do in lieu of creating their own statement.[101] Nevertheless, key leaders, faculty in denomination-owned seminaries, and missionaries who apply to serve through the various missionary agencies must affirm that their practices, doctrine, and preaching are consistent with the BF&M.[102][103]

In 2012, a LifeWay Research survey of the denomination's pastors found that 30% of churches identified with the labels Calvinist or Reformed, while 30% identified with the labels Arminian or Wesleyan. LifeWay Research President Ed Stetzer said, "historically, many Baptists have considered themselves neither Calvinist nor Arminian, but holding a unique theological approach not framed well by either category". The survey also found that 60% of its pastors were concerned about Calvinism's impact within the convention.[104] Nathan Finn writes that the debate over Calvinism has "periodically reignited with increasing intensity" and that non-Calvinists "seem to be especially concerned with the influence of Founders Ministries" while Calvinists "seem to be particularly concerned with the influence of revivalism and Keswick theology."[105]

Historically, the denomination has not considered glossolalia or other Charismatic beliefs to be in accordance with Scriptural teaching, though the BF&M does not mention the subject. In 2015, the International Mission Board lifted a ban on glossolalia for its missionaries, while reaffirming that it should not be taught as normative.[106]

The convention brings together fundamentalist and moderate churches.[107]

Position statements edit

 
Chinese Southern Baptist Church in Seattle, Washington

In addition to the BF&M, the denomination has also issued position statements affirming the autonomy of the local church;[10] identifying the Cooperative Program of missions as integral to the denomination;[108] that statements of belief are revisable in light of Scripture, though the Bible is the final word;[109] honoring the indigenous principle in missions without compromising doctrine or its identity for missional opportunities;[110] that laypersons have the same right as ordained ministers to communicate with God, interpret Scripture, and minister in Christ's name;[111] that "At the moment of conception, a new being enters the universe, a human being, a being created in God's image", who as such should be protected regardless of the circumstances of the conception;[112] that God's plan for marriage and sexual intimacy is a lifetime relationship of one man and one woman, rejecting homosexuality; understanding the Bible to forbid any form of extramarital sexual relations;[113] affirming the accountability of each person before God;[114] and that women are not eligible to serve as pastors.[115]

In 2022, it passed a resolution against prosperity theology, which it considers a distortion of the message of the Bible.[116]

Abortion edit

Like other conservative evangelical denominations, the Southern Baptist position on abortion has changed significantly over time, evolving from general acceptance to opposition.[117][118][119]

In 1971, the SBC passed a resolution urging a loosening of abortion laws in the United States, stating:[118]

Be it further resolved, that we call upon Southern Baptists to work for legislation that will allow the possibility of abortion under such conditions as rape, incest, clear evidence of severe fetal deformity, and carefully ascertained evidence of the likelihood of damage to the emotional, mental, and physical health of the mother.

In 1973, a "poll conducted by the Baptist Standard news journal found that 90 percent of Texas Baptists believed their state's abortion laws were too restrictive".[117]

During this era, a majority of Southern Baptists, including conservatives within the denomination, supported the expansion of abortion rights, seeing it as a matter of religious liberty, what they saw as a lack of biblical condemnation, and belief in non-intrusive government.[120][121][122][123] Initial reaction among Southern Baptists and evangelicals to the Roe v. Wade decision was one of support or indifference; they overwhelmingly viewed anti-abortion movements as a sectarian and Catholic concern. By the mid-1970s, this began to change, as political strategists sought to use the issue of abortion as a political tactic to incorporate traditionalist Catholics together with Southern evangelicals in order to prevent segregation academies from being racially integrated. Southern Baptist opinion on abortion began to substantially change against abortion in subsequent years.[118][121] Today, the SBC strongly opposes abortion.[118]

Gender-based roles edit

Officially, the denomination subscribes to the complementarian view of gender roles.[124] Beginning in the early 1970s, as a reaction to their perceptions of various "women's liberation movements",[125] the church, along with several other historically conservative Baptist groups,[126] began to assert its view of the propriety and primacy of what it deemed "traditional gender roles" as a body. In 1973, at the annual meeting of the Southern Baptist Convention, delegates passed a resolution that read in part: "Man was not made for woman, but the woman for the man. Woman is the glory of man. Woman would not have existed without man."[127] In 1998, the convention appended a male leadership understanding of marriage to the 1963 version of the Baptist Faith and Message, with an official amendment: Article XVIII, "The Family". In 2000, it revised the document to reflect support for a male-only pastorate with no mention of the office of deacon.[115][128]

In the pastorate and marriage edit

In 1984, when it had about 250 women pastors, the Convention adopted a resolution affirming the exclusion of women from pastoral leadership.[129]

Since 1987, various local associations and regional conventions have considered churches that have authorized the pastoral ministry of women to not be in friendly cooperation (or "disfellowshipped"), without the intervention of the national convention on the subject.[130]

By explicitly defining the pastoral office as the exclusive domain of males, the 2000 BF&M provision became the Southern Baptist's first-ever official position against women pastors.[131] As individual churches affiliated with the organization are autonomous, churches cannot be forced to adopt a male-only pastorate.[10]

Some churches that have installed women as their pastors have been disfellowshipped from membership in their local associations; a smaller number have been disfellowshipped from their affiliated state conventions.[132][133] In February 2023, the Executive Committee for the first time deemed five churches that had appointed women pastors to not be in friendly cooperation. In June 2023, when two churches requested a review of the decision on this subject, 88% of church representatives at the annual convention voted to uphold the decision.[134][135] American Reformer magazine estimated the convention would have 1,844 female pastors in 2023.[136]

The crystallization of the church's positions on gender roles and restrictions of women's participation in the pastorate contributed to the decision by members now belonging to the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, which broke from the convention in 1991.[137] Another denomination that broke off, the Alliance of Baptists, also accepts women's ordination.

The 2000 BF&M prescribes a husband-headship authority structure, closely following the apostle Paul's exhortations in Ephesians 5:21–33:[138]

Article XVIII. The Family. The husband and wife are of equal worth before God, since both are created in God's image. The marriage relationship models the way God relates to his people. A husband is to love his wife as Christ loved the church. He has the God-given responsibility to provide for, to protect, and to lead his family. A wife is to submit herself graciously to the servant leadership of her husband even as the church willingly submits to the headship of Christ. She, being in the image of God as is her husband and thus equal to him, has the God-given responsibility to respect her husband and to serve as his helper in managing the household and nurturing the next generation.

Ordinances edit

 
Full-immersion baptism is the accepted mode of baptism among the Southern Baptist Convention

Southern/Great Commission Baptists observe two ordinances: the Lord's Supper and believer's baptism (also known as credo-baptism, from the Latin for "I believe").[9][99] Furthermore, they hold the historic Baptist belief that immersion is the only valid mode of baptism.[9] The Baptist Faith and Message describes baptism as a symbolic act of obedience and a testimony of the believer's faith in Jesus Christ to other people. The BF&M also notes that baptism is a precondition to congregational church membership.[99]

The BF&M holds to memorialism,[139] the belief that the Lord's Supper is a symbolic act of obedience in which believers commemorate the death of Christ and look forward to his Second Coming.[99][139] Individual churches are free to practice either open or closed communion (due to the convention's belief in congregational polity and the autonomy of the local church), but most practice open communion. For the same reason, the frequency of observance of the Lord's Supper varies from church to church. It is commonly observed quarterly, but some churches offer it monthly and a small minority offers it weekly.[140] Because the organization has traditionally opposed alcoholic beverage consumption by members, grape juice is used instead of wine.[141]

Worship edit

 
Worship service at Grace Baptist Church in Knoxville, Tennessee, affiliated to the convention, 2016
 
First Baptist Church of Jacksonville, Florida worship service.

Most members observe a low church form of worship, which is less formal and uses no stated liturgy. The form of the worship services generally depend on whether the congregation uses a traditional service or a contemporary one, or a mix of both—the main differences being with regards to music and the response to the sermon.

In both types of services, there will be a prayer at the opening of the service, before the sermon, and at closing. Offerings are taken, which may be around the middle of the service or at the end (with the increased popularity of electronic financial systems, some churches operate kiosks allowing givers the opportunity to do so online, or through a phone app or website link). Responsive Scripture readings are not common, but may be done on a special occasion.[142]

In a traditional service, the music generally features hymns, accompanied by a piano or organ (the latter has been generally phased out due to a shift in worship preferences) and sometimes with a special featured soloist or choir. Smaller churches generally let anyone participate in the choir regardless of actual singing ability; larger churches will limit participation to those who have successfully tried out for a role. After the sermon, an invitation to respond (sometimes termed an altar call) might be given; people may respond during the invitation by receiving Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior and beginning Christian discipleship, seeking baptism or requesting to join the congregation, or entering into vocational ministry or making some other publicly stated decision.[143] Baptisms may be scheduled on specific weekends, or (especially in buildings with built-in baptisteries) be readily available for anyone desiring baptism.

In a contemporary service, the music generally features modern songs led by a praise team or similarly named group with featured singers. Choirs are not as common. An altar call may or may not be given at the end; if it is not, interested persons are directed to seek out people in the lobby who can address any questions. Baptismal services are usually scheduled as specific and special events. Also, church membership is usually done on a periodic basis by attending specific classes about the church's history, beliefs, what it seeks to accomplish, and what is expected of a prospective member. Controversially, a member may be asked to sign a "membership covenant", a document that has the prospective member promise to perform certain tasks (regular church attendance both at main services and small groups, regular giving—sometimes even requiring tithing, and service within the church). Such covenants are highly controversial: among other things, such a covenant may not permit a member to voluntarily withdraw from membership to avoid church discipline or, in some cases, the member cannot leave at all (even when not under discipline) without the approval of church leadership.[144] A Dallas/Fort Worth church was forced to apologize to a member who attempted to do so for failing to request permission to annul her marriage after her husband admitted to viewing child pornography.[145]

Race edit

During the 19th and most of the 20th century, the organization supported white supremacy, racial segregation, the Confederacy, and the Lost Cause.[146] The organization also denounced interracial marriage as an "abomination", citing the Bible.[146] With the advent of the civil rights movement in the 20th century, it officially denounced racism and its white supremacist history.[60] Following the election of the organization's first black president in the 21st century, the Southern Baptist Convention adopted the "Great Commission Baptists" descriptor, which began to gain prominent use among several churches desiring to sever themselves from its white supremacist history and controversies.[20][21]

Although racism and white supremacy were denounced, and efforts to reconcile with minorities have been made, racism has continued to persist among the denomination's churches and affiliated organizations. In 2012, an African American couple in Crystal Springs, Mississippi attending an affiliated church were prevented from being married in that church because they were black. The church's pastor was threatened with being voted out if he hosted the wedding at the church (the pastor performed the ceremony at a different church).[147] By November 2020, the six convention seminary presidents called critical race theory "unbiblical" and emphasized the need to turn not to secular ideas to confront racism, but to the Word of God in the love of Christ.[148] At least four African American churches left the denomination over the leadership's refusal to recognize critical race theory.[149]

Statistics edit

Membership edit

Year Membership
1845 350,000
1860 650,000
1875 1,260,000
1890 1,240,000
1905 1,900,000
1920 3,150,000
1935 4,480,000
1950 7,080,000
1965 10,780,000
1980 13,700,000
1995 15,400,000
2000 15,900,000
2005 16,600,000
2006 16,306,246
2007 16,266,920
2008 16,228,438
2009 16,160,088
2010 16,136,044
2011 15,978,112
2012 15,872,404
2013 15,735,640
2014 15,499,173
2015 15,294,764
2016 15,216,978
2017 15,005,638
2018 14,813,234
2019 14,525,579
2020 14,089,947
2021 13,680,493
2022 13,223,122
[150][1][151][152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160]

According to a census published by the association in 2023, the organization claimed 47,198 churches, 3.8 million in weekly worship attendance and 13,223,122 members.[161][162]

The global convention has more than 1,161 local associations and 41 state conventions, and fellowships covering all fifty states and territories of the United States.[163] The five U.S. states with the highest rates of membership are Texas, Georgia, North Carolina, Florida, and Tennessee. Texas has the largest number of members with an estimated 2.75 million.[164] Within Texas, these are divided among the more traditionalist Southern Baptists of Texas Convention and more moderate, diversified Baptist General Convention of Texas; the Baptist General Convention of Texas, or the Texas Baptists, are also more financially and organizationally autonomous from the primary convention in contrast to most state conventions.

Through the Cooperative Program, Southern/Great Commission Baptists support thousands of missionaries in the United States and worldwide.

Trends edit

Data from church sources and independent surveys indicate that since 1990 membership of Southern Baptist churches has declined as a proportion of the American population.[165] Historically, the convention grew throughout its history until 2007, when membership decreased by a net figure of nearly 40,000 members.[166] The total membership, of about 16.2 million, was flat over the same period, falling by 38,482 or 0.2%. An important indicator for the health of the denomination is new baptisms, which have decreased every year for seven of the last eight years. As of 2008, they had reached their lowest levels since 1987.[167] Membership continued to decline from 2008 to 2012.[168] The convention's statistical summary of 2014 recorded a loss of 236,467 members, their biggest one-year decline since 1881.[154] In 2018, membership fell below 15 million for the first time since 1989 and reached its lowest level for over 30 years.[169]

This decline in membership and baptisms has prompted some SBC researchers to describe the convention as a "denomination in decline".[170] In 2008, former SBC president Frank Page suggested that if current conditions continue, half of all the convention's churches will close their doors permanently by 2030.[171] This assessment was supported by a 2004 survey of SBC churches that found that the membership of 70% of SBC churches is declining or has plateaued.[172]

The decline in membership was discussed at the June 2008 Annual Convention.[173] Curt Watke, a former researcher for the organization, noted four reasons for the decline of the church based on his research: the increase in immigration by non-European groups, decline in growth among predominantly European American (white) churches, the aging of the current membership, and a decrease in the proportion of younger generations participating in any church life.[171] Some believe that the Baptists have not worked sufficiently to attract minorities.[174]

On the other hand, the state conventions of Mississippi and Texas report an increasing proportion of minority members.[174] In 1990, 5% of congregations were non-white. In 2012, the proportion of congregations that were of other ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and Asian) had increased to 20%.[56] Sixty percent of the minority congregations were in Texas, particularly in the suburbs of Houston and Dallas.[56] In 2020, an estimated 22.3% of affiliated churches were non-white.[175]

The decline in SBC-GCB membership may be more pronounced than these statistics indicate because Baptist churches are not required to remove inactive members from their rolls, likely leading to greatly inflated membership numbers. In addition, hundreds of large moderate congregations have shifted their primary allegiance to other Baptist groups, such as the American Baptist Churches USA, the Alliance of Baptists or the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, but have continued to remain on the convention's books. Their members are thus counted in the convention's totals although these churches no longer participate in the annual convention meetings or make more than the minimum financial contributions.[176]

In some cases, groups have withdrawn from the convention because of its conservative trends. On November 6, 2000, the Baptist General Convention of Texas voted to cut its contributions to Southern Baptist seminaries and reallocate more than $5 million to three theological seminaries in the state that members believed were more moderate.[177] These included the Hispanic Baptist Theological School in San Antonio, Baylor University's George W. Truett Theological Seminary in Waco, and Hardin–Simmons University's Logsdon School of Theology in Abilene. Since the controversies of the 1980s, more than 20 theological or divinity programs directed toward moderate and progressive Baptists have been established in the Southeast. In addition to Texas, schools in Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina and Alabama were established in the 1990s. These include the Baptist Theological Seminary in Richmond, McAfee School of Theology of Mercer University in Atlanta, Wake Forest, Gardner Webb and Campbell Divinity schools in North Carolina, and Beeson Divinity School at Samford University. These schools contributed to the flat and declining enrollment at seminaries operating in the same region of the United States. Texas and Virginia have the largest state conventions identified as moderate in theological approach.[178]

On June 4, 2020, the organization reported a drop in its membership—the 13th consecutive year that membership has declined. Total membership in the church fell almost 2% to 14,525,579 from 2018 to 2019.[179] In 2022, the church lost another 457,371 members (the largest drop in over a century) to 13,223,122, a similar level as the late 1970s.[180]

Organization edit

 
First Brazilian Baptist Church in Charlestown, Massachusetts

The denomination has four levels of organization: the local congregation, the local association, the state convention, and the national convention. There are 41 affiliated state conventions or fellowships.[8]

The national and state conventions and local associations are conceived as a cooperative association by which churches can voluntarily pool resources[181] to support missionary and other work. Because of the basic Baptist principle of the autonomy of the local church and the congregationalist polity of the denomination,[10] neither the national convention nor the state conventions or local associations has any administrative or ecclesiastical control over local churches; such a group may disfellowship a local congregation over an issue, but may not terminate its leadership or members or force its closure. The national convention has no authority over state conventions or local associations, nor do state conventions have authority over local associations. Furthermore, no individual congregation has any authority over any other individual congregation; a church may oversee another congregation voluntarily as a mission work, but that other congregation has the right to become an independent congregation at any time.

Article IV. Authority: While independent and sovereign in its own sphere, the Convention does not claim and will never attempt to exercise any authority over any other Baptist body, whether church, auxiliary organizations, associations, or convention.[182]

The national convention maintains a central administrative organization in Nashville, Tennessee. Its executive committee exercises authority and control over seminaries and other institutions owned by the national convention.

The national convention had around 10,000 ethnic churches as of 2008.[183] Commitment to the autonomy of local churches was the primary force behind its executive committee's rejection of a proposal to create a convention-wide database of clergy accused of sexual crimes against congregants or other minors in order to stop the "recurring tide"[184][185] of clergy sexual abuse within affiliated congregations. A 2009 study by Lifeway Christian Resources, the convention's research and publishing arm, revealed that one in eight background checks for potential volunteers or workers in churches revealed a history of crime that could have prevented them from working.[186]

The denominational statement of faith, the Baptist Faith and Message,[99] is not binding on churches or members due to the autonomy of the local church (though national convention employees and missionaries must agree to its views as a condition of employment or missionary support).[10] Politically and culturally, Southern/Great Commission Baptists tend to be conservative. Most oppose homosexual activity and abortion.[9]

Pastor and deacon edit

Generally, Baptists recognize only two scriptural offices: pastor-teacher and deacon. The convention passed a resolution in the early 1980s recognizing that offices requiring ordination are restricted to men. According to the Baptist Faith and Message, the office of pastor is limited to men based on certain New Testament scriptures.[187]

Annual meeting edit

 
President Jimmy Carter addressing the SBC in Atlanta in 1978 (in 2000, Carter broke with the SBC over its position on the status of women).[188]

The annual meeting (held in June, over a two-day period) consists of delegates (called "messengers") from cooperating churches. The messengers confer and determine the programs, policies, and budget of the convention, and elect the officers and committees. Each cooperating church is allowed up to two messengers regardless of the amount given to convention entities, and may have more depending on the amount of giving (either in terms of dollars or percent of the church's budget), but the maximum number of messengers permitted from any church is 12.

Missions and affiliated organizations edit

Cooperative Program edit

The Cooperative Program (CP) is the organization's unified funds collection and distribution program for the support of regional, national and international ministries; the CP is funded by contributions from affiliated congregations.[189]

In the fiscal year ending September 30, 2008, the local congregations of the denomination reported gift receipts of $11.1 billion.[190] From this they sent $548 million, approximately five percent, to their state Baptist conventions through the CP.[190] Of this amount, the state Baptist conventions retained $344 million for their work. Two hundred and four million dollars was sent on to the national CP budget for the support of denomination-wide ministries.[190]

Mission agencies edit

The denomination was organized in 1845 primarily for the purpose of creating a mission board to support the sending of Baptist missionaries, albeit slaveholding missionaries. The North American Mission Board, or NAMB, (founded as the Domestic Mission Board, and later the Home Mission Board) in Alpharetta, Georgia serves missionaries involved in evangelism and church planting in the U.S. and Canada, while the International Mission Board, or IMB, (originally the Foreign Mission Board) in Richmond, Virginia, sponsors missionaries to the rest of the world.

Baptist Men is the mission organization for men in the convention's churches, and is under the North American Mission Board.

The Woman's Missionary Union, founded in 1888, is an auxiliary to the national convention, which helps facilitate two large annual missions offerings: the Annie Armstrong Easter Offering (for North American missions) and the Lottie Moon Christmas Offering (for international missions).

Southern Baptist Disaster Relief edit

 
Southern Baptist Convention Disaster Relief volunteers prepare food in D'Iberville, Mississippi, September 12, 2005

Among the more visible organizations within the North American Mission Board is Southern Baptist Disaster Relief. In 1967, a small group of Texas Southern Baptist volunteers helped victims of Hurricane Beulah by serving hot food cooked on small "buddy burners". In 2005, volunteers responded to 166 named disasters, prepared 17,124,738 meals, repaired 7,246 homes, and removed debris from 13,986 yards.[191] Southern Baptist Disaster Relief provides many different types: food, water, child care, communication, showers, laundry, repairs, rebuilding, or other essential tangible items that contribute to the resumption of life following the crisis—and the message of the Gospel. All assistance is provided to individuals and communities free of charge. SBC DR volunteer kitchens prepare much of the food distributed by the Red Cross in major disasters.[192]

Southern Baptist Association of Christian Schools edit

The SBC has various affiliated primary and secondary schools, gathered in the Southern Baptist Association of Christian Schools.[193]

Universities and colleges edit

 
Sheila and Walter Umphrey Law Center, Baylor University in Waco, Texas, affiliated with the convention through the Texas Baptists

The SBC has several affiliated universities.[194]

Seminaries edit

 
New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary's chapel

The national convention directly supports six theological seminaries devoted to ministry preparation.[195]

Other organizations edit

Other notable organizations under the national convention include Baptist Press, the nation's largest Christian news service, established by the convention in 1946; Baptist Collegiate Network, the college-level organization operating campus and international missions typically known as the Baptist Student Union and Baptist Collegiate Ministries;[196] GuideStone Financial Resources (formerly called the Annuity Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, and founded in 1918 as the Relief Board of the Southern Baptist Convention), which provides insurance, retirement, and investment services to churches, ministers, and employees of affiliated churches and agencies (it does not limit its services to member churches and members); LifeWay Christian Resources, founded as the Baptist Sunday School Board in 1891, one of the nation's largest Christian publishing houses, which previously operated the "LifeWay Christian Stores" (formerly "Baptist Book Stores") until closing physical stores in 2019; Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission (formerly known as the Christian Life Commission of the SBC), dedicated to addressing social and moral concerns and their implications on public policy issues from city hall to Congress and the courts; and the Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, in Nashville, Tennessee, the official depository for the denomination's archives and a research center for the study of Baptists worldwide. The SBHLA website includes digital resources.[197]

Controversies edit

During its history, the organization has had several periods of major internal controversy—from its establishment to the present day.

Landmark controversy edit

In the 1850s–1860s, a group of young activists called for a return to certain early practices, or what they called Landmarkism. Other leaders disagreed with their assertions, and the Baptist congregations became split on the issues. Eventually, the disagreements led to the formation of Gospel Missions and the American Baptist Association (1924), as well as many unaffiliated independent churches. One historian called the related James Robinson Graves—Robert Boyte Crawford Howell controversy (1858–60) the greatest to affect the denomination before that of the late 20th century involving the fundamentalist-moderate break.[198]

Whitsitt controversy edit

In the Whitsitt controversy of 1896–99,[199] William H. Whitsitt, a professor at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, suggested that, contrary to earlier thought, English Baptists did not begin to baptize by immersion until 1641, when some Anabaptists, as they were then called, began to practice immersion. This went against the idea of immersion as the practice of the earliest Baptists as some of the Landmarkists contended.

Moderates–conservatives controversy edit

 
B.H. Carroll Memorial Building, the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary's main administrative building

The Southern Baptist Convention conservative resurgence (c. 1970–2000) was an intense struggle for control of the national convention's resources and ideological direction.[200]

In July 1961, Professor Ralph Elliott at Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Kansas City published The Message of Genesis, a book rejecting biblical inerrancy.[201] In the 1970s, other convention seminary professors came under suspicion of liberal Christianity.

In response to these events, a group of pastors led by Judge Paul Pressler and Pastor Paige Patterson campaigned at conferences in churches for a more conservative direction in Convention policies.[202] This group's candidate, Adrian Rogers, was elected Convention president at the 1979 annual meeting. After the election, the organization's new leaders replaced all Southern Baptist agency leaders with people said to be more conservative. Its initiators called it a "Southern Baptist Convention conservative resurgence", while its moderate opponents called it a "fundamentalist takeover".[203]

Russell H. Dilday, president of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary from 1978 to 1994,[43][204] said the resurgence fragmented Southern Baptist fellowship and was "far more serious than [a controversy]",[205] calling it as "a self-destructive, contentious, one-sided feud that at times took on combative characteristics".[205] Since 1979, Southern Baptists had become polarized into two major groups: moderates and conservatives. Reflecting the conservative majority votes of messengers at the 1979 annual meeting of the SBC, the new national organization officers replaced all leaders of Southern Baptist agencies with presumably more conservative people (often dubbed "fundamentalist" by dissenters).[a][206]

In 1984, this group was heavily involved in passing a resolution excluding women from pastoral leadership.[129]

In 1987, a group of churches criticized the fundamentalists for controlling the leadership and founded the Alliance of Baptists.[207] A group of moderate churches criticized the denomination for the same reasons, as well as opposition to women's ministry, and founded the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship in 1991.[208][209]

LGBTQ edit

Since 1992, the national convention has carried out excommunications of various churches that support LGBTQ inclusion.[11] In 2018, the District of Columbia Baptist Convention was excommunicated for this reason.[210]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ The era of conservative resurgence was accompanied by the erosion of more-liberal members (see, e.g., G. Avery Lee).

References edit

Footnotes edit

  1. ^ a b Pipes, Carol (June 7, 2016). "ACP: More churches reported; baptisms decline". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  2. ^ Johnson 2010, p. 349.
  3. ^ Griswold, Eliza (June 10, 2021). "Southern Baptist Convention: How the Convention's battle over race reveals an emerging evangelical schism". Retrieved August 17, 2023. Founders of the new organization claimed that, according to the Bible, slavery was an institution of heaven. They pushed the idea that Black people were descended from the Biblical figure Ham, Noah's cursed son, and that their subjugation was therefore divinely ordained
  4. ^ a b "Report on Slavery and Racism in the History of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary" (PDF). Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. December 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
  5. ^ Newman, Mark (2001). Getting Right With God: Southern Baptists and Desegregation, 1945–1995. University of Alabama Press. pp. IX of preface. ISBN 978-0-8173-1060-8.
  6. ^ Carter, Gary L. (June 21, 1995). "An Apology For Racism". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  7. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Encyclopedia.
  8. ^ a b "About Us: Meet the Southern Baptists". Southern Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Fact box: The Southern Baptist Convention". Reuters. June 10, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e "On Local Church Autonomy And Accountability - SBC.net". Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  11. ^ a b Yawn, Andrew J. "A Georgia church, kicked out of the SBC for allowing gay members, wants to make sure 'everybody's welcome'". USA TODAY. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  12. ^ Diaz, Jaclyn (March 2, 2023). "What's next for the Southern Baptist Convention after it ousted 5 woman-led churches?". National Public Radio. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  13. ^ Merrell, Bill (September 1, 1999). "Redemption – Not Approval". Baptist Press. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  14. ^ a b "Annual of the 2006 Southern Baptist Convention" (PDF). Executive Committee, Southern Baptist Convention. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  15. ^ Smietana, Bob (May 21, 2021). "Southern Baptist decline continues, denomination has lost more than 2 million members since 2006". Religion News Service. Religion News Service. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  16. ^ Howe, Jonathan (May 20, 2021). "Southern Baptists grow in number of churches, plant 588 new congregations amid COVID-19 pandemic – Baptist Press". www.baptistpress.com/. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  17. ^ a b Foust, Michael (June 21, 2012), "Wrap-up: Historic meeting sees messengers elect 1st black president, approve descriptor", News, Baptist Press, archived from the original on June 27, 2012.
  18. ^ a b Quillin, Martha (September 16, 2020). "Leaders may drop 'Southern' from Baptist churches for racial and regional inclusion". News & Observer. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  19. ^ "Prominent Southern Baptists are dropping 'Southern' name amid racial unrest". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  20. ^ a b "'Great Commission Baptists': New Signs that Southern Baptists Are Gearing Up for a Big Name Change". CBN News. September 17, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  21. ^ a b c Banks, Adelle M. (September 16, 2020). "Southern Baptists warm to alternate moniker 'Great Commission Baptists'". Religion News Service. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  22. ^ "Origins of the Particular Baptists". The Gospel Coalition. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  23. ^ Baptist Pioneers in America, Mainstream Baptists, retrieved February 3, 2013.
  24. ^ a b Baker, Robert A (1979). "Southern Baptist Beginnings". Baptist History & Heritage Society. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  25. ^ Taylor 1859, pp. 57, 60, 71, 83.
  26. ^ Raboteau 2004, p. 178–79.
  27. ^ Miller & Smith 1997.
  28. ^ Kolchin 1993.
  29. ^ Isaac 1974.
  30. ^ Ketcham, Ralph L (1990) [1971], James Madison: A Biography (paperback), Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, p. 57, ISBN 978-0-8139-1265-3.
  31. ^ Beeman 1978.
  32. ^ Kroll-Smith 1984.
  33. ^ Armstrong, O. K.; Moore Armstrong, Marjorie (1979). The Baptists in America. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 187. ISBN 0-385-14655-8. OCLC 4983547.
  34. ^ "Baptists in America: A History | Reviews in History". reviews.history.ac.uk. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  35. ^ a b Heyrman 1998, pp. 10–18, 155.
  36. ^ Shurden, Walter B. (January 1, 2002). "The origins of the Southern Baptist Convention: a historiographical study". Baptist History and Heritage. 37 (1).
  37. ^ Raboteau 2004, p. 188.
  38. ^ Early 2008, pp. 100–101.
  39. ^ Cathcart, William, ed. (1883), The Baptist Encyclopedia (rev ed.), Philadelphia: William Carey University, p. 1077, retrieved April 25, 2007.
  40. ^ Sherman, Dayne (June 24, 2012). "Southern Baptist Convention in black, white". Sunday Star. Hammond, LA. pp. 4A, 5A. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  41. ^ "History". American Baptist Churches USA.
  42. ^ Shurden, Walter B; Varnadoe, Lori Redwine (2002), "The origins of the Southern Baptist Convention: A historiographical study", Baptist History and Heritage, 37 (1): 71–96.
  43. ^ a b McBeth 1987.
  44. ^ McBeth 1987, p. 505.
  45. ^ First Baptist Church building landmark restoration, Christian index, archived from the original on December 11, 2013.
  46. ^ "William Bullein Johnson". Southern Baptist Historical Library & Archives. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  47. ^ Raboteau 2004, p. 137.
  48. ^ Love, Emanuel King (1888). "History of the First African Baptist Church, from its Organization, January 20th, 1788, to July 1st, 1888. Including the Centennial Celebration, Addresses, Sermons, etc". The Morning News Print. Retrieved December 8, 2006.
  49. ^ Nutter, HE (1940), A Brief History of the First Baptist Church (Black) Lexington, Kentucky, retrieved August 22, 2010.
  50. ^ Spencer, John H (1886), A History of Kentucky Baptists: From 1769–1885, vol. II, Cincinnati, OH: JR Baumes, p. 657, retrieved August 23, 2010.
  51. ^ Brooks 1922; Raboteau 2004.
  52. ^ Raboteau 2004.
  53. ^ Anderson, Osborne Perry (1861). A Voice from Harper's Ferry. A Narrative of Events at Harper's Ferry; with incidents prior and subsequent to its capture by John Brown and his men. Boston: Published by the author. pp. 5–7.
  54. ^ a b c "The Church in the Southern Black Community: Introduction". University of North Carolina. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  55. ^ a b c Brooks 1922.
  56. ^ a b c d "The Southern Baptists: Luter's turn: By electing a black leader, the church shows how far it has come", The Economist, March 17, 2012.
  57. ^ "Social change and the Southern Baptists". The Economist. October 24, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  58. ^ Gjelten, Tom (December 13, 2018). "Southern Baptist Seminary Confronts History Of Slaveholding And 'Deep Racism'". NPR. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  59. ^ McKissic, William Dwight Sr. (August 2, 2017). "I'm a black pastor. Here's why I'm staying in the Southern Baptist Convention". Washington Post. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  60. ^ a b "Resolution on racial reconciliation on the 150th anniversary of the Southern Baptist Convention". Southern Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  61. ^ Priest & Priest 2007, p. 275; Priest & Nieves 2007, p. 339.
  62. ^ Salmon, Jacqueline L (February 15, 2008), "Southern Baptists Diversifying to Survive: Minority Outreach Seen as Key to Crisis", The Washington Post.
  63. ^ Pope, John (June 19, 2012), "The Rev. Fred Luter Jr. of New Orleans elected first black president of Southern Baptist Convention", The Times-Picayune.
  64. ^ "Tuesday Evening", Annual meeting, Southern Baptist Convention, June 15, 1999, archived from the original on May 6, 2009, retrieved August 3, 2007.
  65. ^ "Resolution 7: On Sensitivity and Unity Regarding the Confederate Battle Flag". The Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission. June 14, 2016.
  66. ^ "Southern Baptists Vote to Support Refugee Resettlement After Trump Says to Ban All Muslim Immigration". June 15, 2016.
  67. ^ McCammon, Sarah (June 16, 2016). "Southern Baptists Split With Donald Trump On Refugee Resettlement". NPR.
  68. ^ Loller, Travis. "Southern Baptists to talk racial unity at annual meeting". The Tennessean. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  69. ^ a b "SBC celebrates racial reconciliation progress". Baptist Press. February 12, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  70. ^ Southern Baptists denounce white supremacy - CNN Video, June 15, 2017, retrieved June 16, 2017
  71. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention > First Baptist Sutherland Springs". www.sbc.net. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  72. ^ Dakin Andone; Kaylee Hartung; Darran Simon. "At least 26 people killed in shooting at Texas church". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  73. ^ Weill, Kelly (November 5, 2017). "Deadliest Church Shooting in American History Kills at Least 26". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  74. ^ "2021 SBC Annual Meeting to remain in Nashville, shift venues". www.baptistpress.com/. Baptist Press. April 15, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  75. ^ Blair, Leonardo (September 15, 2020). "More So. Baptists embracing alternate 'Great Commission Baptists' name in wake of racial unrest". The Christian Post. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  76. ^ Castronuovo, Celine (September 15, 2020). "Southern Baptist Convention leaders dropping 'Southern' from name over slavery connection". The Hill. Retrieved May 7, 2023.
  77. ^ Fuller, Thomas (August 13, 2022). "Southern Baptist Convention Says It Faces Federal Investigation for Sexual Abuse". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
  78. ^ a b Bharath, Deepa; Holly Meyer; David Crary (May 22, 2022). "Report: Top Southern Baptists stonewalled sex abuse victims". Associated Press. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  79. ^ a b c Shellnutt, Kate (May 22, 2022). "Southern Baptists Refused to Act on Abuse, Despite Secret List of Pastors". Christianity Today. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  80. ^ a b Sexual Abuse Task Force Team (May 22, 2022). "Guidepost Solutions' Report of the Independent Investigation". SATaskforce.net. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  81. ^ Cite error: The named reference :NYTimesFedsInv was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  82. ^ a b Downen, Robert; Olsen, Lise; Tedesco, John (February 10, 2019). "20 years, 700 victims: Southern Baptist sexual abuse spreads as leaders resist reforms". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  83. ^ a b c d Tedesco, By John (June 3, 2019). "More Abuse of Faith: Southern Baptist churches harbored sex offenders". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  84. ^ Phillips, Kristine; Wang, Amy B. (February 10, 2019). "'Pure evil': Southern Baptist leaders condemn decades of sexual abuse revealed in investigation". Washington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  85. ^ Downen, Robert; Olsen, Lise; Tedesco, John (February 10, 2019). "20 years, 700 victims: SBC sexual abuse spreads as leaders resist reforms". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  86. ^ a b Olsen, Lise; Downen, Robert; Tedesco, John; Rubio, Jordan; Dempsey, Matt; Lee, Joyce; Gleason, Rachael. "Abuse of Faith: A Chronicle Investigation". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on February 13, 2019. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  87. ^ a b "Abuse of Faith: Search our database". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  88. ^ a b c Neuman, Scott (June 12, 2019). "Southern Baptists Vote To Hold Churches More Accountable For Mishandling Abuse Claims". NPR. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  89. ^ Burgess, Holly Meyer and Katherine. "Southern Baptists gathered in Alabama amid a reckoning over sexual abuse. How they addressed the crisis". The Tennessean. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  90. ^ Pulliam Bailey, Sarah (June 12, 2021). "Secret recordings, leaked letters: Explosive secrets rocking the Southern Baptist Convention". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  91. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention votes to create list of pastors, workers accused of sex abuse". NBC News. June 15, 2022. Retrieved July 23, 2022.
  92. ^ Fuller, Thomas (August 12, 2022). "Southern Baptist Convention Says It Faces Federal Investigation for Sexual Abuse". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  93. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention settles in abuse case against Paul Pressler, case dismissed". The Tennessean. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  94. ^ Graham, Ruth (November 7, 2023). "Why Southern Baptists are Furious Over a Sex Abuse Case in Kentucky". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  95. ^ Downen, Robert (December 29, 2023). "Southern Baptist Convention settles high-profile lawsuit that accused former leader of sexual abuse". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  96. ^ Gray, Jeremy (October 26, 2023). "Church sex abuse survivors 'sickened and saddened' by Southern Baptist Kentucky court filing". al. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  97. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention task force says development of sex abuse database continues". The Oklahoman. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  98. ^ Orleans, Kate Shellnutt in New (June 14, 2023). "Southern Baptists Committed to Abuse Reform. What Happened?". News & Reporting. Retrieved March 4, 2024.
  99. ^ a b c d e Comparison of 1925, 1963, 2000 versions, Southern Baptist Convention
  100. ^ "Committee Response to Initial Feedback". Baptist Faith and Message Study Committee. May 26, 2000. Archived from the original on August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  101. ^ Hankins 2002, pp. 223, 225.
  102. ^ "imbConnecting", imbConnecting: President asks missionaries to sign BF&M affirmation (position paper), SBC, archived from the original on October 27, 2015, retrieved August 7, 2015.
  103. ^ "imbConnecting", imbConnecting: IMB asking missionaries to decide about BF&M request (position paper), SBC, retrieved August 7, 2015[permanent dead link].
  104. ^ "SBC Pastors Polled on Calvinism and Its Effect" (Press release). LifeWay Research. June 19, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  105. ^ Finn 2010, p. 73.
  106. ^ Greg Horton and Yonat Shimron , Southern Baptists to open their ranks to missionaries who speak in tongues, washingtonpost.com, USA, May 14, 2015
  107. ^ Corrie E. Norman, Donald S. Armentrout, Religion in the Contemporary South: Changes, Continuities, and Contexts, Univ. of Tennessee Press, USA, 2005, p. 80
  108. ^ "Cooperation", About us (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  109. ^ "Creeds", About us (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  110. ^ "Missions", About us (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  111. ^ Priesthood of all believers (position paper), SBC, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  112. ^ Sanctity of life (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on October 25, 2006
  113. ^ Sexuality (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on July 27, 2020, retrieved November 7, 2016.
  114. ^ Soul Competency (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  115. ^ a b Women in ministry (position paper), Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on September 21, 2008, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  116. ^ "So. Baptists denounce prosperity gospel as 'false teaching' in resolution at annual meeting". The Christian Post. June 15, 2022. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  117. ^ a b Roach, David (January 16, 2015). "How Southern Baptists became pro-life". Baptist Press. Retrieved April 25, 2023. Three years later, a poll conducted by the Baptist Standard newsjournal found that 90 percent of Texas Baptists believed their state's abortion laws were too restrictive... Support for abortion rights was not limited to theological moderates and liberals. At New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary in the early 1970s, some conservative students who went on to become state convention presidents and pastors of prominent churches supported abortion for reasons other than to save the life of the mother...
  118. ^ a b c d Edsall, Thomas B. (September 15, 2021). "Abortion Has Never Been Just About Abortion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 6, 2023. In 1978, the hostile reaction to an I.R.S. proposal to impose taxes on churches running segregated private schools ("seg academies" for the children of white Southerners seeking to avoid federally mandated school integration orders) provided the opportunity to mobilize born again and evangelical parishioners through the creation of the Moral Majority. As Stewart argues, Viguerie, Weyrich and others... were determined to find an issue that could bring together a much larger constituency... After long and contentious debate... [they] came to a consensus, Stewart writes: "They landed upon the one surprising word that would supply the key to the political puzzle of the age: 'abortion.'"
  119. ^ Balmer, Randall (May 27, 2014). "The Real Origins of the Religious Right". POLITICO. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  120. ^ Balmer, Randall (August 30, 2021). "The Evangelical Abortion Myth: An Excerpt from 'Bad Faith'". Religion Dispatches. Retrieved April 7, 2023.
  121. ^ a b Williams, Daniel K. (June 2015). "The Partisan Trajectory of the American Pro-Life Movement: How a Liberal Catholic Campaign Became a Conservative Evangelical Cause". Religions. 6 (2): 451–475. doi:10.3390/rel6020451. ISSN 2077-1444.
  122. ^ Williams, Daniel K. (May 9, 2022). "This Really Is a Different Pro-Life Movement". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  123. ^ Halpern, Sue (November 8, 2018). "How Republicans Became Anti-Choice". The New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  124. ^ Finn 2010, pp. 68–69.
  125. ^ "Resolution on the Place of Women in Christian Service". SBC. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  126. ^ See Morris & Lee 2005, pp. 355–363, for a discussion of attitudes regarding gender and their relationship to ministry.
  127. ^ "Part II - 1973".
  128. ^ Ledbetter, Tammi Reed (October 2000), "SBC and Women Pastors, Comprehensive Report Does Not Sustain Inflated Statistics", Baptist 2 Baptist, retrieved July 19, 2007.
  129. ^ a b David E. Anderson, Southern Baptists oppose women's ordination, upi.com, USA, June 15, 1984
  130. ^ David Roach, Tenn. assoc. disfellowships church with female pastor, baptistpress.com, USA, 20 octobre 2015
  131. ^ "Comparison of 1925, 1963 and 2000 Baptist Faith and Message". Online: http://www.sbc.net/bfm2000/bfmcomparison.asp. Accessed: 7 Aug 2015
  132. ^ Campbell, Kristen, "Baptist Church Ousted for Hiring Woman Pastor", Religion News Service, archived from the original on November 7, 2007, retrieved September 26, 2007.
  133. ^ Shellnutt, Kate (February 21, 2023). "Southern Baptist Convention Disfellowships Saddleback Church". Christianity Today. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  134. ^ Michael Gryboski, SBC upholds ousting of Saddleback Church over woman teaching pastor, christianpost.com, USA, June 14, 2023
  135. ^ "Messengers sustain removal of 3 churches not in 'friendly cooperation' - The Baptist Paper". thebaptistpaper.org. June 14, 2023. Retrieved June 14, 2023.
  136. ^ Kevin McClure, How many female pastors are in the sbc?, americanreformer.org, USA, June 10, 2023
  137. ^ Campbell-Reed, Eileen R; Durso, Pamela R (2006), Assessing Attitudes About Women in Baptist Life (PDF), CBE international, archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2010.
  138. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention > Commentary on Article XVIII – The Family". Southern Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  139. ^ a b "Basic Beliefs: Baptism & the Lord's Supper". Southern Baptist Convention. 2018. Archived from the original on March 12, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2019. The Lord's Supper is a symbolic act of obedience whereby members [...] memorialize the death of the Redeemer and anticipate His Second Coming.
  140. ^ "LifeWay Surveys Lord's Supper Practices of SBC Churches" (Press release). LifeWay Research. September 17, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  141. ^ "Why We Don't Use Alcohol For the Lord's Supper at our Church by David R. Brumbelow". SBC Voices. January 10, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  142. ^ Shoemaker, Stephen (April 11, 2013). "An Overview of Worship in the Southern Baptist Convention". WorshipLibrary. Archived from the original on November 28, 2022. Retrieved May 6, 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  143. ^ "A theological perspective on the 'invitation/altar call'". Baptist Messenger of Oklahoma. April 4, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  144. ^ "Church Membership Covenants – Legal Contracts that are NOT Biblical! | The Wartburg Watch 2020". thewartburgwatch.com. April 19, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  145. ^ Smietana, Sarah Eekhoff Zylstra, Morgan Lee, and Bob (June 10, 2015). "Former Member Accepts Acts 29 Megachurch Apology in Church Discipline Case". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved February 11, 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  146. ^ a b Newman, Mark (2001). Getting Right With God: Southern Baptists and Desegregation, 1945-1995. University of Alabama Press. pp. IX of preface. ISBN 978-0-8173-1060-8.
  147. ^ Kenney, David (July 27, 2012). "Black wedding banned by Baptist church". WLBT. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  148. ^ Michael Gryboski, Southern Baptist seminary presidents release statement denouncing critical race theory, christianpost.com, USA, December 01, 2020
  149. ^ "Several Black pastors break with the Southern Baptist Convention over a statement on race". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved May 6, 2023.
  150. ^ "2020 Southern Baptist Convention Statistical Summary" (PDF). blog.lifeway.com. Lifeway Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  151. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention Statistical Summary – 2009" (PDF), BP news, archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2015, retrieved February 13, 2011.
  152. ^ SBC Baptisms and Churches Increased in 2011, Membership Declined: 2011 ACP, Lifeway, archived from the original on October 16, 2015, retrieved August 9, 2013.
  153. ^ Historical Statistics of the US, H805, 1976 (with 2005 estimate from Convention figures).
  154. ^ a b "SBC reports more churches, fewer people", Baptist Press, June 10, 2015, retrieved June 21, 2015.
  155. ^ Southern Baptist numbers, baptisms drop, AJC, April 24, 2008, archived from the original on January 4, 2009, retrieved July 7, 2008.
  156. ^ Pipes, Carol. "Report: Southern Baptist Churches up in 2016; Baptisms, Membership Decline". Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  157. ^ "ACP: Worship attendance rises, baptisms decline". Baptist Press. June 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  158. ^ "SBC: Giving increases while baptisms continue decline". Baptist Press. May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  159. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention continues statistical decline, Floyd calls for rethinking ACP process". Baptist Press. June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  160. ^ Pipes, Carol (May 12, 2022). "Southern Baptists see baptisms, giving rebound in 2021". Baptist Press. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  161. ^ Aaron Earls, Southern Baptists grow in attendance and baptisms, decline in membership, baptistpress.com, USA, May 9, 2023
  162. ^ Southern Baptist Convention, Fast Facts About the SBC, sbc.net, USA, retrieved May 5, 2023
  163. ^ Southern Baptist Convention, State and Local Associations, sbc.net, USA, retrieved June 8, 2021
  164. ^ SBC Statistics By State Convention - 2013, Lifeway, retrieved August 28, 2014.
  165. ^ RCS comparison 1990–2000 (PDF), Namb.
  166. ^ Baptists 4 ethics (PDF), April 30, 2008, archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008
  167. ^ Life way, archived from the original on April 30, 2008
  168. ^ Harris, Hamil; Hunter, Jeannine (June 22, 2012). "Southern Baptists Elect a Black Leader and Raise Hopes for Increased Diversity". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  169. ^ "Southern Baptists Down to Lowest in 30 Years". Chrisrianity Today. May 23, 2019. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  170. ^ Ed Stetzer (April 23, 2008). "Breaking News" (blog). Life way. Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  171. ^ a b "Have Southern Baptists joined the evangelical decline?". Christian index. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  172. ^ "Study updates stats on health of Southern Baptist churches – News with a Christian Perspective". News. Baptist Press. November 15, 2004. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  173. ^ Dallas news, archived from the original on August 28, 2010
  174. ^ a b Lovan, Dylan T (June 19, 2009), Southern Baptists to gather in Kentucky, The Associated Press.
  175. ^ "How racially diverse is the SBC?". ERLC. Retrieved May 10, 2023.
  176. ^ McMullen, Cary (June 17, 1999). "Any way you count it, fewer Southern Baptists". Palatka Daily News. Archived from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2009.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  177. ^ "Texas Baptists affirm change in funding SBC". Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
  178. ^ Weiss, Jeffrey (October 31, 2000), "Moderate Baptists cut conservative seminaries' funds; Action signals their continued discontent with leadership of the nation's largest Protestant denomination", Dallas Morning News, retrieved June 25, 2012.
  179. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention continues statistical decline, Floyd calls for rethinking ACP process". Baptist Press. June 4, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  180. ^ Smietana, Bob (May 9, 2023). "Southern Baptists lost nearly half a million members in 2022". Religion News Service. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
  181. ^ SBC membership does not prohibit a church from also supporting missionaries directly or also supporting other parachurch organizations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators.
  182. ^ "Constitution", About Us, SBC.
  183. ^ Allen, Sheila (December 31, 2008). "Ethnic churches: Japanese church members live out faith, change lives". Baptist Press. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  184. ^ "The Top 10 Everything of 2008". Time. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  185. ^ Ulrich, Elizabeth (June 19, 2008). "Save Yourselves". Nashville Scene (feature). Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  186. ^ "Background checks help churches protect children". Lifeway. Retrieved December 10, 2011.[permanent dead link]
  187. ^ "Can women be pastors or deacons in the SBC?", FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions, Southern Baptist Convention, archived from the original on July 22, 2009, retrieved July 19, 2009.
  188. ^ "Jimmy Carter Leaves Southern Baptists". ABC News. Retrieved September 3, 2023.
  189. ^ "What is the Cooperative Program?". Southern Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
  190. ^ a b c Annual of the 2009 Southern Baptist Convention (PDF). Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention. June 2009. pp. 109–11. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
  191. ^ CBADR, archived from the original on November 5, 2013, retrieved March 20, 2010.
  192. ^ "Katrina One Year Report" (PDF). Red cross. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 21, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  193. ^ Southern Baptist Association of Christian Schools, MEMBER SCHOOLS DIRECTORY, nacschools.org, USA, retrieved October 22, 2022
  194. ^ Southern Baptist Convention, Colleges and Universities, sbc.net, USA, retrieved October 22, 2022
  195. ^ "Southern Baptist Theological Seminaries". www.sbc.net. Archived from the original on May 13, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  196. ^ "Home - College Ministry". collegeministry.com. March 21, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  197. ^ "Southern Baptist Historical Library & Archive - Baptist history, Baptist Archives, church records, church history". www.sbhla.org. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  198. ^ Tull 2000, p. 85.
  199. ^ McBeth 1987, pp. 446–58.
  200. ^ McBeth 1987, pp. 681ff.
  201. ^ Pauline J. Chang, Commemorating Twenty Five Years of SBC’s Conservative Resurgence, christianpost.com, USA, March 31, 2004
  202. ^ Frances FitzGerald, The Evangelicals: The Struggle to Shape America, Simon and Schuster, USA, 2017, p. 264
  203. ^ James et al. 2006.
  204. ^ Steinfels, Peter (March 11, 1994). "Baptists Dismiss Seminary Head In Surprise Move". The New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  205. ^ a b Dilday 2007, p. 2.
  206. ^ Humphreys 2002.
  207. ^ William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of the Baptists, Rowman & Littlefield, USA, 2021, p. 14
  208. ^ William H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of the Baptists, Rowman & Littlefield, USA, 2021, p. 169
  209. ^ Richard Leigh Walker, Southern Baptists: Moderates Form Alternative Fellowship, christianitytoday.com, USA, June 24, 1991
  210. ^ Roach, David (May 22, 2018). "SBC Ends Relationship with DC Convention". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved May 28, 2018.

Bibliography edit

Further reading edit

  • Ammerman, Nancy (1990), Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention, Rutgers University Press.
  •  ——— , ed. (1993), Southern Baptists Observed, University of Tennessee Press.
  • Baker, Robert, ed. (1966), A Baptist Source Book, Nashville, TN: Broadman.
  •  ———  (1974), The Southern Baptist Convention and Its People, 1607–1972, Broadman.
  • Barnes, William. The Southern Baptist Convention, 1845–1953 Broadman Press, 1954.
  • Eighmy, John. Churches in Cultural Captivity: A History of the Social Attitudes of Southern Baptists. University of Tennessee Press, 1972.
  • Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists: Presenting Their History, Doctrine, Polity, Life, Leadership, Organization & Work Knoxville: Broadman Press, v 1–2 (1958), 1500 pp; 2 supplementary volumes 1958 and 1962; vol 5. Index, 1984
  • Farnsley II, Arthur Emery, Southern Baptist Politics: Authority and Power in the Restructuring of an American Denomination; Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994
  • Flowers, Elizabeth H. Into the Pulpit: Southern Baptist Women and Power Since World War II (University of North Carolina Press; 2012) 263 pages; examines women's submission to male authority as a pivotal issue in the clash between conservatives and moderates in the SBC
  • Fuller, A. James. Chaplain to the Confederacy: Basil Manly and Baptist Life in the Old South (2002)
  • Gatewood, Willard. Controversy in the 1920s: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and Evolution. Vanderbilt University Press, 1969.
  • Harvey, Paul. Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities among Southern Baptists, 1865–1925. University of North Carolina Press, 1997
  • Hill, Samuel, et al. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South (2005)
  • Hunt, Alma. Woman's Missionary Union (1964) Online free
  • Kell, Carl L. and L. Raymond Camp, In the Name of the Father: The Rhetoric of the New Southern Baptist Convention. Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
  • Kidd, Thomas S. and Barry Hankins. Baptists in America: A History. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Leonard, Bill J. God's Last and Only Hope: The Fragmentation of the Southern Baptist Convention. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990.
  • Lumpkin, William L. Baptist History in the South: Tracing through the Separates the Influence of the Great Awakening, 1754–1787 (1995)
  • McSwain, Larry L. Loving Beyond Your Theology: The Life and Ministry of Jimmy Raymond Allen (Mercer University Press; 2010) 255 pages. A biography of the Arkansas-born pastor (b. 1927), who was the last moderate president of the SBC
  • Marsden, George. Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of 20th Century Evangelicalism. Oxford University Press, 1980.
  • Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States, Glenmary Research Center, 2000.
  • Rosenberg, Ellen (1989), The Southern Baptists: A Subculture in Transition, University of Tennessee Press.
  • Scales, T. Laine. All That Fits a Woman: Training Southern Baptist Women for Charity and Mission, 1907–1926 Mercer U. Press 2002
  • Smith, Oran P. The Rise of Baptist Republicanism (1997), on recent voting behavior
  • Spain, Rufus B. At Ease in Zion: A Social History of Southern Baptists, 1865–1900 (1961)
  • Sutton, Jerry. The Baptist Reformation: The Conservative Resurgence in the Southern Baptist Convention (2000).
  • Wills, Gregory A. Democratic Religion: Freedom, Authority, and Church Discipline in the Baptist South, 1785–1900. Oxford University Press, 1997
  • Yarnell III, Malcolm B. The Formation of Christian Doctrine (2007), on Baptist theology

External links edit