Charleston church shooting
The Charleston church shooting (also known as the Charleston church massacre) was a mass shooting in which Dylann Roof, a 21-year-old white supremacist, murdered nine African Americans (including the senior pastor, state senator Clementa C. Pinckney) during a prayer service at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, on the evening of June 17, 2015. Three other victims survived. The morning after the attack, police arrested Roof in Shelby, North Carolina. Roof confessed to committing the shooting in the hope of igniting a race war. The shooting targeted one of the United States' oldest black churches, which has long been a site for community organization around civil rights.
|Charleston church shooting|
|Part of Mass shootings in the United States|
The Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in 2008
Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church|
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
June 17, 2015 |
c. 9:05 p.m. – c. 9:11 p.m. (EDT)
|Target||African American churchgoers|
|Weapons||Glock 41 .45-caliber handgun|
|Perpetrator||Dylann Roof (sentenced to death)|
|Motive||White supremacy, desire to start a race war|
Roof was found competent to stand trial in federal court, and in December 2016 was convicted of 33 federal hate crime and murder charges stemming from the shooting. On January 10, 2017, he was sentenced to death. Roof was separately charged with nine counts of murder in the South Carolina state courts. In April 2017, Roof pleaded guilty to all nine state charges in order to avoid a second death sentence and was sentenced to life imprisonment for each, clearing the way for his eventual federal execution.
Roof espoused racial hatred in both a website manifesto published before the shooting, and a journal written from jail afterwards. Photographs posted on the website showed Roof posing with emblems associated with white supremacy and with photos of the Confederate battle flag. The shooting triggered debate on its modern display, and following the shooting, the South Carolina General Assembly voted to remove the flag from State Capitol grounds.
Until surpassed by the 2017 Sutherland Springs church shooting, this was the largest mass shooting at an American place of worship, alongside a 1991 attack at a Buddhist temple in Waddell, Arizona.
The 202-year-old church has played an important role in the history of South Carolina, including the slavery era, the civil rights movement, and Black Lives Matter. The church was founded in 1816 and it is the oldest African Methodist Episcopal Church in the South, often referred to as "Mother Emanuel". It is the oldest historically black congregation south of Baltimore. When one of the church's co-founders, Denmark Vesey, was suspected of planning a slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822, 35 people, including Vesey, were hanged and the church was burned down. Charleston citizens accepted the claim that a slave rebellion was to begin at the stroke of midnight on June 16, 1822, and to erupt the following day; the shooting in 2015 occurred on the 193rd anniversary of the thwarted uprising. The rebuilt church was formally shuttered with other all-black congregations by the city in 1834, meeting in secret until 1865 when it was formally reorganized, acquired the name Emanuel ("God with us"), and rebuilt upon a design by Denmark Vesey's son. That structure was badly damaged in the 1886 Charleston earthquake. The current building dates from 1891.
The church's senior pastor, the Rev. Clementa C. Pinckney, had held rallies after the shooting of Walter Scott by a white police officer two months earlier, in nearby North Charleston, and as a state senator, Pinckney pushed for legislation requiring police to wear body cameras. Several observers noted a similarity between the massacre at Emanuel AME and the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing of a politically active African-American church in Birmingham, Alabama, where the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) killed four black girls and injured fourteen others, an attack that galvanized the civil rights movement.
A number of scholars, journalists, activists and politicians have emphasized the need to understand the attack in the broader context of racism in the United States, rather than seeing it as an isolated event of racially motivated violence. In 1996, Congress passed the Church Arson Prevention Act, making it a federal crime to damage religious property because of its "racial or ethnic character", in response to a spate of 154 suspicious church burnings since 1991. More recent arson attacks against black churches included a black church in Massachusetts that was burned down the day after the first inauguration of Barack Obama in 2009.
At around 9:05 p.m. EDT on Wednesday, June 17, 2015, the Charleston Police Department began receiving calls of a shooting at Emanuel AME Church. A man described as white, with sandy-blond hair, around 21 years old and 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) in height, wearing a gray sweatshirt and jeans, opened fire with a Glock 41 .45-caliber handgun on a group of people inside the church at a Bible study attended by Pinckney. The shooter then fled the scene. He had been carrying eight magazines holding hollow-point bullets.
During the hour preceding the attack, 13 people including the shooter participated in the Bible study. According to the accounts of people who talked to survivors, when the shooter walked into the historic African-American church, he immediately asked for Pinckney and sat down next to him, initially listening to others during the study. He started to disagree when they began discussing Scripture. Eventually, after waiting for the other participants to begin praying, he stood up and pulled a gun from a fanny pack, aiming it at 87-year-old Susie Jackson. Jackson's nephew, 26-year-old Tywanza Sanders, tried to talk him down and asked him why he was attacking churchgoers. The shooter responded, "I have to do it. You rape our women and you're taking over our country. And you have to go." When he expressed his intention to shoot everyone, Sanders dove in front of Jackson and was shot first. The suspect then shot the other victims, all the while shouting racial epithets. He also reportedly said, "Y'all want something to pray about? I'll give you something to pray about." He reloaded his gun five times. Sanders' mother and his five-year-old niece, both attending the study, survived the shooting by pretending to be dead.
Dot Scott, president of the local branch of the NAACP, said she had heard from victims' relatives that the shooter spared one woman (Sanders' mother) so she could, according to him, tell other people what happened. He asked her, "Did I shoot you?" She replied, "No." Then, he said, "Good, 'cause we need someone to survive, because I'm gonna shoot myself, and you'll be the only survivor." According to the son of one of the victims, who spoke to that survivor, the shooter allegedly turned the gun to his own head and pulled the trigger, but only then discovered he was out of ammunition. Before leaving the church, he reportedly "uttered a racially inflammatory statement" over the victims' bodies. The entire shooting lasted for approximately six minutes.
The dead, six women and three men, were all Methodist African Americans. Eight died at the scene; the ninth, Daniel Simmons, died at MUSC Medical Center. They were all killed by multiple gunshots fired at close range. Five individuals survived the shooting unharmed, including Felicia Sanders, mother of slain victim Tywanza Sanders, and her five-year-old granddaughter, along with Polly Sheppard, a Bible study member. Pinckney's wife and daughter were also inside the building during the shooting. Those killed were identified as:
- Cynthia Marie Graham Hurd (54) – Bible study member and manager for the Charleston County Public Library system; sister of politician and former state senator Malcolm Graham.
- Susie Jackson (87) – a Bible study and church choir member.
- Ethel Lee Lance (70) – the church's sexton.
- Depayne Middleton-Doctor (49) – a pastor who was also employed as a school administrator and admissions coordinator at Southern Wesleyan University.
- Clementa C. Pinckney (41) – the church's pastor and a South Carolina state senator.
- Tywanza Sanders (26) – a Bible study member; grandnephew of victim Susie Jackson.
- Daniel Simmons (74) – a pastor who also served at Greater Zion AME Church in Awendaw.
- Sharonda Coleman-Singleton (45) – a pastor; also a speech therapist and track coach at Goose Creek High School; mother of MLB prospect Chris Singleton.
- Myra Thompson (59) – a Bible study teacher.
Dylann Storm Roof was named by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the suspected killer after his father and uncle contacted police to positively identify him upon seeing security photos of him in the news. Roof was born in Columbia, South Carolina, and was living in largely African-American Eastover at the time of the attack. Roof had a prior police record consisting of two arrests, both made in the months preceding the attack. According to then FBI Director James Comey, a police report detailing Roof's admission to a narcotics offense should have prevented him from purchasing the weapon used in the shooting, but an administrative error within the National Instant Criminal Background Check System kept Roof's admission (though not the arrest itself) from appearing on his mandatory background check.
One image from his Facebook page depicts Roof wearing a jacket decorated with two emblems that are popular among American white supremacists: the flag of the former Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) and the flag of apartheid-era South Africa. Roof reportedly told friends and neighbors of his plans to kill people, including a plot to attack the College of Charleston, but his claims were not taken seriously. On June 20, a website was discovered called The Last Rhodesian (www.lastrhodesian.com); it had been registered to a "Dylann Roof" on February 9, 2015. The website included what appeared to be an unsigned manifesto containing Roof's opinions of "Blacks", "Jews", "Hispanics" and "East Asians", as well a cache of photos, including an image of Roof posing with a handgun and a Confederate Battle Flag. In this manifesto, Roof says he became "racially aware" as a result of the 2012 shooting of Trayvon Martin, writing that because he kept hearing people talk about the incident, he "decided to look him up" and read the Wikipedia article about it. He concluded that George Zimmerman had been in the right, and he was unable to comprehend why the case had gained national attention. He said he then searched for "black on White [sic] crime" on Google and found the website of the Council of Conservative Citizens, where he read "pages upon pages" of cases involving black people murdering white people. Roof then writes he has "never been the same since that day".
According to web server logs, Roof's website was last modified at 4:44 p.m. on June 17, the day of the shooting, when Roof noted, "[A]t the time of writing I am in a great hurry."
An unidentified source said interrogations with Roof after his arrest determined he had been planning the attack for around six months, researched Emanuel AME Church, and targeted it because of its role in African-American history. One of the friends who briefly hid Roof's gun from him said, "I don't think the church was his primary target because he told us he was going for the school. But I think he couldn't get into the school because of the security ... so I think he just settled for the church."
Roof's cellphone and computer were seized and subjected to FBI analysis. According to unnamed officials, he was in online communication with other white supremacists, and although they did not appear to have encouraged the massacre, the investigation was said to have widened to include other persons of interest.
Federal prosecutors said in August 2016 that Roof was "self-radicalized" online, instead of adopting his white supremacist ideology "through his personal associations or experiences with white supremacist groups or individuals or others".
Manhunt and captureEdit
At 10:44 a.m., on the morning after the attack, Roof was captured in a traffic stop in Shelby, North Carolina, approximately 245 miles (394 km) from the shooting scene. A .45-caliber pistol was found in the car during the arrest, though it was not immediately clear if it was the same one used in the attack. Police received a tip-off from a woman who recognized Roof driving his car, a black Hyundai Elantra with South Carolina license plates and a three-flag "Confederate States of America" bumper decoration, on U.S. Route 74, recalling security camera images taken at the church and distributed to the media. She later recalled, "I got closer and saw that haircut. I was nervous. I had the worst feeling. Is that him or not him?" She called her employer, who contacted local police, and then tailed the suspect's car for 35 miles (56 km) until she was certain authorities were moving in for an arrest.
Roof waived his extradition rights and was flown to Sheriff Al Cannon Detention Center in North Charleston on the evening of June 18. At the jail, his cell-block neighbor was Michael Slager, the former North Charleston police officer charged with murder after he shot Walter Scott. According to unconfirmed reports, Roof confessed to committing the attack and said his purpose was to start a race war. He reportedly told investigators he almost did not go through with his mission because members of the church study group had been so nice to him.
On June 19, Roof was charged with nine counts of murder and one count of possession of a firearm during the commission of a violent crime. He first appeared in Charleston County court via videoconference at a bond hearing later that day. At the hearing, shooting survivors and relatives of five of the victims spoke to Roof directly, saying that they were "praying for his soul" and forgave him.
The judge, Charleston County chief magistrate James "Skip" Gosnell, Jr., caused controversy at the bond hearing with his statement that, alongside the dead victims and their families, "there are victims on this young man's side of the family [...] Nobody would have ever thrown them into the whirlwind of events that they are being thrown into." In 2005, the South Carolina Supreme Court reprimanded Gosnell for using a racial slur while on the bench in 2003. Gosnell set a $1 million bond for the weapons possession charge and no bail on the nine counts of murder.
Governor Nikki Haley has called on prosecutors to seek the death penalty against Roof. Governor Haley warned in June 2016 that divisive rhetoric can lead to tragedies such as the massacre at the church, citing the rhetoric of 2016 presidential candidate Donald Trump.
On July 7, Roof was indicted on the nine murder charges and the weapons charge, as well three new charges of attempted murder, one for each person who survived the shooting. He also faces federal hate crime charges, including nine counts of using a firearm to commit murder and 24 civil rights violations (12 hate crime charges and 12 counts of violating a person's freedom of religion), with 18 of the charges carrying the federal death penalty.
On July 31, Roof pleaded not guilty to the federal charges against him on the advice of his lawyer David Bruck. Bruck earlier said Roof wanted to plead guilty, but he couldn't advise it without knowing the government's intentions.
On September 3, Ninth Circuit solicitor (district attorney) Scarlett Wilson announced that she intended to seek the death penalty against Roof in the state proceedings, with the decision being made since more than two people were killed in the shooting and others' lives were put at risk. On September 16, Roof said through his attorney that he was willing to plead guilty in exchange for a sentence of life in prison without parole. On October 1, the federal trial was pushed back to at least January 2016 to give prosecutors and Roof's attorneys more time to prepare. On December 1, the trial was postponed again to an unknown date. He and Joey Meek, accused of misprision of felony and lying to investigators about Roof's plans, were to reappear in federal court on February 11, 2016, while their lawyers hold a bar meeting with prosecutors to discuss their cases.[clarification needed] On November 7, 2016, U.S. District Judge Richard Gergel postponed jury selection until November 9, later postponing the process again until November 21. Gergel later postponed the jury selection to November 28. On November 28, a federal judge granted a motion by Roof to represent himself. On December 4, Roof, in a handwritten request, asked Gergel to give him back his defense team for the guilt phase of his federal death penalty trial. On December 5, 2016, Gergel allowed Roof to hire back his lawyers for the guilt phase of his trial. On December 6, 2016, a federal judge denied a motion by Roof's defense team to delay Roof's trial. The decision to seek the death penalty for Roof was a campaign topic in the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, with Hillary Clinton supporting the Justice Department's decision and Bernie Sanders opposing it.
Roof's trial began on December 7, 2016; witnesses gave testimony describing the shooting in graphic detail. On December 15, 2016, Roof was found guilty of all 33 federal charges against him. For the sentencing phase of the federal trial, Roof dismissed his attorneys and insisted on representing himself. In a statement to the court at his sentencing hearing on January 4, 2017, Roof offered no apology or explanation, saying "There's nothing wrong with me psychologically." At the hearing, prosecutors introduced into evidence a two-page excerpt from journal written by Roof from jail six weeks his arrest, in which Roof composed a white supremacist manifesto, writing: "I would like to make it crystal clear, I do not regret what I did. I am not sorry. I have not shed a tear for the innocent people I killed."
Roof was sentenced to death on January 10, 2017, and to life in prison without parole on April 10, 2017.
Context of racismEdit
Heidi Beirich, the director of the Intelligence Project for the Southern Poverty Law Center, a non-profit that maintains an online list of its designated American hate groups, said the gunman's reported self-declared motivation reflected a major topic on white supremacist websites, which are preoccupied with the idea that "whites are being hugely victimized by blacks and no one is paying attention." In particular, the shooter's reported claim that "you rape our women" ties into a long history of violence against blacks in the name of white womanhood; Beirich said, "[Black men sexually assaulting white women] is probably the oldest racist trope we have in the U.S." According to her, it was a particularly effective trope because of the way white femininity has historically been viewed and positioned. Lisa Lindquist-Dorr, associate professor at the University of Alabama, explained the myth of black rapists that dominated white, Southern culture, saying, "Sexual access to women is a trophy of power, white women embodied virtue and morality, they signified whiteness and white superiority, so sexual access to white women was possessing the ultimate privilege that white men held. It makes women trophies to be traded among men."
Jamelle Bouie wrote in Slate, "Make any list of anti-black terrorism in the United States, and you'll also have a list of attacks justified by the specter of black rape." The Tulsa race riot of 1921, the Rosewood massacre of 1923, and the murder of 14-year-old Emmett Till in 1955 were cited as examples. Beirich said it was unclear at that point in the investigation whether the suspect had any connection to hate groups, but such groups have been growing over the past decade, and "for several years South Carolina has been the place with the highest density of hate groups."
At Morris Brown African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, numerous people of different races and religions attended a ceremony commemorating the victims and they proclaimed that the attack would not divide the community. Another such ceremony occurred at the TD Arena in the College of Charleston. On June 21, four days after the shooting, Emanuel AME Church reopened for its Sunday worship service. The Rev. Dr. Norvel Goff Sr., Presiding Elder of Emanuel AME Church, delivered the sermon.
On June 25, 2015, at Emanuel AME Church, funerals were held for victims Ethel Lance and Sharonda Coleman-Singleton and they were attended by several political figures and civil rights leaders. Clementa Pinckney's funeral was held in the basketball arena of the College of Charleston on June 26, 2015, with President Barack Obama delivering the eulogy. Earlier, Pinckney's body lay in state in the South Carolina statehouse. This was followed by the funerals of Tywanza Sanders, Susie Jackson, and Cynthia Graham Hurd the next day. Hurd's family announced that they are establishing the Cynthia Graham Hurd Fund for Reading and Literacy organization in her memory; it is expected to give children easier access to books. By July 2, the last of the victims, Daniel Simmons, was buried.
There has been some criticism aimed towards the community's forgiveness of Roof.
Questions were raised about the security of black churches (as well as the security of churches in general) and their long-standing practice of welcoming anyone who is willing to pray (as most Christian churches are, regardless of the race of the majority of its parishioners). Roof, a stranger to churchgoers, was easily able to enter Emanuel AME Church with no questions asked. In the weeks after the shooting, AME Church leaders distributed a document titled "12 Considerations for Congregational Security", which recommended creating security plans and teams for black churches, improving communications, developing relationships with local law enforcement, and securing and monitoring all entrances and exits to churches. Some churches considered hiring armed security guards and installing metal detectors, but conversations in support of these steps have currently not gained traction.
Nine artists from across the U.S. created portraits of the victims as a tribute. The portraits were put on display at Principle Gallery for one month, and were given to the victims' families afterwards. Artists involved in the memorial included Ricky Mujica, Mario Andres Robinson, Lauren Tilden, Paul McCormack, Gregory Mortenson, Catherine Prescott, Terry Strickland, Judy Takács, and Stephanie Deshpande.
On July 1, 2016, survivors of the shooting sued the FBI for inadvertently enabling Roof to purchase the gun used in the shooting.
The FBI is investigating possible church arson after several black churches burned down in one week's time following the shooting. On July 3, Time reported that the investigation concluded that the fires were unrelated.
The FBI underwent a 30-day review to examine the lapses in the background-check system that allowed the suspected shooter to legally purchase the gun used in the shooting. According to James Comey, Roof had been arrested in March on a felony drug charge, which would have required an inquiry into the charge during the background check examination. However, he was actually arrested on a misdemeanor drug charge, which was incorrectly written as a felony at first due to a data entry error made by a jail clerk. The mistake was noticed by the jail two days after the arrest, but the change was not made. The FBI agent conducting the background check examination then called the wrong agency while making the inquiry into the drug charge, due to having limited information on law enforcement agencies in Lexington County. This subsequently allowed Roof to make the purchase. However, despite the misdemeanor charge, he still would not have been able to purchase the gun under a law that barred anyone who is an "unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance" from owning firearms. Several bills aiming to fix this loophole were proposed, and South Carolina legislation planned to discuss the loophole in 2016.
On September 17, one of the friends who briefly hid Roof's gun away from him was arrested, reportedly for lying to federal authorities during their investigation and failing to report a crime. The next day, he pleaded not guilty to one count of making false statements to federal investigators and one count of concealing knowledge about a crime. He faces a maximum of nine years in prison and a $500,000 fine. According to legal experts, prosecutors possibly intend to use the prospect of federal charges against him as leverage for testifying against Roof. He was to reappear in federal court alongside Roof on February 11, 2016.[clarification needed] Joey Meek pleaded guilty in federal court April 29, 2016. He was sentenced to 27 months in prison in March 2017.
Charleston Mayor Joseph P. Riley, Jr. denounced the attack and said, "Of all cities, in Charleston, to have a horrible hateful person go into the church and kill people there to pray and worship with each other is something that is beyond any comprehension and is not explained. We are going to put our arms around that church and that church family."
South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley said, "While we do not yet know all of the details, we do know that we'll never understand what motivates anyone to enter one of our places of worship and take the life of another. Please join us in lifting up the victims and their families with our love and prayers."
President Barack Obama said in Charleston on June 18, "Once again, innocent people were killed in part because someone who wanted to inflict harm had no trouble getting their hands on a gun...We as a country will have to reckon with the fact that this type of mass violence does not happen in other advanced countries." At a Washington press conference later that day, he said, "Michelle and I know several members of Emanuel AME Church. We knew their pastor, Reverend Clementa Pinckney, who, along with eight others, gathered in prayer and fellowship and was murdered last night. And to say our thoughts and prayers are with them and their families, and their community, doesn’t say enough to convey the heartache and the sadness and the anger that we feel."
On June 19, the United States Department of Justice fast-tracked a Crime Victim Assistance Formula Grant of $29 million to the South Carolina government. Some of the money will be allocated to the survivors.
After Roof's appearance at his bond hearing, his family issued a statement, expressing their shock and grief at his actions. Following the funerals of several of the victims in the shooting, they issued a second statement, expressing their condolences to the victims' families and announcing the temporary postponement of comments out of respect for them. During the bond hearing, several family members of the victims told Roof that they forgave him.
The local community surrounding Charleston held prayer vigils and fundraisers. A mass unity rally was also held on the Arthur Ravenel Bridge on the evening of June 21. Organizers of the rally claimed there were up to 20,000 supporters in the rally. Tens of thousands of individuals crossed from the Mount Pleasant side of the bridge to the downtown Charleston side, carrying supportive signs and flags. Dozens of boats joined in the procession as well 
The World Methodist Council, an association of worldwide churches in the Methodist tradition, of which the AME Church is a part, said it "urges prayer and support for the victims' families and those members of Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church who have been so gravely affected by this crime motivated by hate." The President and Vice-President of the British Methodist Conference, also a member of the World Methodist Council, sent a letter of solidarity to the African Methodist Episcopal Church, saying, "The hearts of the members of the Methodist Church of Great Britain go out to the families and friends of those killed; to the Church; and to the wider communities in Charleston."
The Council of Bishops of The United Methodist Church, also a member of the World Methodist Council and in full communion with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, called on its members "to support the victims of this and all acts of violence, to work to end racism and hatred, to seek peace with justice, and to live the prayer that our Lord gave us, that God's 'kingdom come, [and] will be done, on earth as it is in heaven'."
The Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, also a member of the World Methodist Council and in full communion with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, shared its support with the presiding bishop, stating, "let us join with the AMEs in prayer for the healing of the families touched by this tragedy – the families of the victims and the family of the perpetrator."
The Rev. Olav Fykse Tveit, general secretary of the World Council of Churches, said, "We offer our prayers for healing to the wounded and traumatized, and solidarity and accompaniment to our sisters and brothers in the African Methodist Episcopal Church." Archbishop Joseph Edward Kurtz, the president of U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, made similar remarks.
Various national Jewish organizations, including the American Jewish Committee, Union for Reform Judaism, Jewish Federations of North America, Anti-Defamation League, and Orthodox Union issued statements deploring the attack and expressing deep grief and horror. The Rabbinical Assembly, in its own statement, quoted Leviticus, saying, "'Do not stand idly by the blood of your neighbor.' Hateful, violent acts such as this have no place in our society, in a country known for its diversity and blending of various cultures."
Many national Muslim organizations and individual imams, such as Council on American–Islamic Relations, Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), and Islamic Circle of North America issued statements condemning the attack and offering sympathy for the victims. In a joint statement, CAIR and Muslim leaders in Baltimore quoted the Quran, saying, "The Qur'an, the Muslim holy book, says: 'He who takes one life, it is as if he has slain all of mankind. And he who saves one life, it is as if he has saved all of mankind.'"
Muslim and Jewish religious organizations have raised several hundred thousand dollars to help rebuild black churches that were burned down in the weeks after the shooting.
At least eighteen candidates and prospective candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential election expressed reactions through various media and addresses. According to NPR, Democratic and Republican candidates found different ways to address the incident, with Democrats seeing race and gun control as central issues, while Republicans pointing to mental illness and referring to it as tragic but random act. Most Republican candidates eventually acknowledged that race was a motivating factor for the shooting. According to the Christian Science Monitor, the shooting became a precarious subject for Republican presidential contenders, in particular in regard of the racial motivations behind it, as South Carolina holds primaries and the state's political importance have resulted in some candidates "skirting around the clear racial motivations behind the attack".
The night following the attack, Jon Stewart delivered a monologue on The Daily Show discussing the tragic nature of the news, condemning the attacks as well as the media's response to it. Stewart argued that in response to Islamic terrorism, politicians declare they will do "whatever we can" to make America safe, even justifying torture, but respond to this mass shooting with "what are you gonna do, crazy is as crazy does".
The Council of Conservative Citizens, whose website Roof cited as a source for his radicalization, issued a statement on its website "unequivocally condemn[ing]" the attack, but that Roof has some "legitimate grievances" against black people. An additional statement from the group's president, Earl Holt III, disavowed responsibility for the crime and said the group's website "accurately and honestly report[s] black-on-white violent crime".
In an online forum, Charles Cotton, a lawyer in Houston and a national board member of the National Rifle Association, placed blame for the shooting on Pinckney for not allowing the churchgoers to hold concealed carry weapons inside the church. In 2011, Pinckney had voted against legislation that would allow concealed handguns to be carried into public places. Cotton also criticized the effectiveness of gun-free zones, stating, "If we look at mass shootings that occur, most happen in gun-free zones." Cotton's comment has since been deleted from the online forum.
Following the shooting, Rhodesians Worldwide, an online magazine catering to the Rhodesian expatriate community, issued a brief statement condemning Roof's actions in response to his use of the Rhodesian flag. It said 80% of the Rhodesian Security Forces were black and that the Rhodesian Bush War was a struggle against communism rather than a racial conflict.
Jerry Richardson, the owner of the NFL's Carolina Panthers, donated $100,000 to the Mother Emanuel Hope Fund set up by Mayor Riley, specifically calling for $10,000 to each of the families of the nine victims to cover their funeral expenses, and the remaining $10,000 to be delivered to the Emanuel AME Church itself.
Civil rights advocates said the Charleston attack not only fit the dictionary definition of terrorism but reflected a history of attempts by the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups to terrorize African-Americans. 
On June 18, 2015, the day after the shooting, many flags, including those at the South Carolina State House, were flown at half-staff. The Confederate battle flag flying over the South Carolina Confederate Monument near the state house was not lowered, as South Carolina law prohibited alteration of the flag without the consent of two-thirds of the state legislature. Also, the flagpole lacked a pulley system, meaning the flag could not be flown at half-staff, only removed.
Flag removal from statehouse groundsEdit
Calls to remove the Confederate flag from statehouse grounds, as well as debates over the context of its symbolic nature, were renewed after the attack by several prominent figures, including President Barack Obama, Mitt Romney, and Jeb Bush. On June 20, 2015 several thousand people gathered in front of the South Carolina State House in protest. An online petition at MoveOn.org encouraging the flag's removal had received over 370,000 signatures by that time.
At a statehouse press conference on June 22, Governor Nikki Haley, flanked by elected officials of both parties, including U.S. Republican senators Lindsey Graham and Tim Scott, and former Republican Governor Mark Sanford, called for the flag to be removed by the state legislature, saying that while the flag was "an integral part of our past, it does not represent the future" of South Carolina. Eulogizing the Rev. Clementa Pinckney on June 26, 2015, before 5,000 congregants at the College of Charleston, President Barack Obama acknowledged that the shooting had catalyzed a broad movement, backed by Republicans and Democrats, to remove the flag from official public display. "Blinded by hatred, [the gunman] failed to comprehend what Reverend Pinckney so well understood: the power of God's grace," Obama said. "By taking down that flag we express God's grace. But I don't think God wants us to stop there."
On July 6, 2015, the South Carolina Senate voted to remove the Confederate flag from display outside the South Carolina State House. Following 13 hours of debate, the vote in the House to remove it was passed by a two-thirds majority (94–20) on July 9. Governor Nikki Haley signed the bill on July 9. On July 10, the Confederate flag was taken down for the last time; it will be stored until it can later be shown in a museum.
Retailers end sales of the flagEdit
On June 23, 2015, retailers Wal-Mart, Amazon.com, Sears Holding Corporation (which owns Sears and Kmart), and eBay all announced plans to stop selling merchandise with the Confederate flag. Similarly, Warner Bros. announced they were halting production of "General Lee" car toys, which prominently feature a Confederate flag on the roof. Many major flag manufacturers also decided to stop profiting from the flag.
The city of New Orleans has announced plans to remove four memorials related to the Confederacy. Two of them, the Battle of Liberty Place Monument and the Jefferson Davis Monument, have been removed as of May 11, 2017.
In addition to the controversy regarding the Confederate flag's modern display, there have been considerations by institutions across the U.S. to remove the names of historic Confederate figures from schools, colleges, and streets. Campaigns to change the names were started in several cities.
In a national survey conducted in 2015, 57% of Americans opined that the Confederate flag represented Southern pride rather than racism. A previous poll in 2000 had a nearly identical result of 59%. However, poll results from only citizens living in the South yielded different results: 75% of whites described the flag as a symbol of pride, while 75% of blacks said the flag represented racism.
Earl Holt political donationsEdit
Earl Holt, the leader of the Council of Conservative Citizens, whose website Roof credited in his manifesto for shaping his views, gave more than $74,000 to Republican candidates and committees in recent years, including campaign donations to 2016 presidential candidates Ted Cruz, Rick Santorum, and Rand Paul, who have all condemned Roof's racially based motives. Following the shooting, and after a journalist contacted the campaigns with details about the donor's background, a spokesman for the Ted Cruz campaign said he would return an $8,500 donation to Holt; the campaign later said it would be donating $11,000 to the Mother Emanuel Hope Fund, to assist the victims' families. The Rand Paul campaign said Holt's $2,250 donation would be given to the Fund, and Rick Santorum said his $1,500 donation from Holt would be donated to the same charity. Twelve other Republican office-holders also announced they would be returning or donating Holt's contributions.
While some media professionals, politicians and law enforcement officials referred to the attack as domestic terrorism, others did not. This renewed a debate about the proper terminology to use when describing the shooting and other attacks.
On June 18, professor and terrorism expert Brian Phillips offered his definition of terrorism and said, "...[T]he massacre in Charleston, S.C. Wednesday was clearly a terrorist act." He based this conclusion on a racist political motivation that "seems likely" and his "intimidation of a wider audience" criterion was met when "...the shooter reportedly left one person alive to spread the message." An article by CNN National Security Analyst Peter Bergen and David Sterman on June 19 says, "By any reasonable standard, this is terrorism, which is generally defined as an act of violence against civilians by individuals or organizations for political purposes. ... [D]eadly acts of terrorism by virulent racists and anti-government extremists have been more common in the United States than deadly acts of jihadist terrorism since 9/11."
Speaking on June 19 at a press conference in Baltimore, FBI Director James Comey said, while his agency was investigating the shooting as a "hate crime", he did not consider it an "act of terrorism", citing the lack of political motivation for the suspect's actions. He said, "Terrorism is act of violence done or threatened in order to try to influence a public body or citizenry, so it's more of a political act, and again, based on what I know, I don't see this as a political act. Doesn't make it any less horrific, but terrorism has a definition under federal law."
Heidi Beirich, who leads the Intelligence Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), pointed to the discovery of a website attributed to Roof, which featured a manifesto and sixty photos as an example of why federal agents "don't have themselves together on this issue". The website began circulating on the Internet on June 20. Beirich said, "The way they found the website was that someone ran a domain tool reverse search on this guy's name... It wasn't rocket science, but where were the feds?"
On June 24, FBI spokesman Paul Bresson left open the possibility of terrorism charges, saying, "Any eventual federal charges will be determined by the facts at the conclusion of the investigation, and are not influenced by how the investigation is initially opened." Ultimately, it is up to Department of Justice prosecutors to decide what federal charges to bring. A spokesperson for Attorney General Loretta Lynch said the Department of Justice was investigating the shooting as both "a hate crime and as an act of domestic terrorism."
- "New Police Documents Reveal Deadly Minutes Inside South Carolina Church". ABC News. October 29, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- Bever, Lindsey; Costa, Robert (June 17, 2015). "9 dead in shooting at historic Charleston African American church. Police chief calls it 'hate crime.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Dylann Roof confesses to killing 9 people in Charleston church, wanting to start 'race war'". WGHP. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Charleston church shooting: First picture of 'gunman' on the run after nine people shot dead". Daily Mirror. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Marszal, Andrew (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof confesses to Charleston shooting as governor calls for death penalty". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Church Massacre Suspect Held as Charleston Grieves". The New York Times. June 18, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Connor, Tracy (July 7, 2015). "Dylann Roof Indicted for Murder in Charleston Church Massacre". NBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Nine dead in Charleston church massacre". MSNBC. June 17, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "Victim's dad warns Dylann Roof: 'Your creator ... he's coming for you'". CNN. January 11, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- McLeod, Harriet (April 10, 2017). "Charleston church shooter pleads guilty to state murder counts". Reuters. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- Knapp, Andrew; Darlington, Abigail (April 10, 2017). "Dylann Roof's 9 life sentences on state murder charges 'surest' route to federal execution, prosecutor says". Post & Courier. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (June 18, 2015). "The Charleston shooting is the largest mass shooting in a house of worship since 1991". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Kang, Jay Caspian (May 4, 2015). "Our Demand Is Simple: Stop Killing Us". The New York Times.
- Payne, Ed (June 18, 2015). "Charleston church shooting: Multiple fatalities in South Carolina, source says". CNN. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Pinckney, Reverend Honorable Clementa C. (February 20, 2015). "Civil Rights Ride 2013 – Clementa C. Pinckney, SC Senate, Pastor Mother Emanuel AME". Mullikin Law Firm. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Nine shot, multiple fatalities reported in downtown church shooting". The Post and Courier. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Zimmerman, Jonathan (June 21, 2015). "Was the Co-Founder of Charleston's Emanuel Church a Victim of Racist Paranoia, Too?". The New Republic. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Grandin, Greg (June 18, 2015). "The Charleston Massacre and the Cunning of White Supremacy". The Nation. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Mother Emanuel, Charleston, SC". 7th District AME Church, South Carolina. 7th District AME Office. Archived from the original on June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Emanuel AME Church". National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Kaplan, Sarah (June 18, 2015). "For Charleston's Emanuel AME Church, shooting is another painful chapter in rich history". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Cleary, Tom (June 18, 2015). "Clementa Pinckney Dead: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
- Alvarez, Lizette; Stewart, Nikita; Pérez-Peña, Richard (June 25, 2015). "In Charleston Funerals, Remembering Victims of Hate as Symbols of Love". The New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- "In Church Fires, a Pattern but No Conspiracy". The Washington Post. June 19, 1996. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Butler, Anthea (June 18, 2015). "Shooters of color are called 'terrorists' and 'thugs.' Why are white shooters called 'mentally ill'?". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Massachusetts: Conviction in Racially Motivated Fire". The New York Times. April 14, 2011.
- Friedersdorf, Connor (June 18, 2015). "Thugs and Terrorists Have Attacked Black Churches for Generations". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Black lives — and churches — matter". Al Jazeera. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Greer, Reverend Broderick (June 18, 2015). "Terrorism in Charleston demands the government act like black lives matter | The Rev Broderick Greer". The Guardian. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Sanchez, Ray; Payne, Ed (June 23, 2015). "Charleston church shooting: Who is Dylann Roof?". CNN. Archived from the original on July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- McLeod, Harriet (June 17, 2015). "Gunman at large after killing nine at black South Carolina church". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Everything We Know About the Charleston Shooting". Time. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Alcindor, Yamiche; Stanglin, Doug (June 19, 2015). "Affidavits spell out chilling case against Dylann Roof". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Phelps, Timothy M. (July 22, 2015). "Dylann Roof indicted on federal hate-crime charges in Charleston church shooting". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- "Pastor, 8 others, fatally shot at church in Charleston, SC". MSN. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Drash, Wayne (December 17, 2015). "Inside the Bible Study Massacre: A mom 'laid in her son's blood'". CNN. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Sickles, Jason (September 9, 2015). "Charleston church shooting survivor describes the moment suspected gunman Dylann Roof began firing". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 9, 2015.
- Borden, Jeremy; Horwitz, Sari; Markon, Jerry (June 19, 2015). "Officials: Suspect in church slayings unrepentant amid outcry over racial hatred". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Payne, Ed; Botelho, Greg (June 19, 2015). "Charleston church shooting: Suspect confesses, says he sought race war". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Horowitz, Jason; Corasaniti, Nick; Pérez-Peña, Richard (June 18, 2015). "Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof Is Brought Back to Charleston". The New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Church shooting suspect Dylann Roof captured amid hate crime investigation". The Washington Post. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Battiste, Nikki; Shapiro, Emily; Stone, Matthew (June 18, 2015). "Charleston Shooting: What the Gunman Allegedly Told Churchgoers Before the Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Who is the Charleston church shooting suspect?". CNN. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Battiste, Nikki; Shapiro, Emily; Stone, Matthew (June 18, 2015). "Charleston Shooting: What the Gunman Allegedly Told Churchgoers Before the Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Phelps, Timothy M. (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Roof tried to kill himself during attack, victim's son says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Charleston church shooting: police release image of suspect — latest updates". The Guardian. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Bartelme, Tony (June 19, 2015). "Former Mount Pleasant pastor among those slain". The Post and Courier. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Stewart, Nikita; Pérez-Peña, Richard (June 19, 2015). "In Charleston, Raw Emotion at Hearing for Suspect in Church Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Pardue, Doug; Hawes, Jennifer Berry (June 19, 2015). "In an hour, a church changes forever". Post and Courier. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- "Charleston Shooting Victims Identified". ABC News. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Charleston victims: 9 lives lost to family and community". CNN. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Remembering The Charleston Nine". LA Progressive. June 17, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Kinnard, Meg (January 10, 2017). "The Emanuel 9: The stories of Dylann Roof's victims" – via Toronto Star.
- "State of South Carolina vs Dylann Storm Roof".[permanent dead link]
- Leger, Donna Leinwand (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof's father, uncle called police to ID him in church shooting". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Dylann Storm Roof arrested in North Carolina". KFOR. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Old, Jason (June 18, 2015). "Police: Dylann Roof arrested for trespassing, drug possession at Columbiana Centre". WISTV.com. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Nakashima, Ellen (July 10, 2015). "FBI: Breakdown in background check system allowed Dylann Roof to buy gun". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Charleston shooting: System failure 'allowed Roof to buy gun' - FBI". BBC. July 10, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- "Charleston Church Shooting Suspect, Dylann Storm Roof, Is Captured". The New York Times. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "On Facebook, Dylann Roof, Charleston Suspect, Wears Symbols of White Supremacy". The New York Times. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Everything Known About Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof". The Daily Beast. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Friend of Dylann Roof says suspect planned attack on College of Charleston". Fox News Channel. June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Mindock, Clark (June 18, 2015). "Charleston Shooting Racial Motivation? Dylann Storm Roof Told Black Neighbor He Planned On Killing". The International Business Times. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Home — My website". June 20, 2015. Archived from the original on June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Robles, Francis (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Storm Roof Photos Found on Website". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- O'Connor, Brendan (June 20, 2015). "Here Is What Appears to Be Dylann Roof's Racist Manifesto". Gawker. Archived from the original on June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Goldberg, Michelle (June 22, 2015). "The 2 Degrees of Separation Between Dylann Roof and the Republican Party". The Nation. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Lewis, Paul; Holpuch, Amanda; Glenza, Jessica (June 21, 2015). "Dylann Roof: FBI probes manifesto and website linked to Charleston suspect". The Guardian. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Weiss, Mitch; Biesecker, Michael (June 20, 2015). "Man accused of church killings spoke of attacking college". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved June 20, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Krol, Charlotte (June 20, 2015). "Dylann Roof's friend: Charleston church 'wasn't primary target'". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (July 3, 2015). "Charleston Suspect Was In Touch With Supremacists, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Monk, John (July 2, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: Charges possible against church shooter's associates". The State. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Berman, Mark (August 23, 2016). "Prosecutors say Dylann Roof 'self-radicalized' online, wrote another manifesto in jail". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- Kinnard, Meg (August 23, 2016). "Feds: Church shooting suspect entrenched in his beliefs". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- "Charleston church shooting suspect Dylann Roof in custody in NC". WIS. WorldNow and WISTV. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Shooting suspect in custody after Charleston church massacre". CNN. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Safi, Michael (June 18, 2015). "Charleston shooting: florist Debbie Dills hailed a hero after tailing suspect's car". The Guardian. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Cush, Andy (June 18, 2015). "Dylann Roof's car, like S.C. Statehouse, flies a Confederate Flag". Gawker. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- "Tip from Kings Mountain florists led to Charleston shooting suspect's arrest". Shelby Star. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Charleston shooting suspect Dylann Roof due in court in Charleston Friday". WHNS Greenville. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Margolin, Josh; Shapiro, Emily (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof Confessed to Killing 9 People at AME Church, Source Says". ABC News. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Sickles, Jason (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof and Michael Slager are cellblock neighbors in Charleston County jail". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Martinez, Michael (April 8, 2015). "South Carolina cop shoots unarmed man: A timeline". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Dearden, Lizzie; Guion, Payton (June 19, 2015). "Charleston shooting: Suspect Dylann Roof in custody as US mourns massacre — live updates". The Independent. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Stableford, Dylan (June 19, 2015). "Families of Charleston shooting victims to Dylann Roof: We forgive you". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Arkin, Daniel (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof 'Almost Didn't Go Through' With Charleston Church Shooting". NBC News. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Berman, Mark (June 19, 2015). "'I forgive you.' Relatives of Charleston church shooting victims address Dylann Roof". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Paddock, Barry; Shapiro, Rich (June 19, 2015). "S.C. judge urges support for accused murderer Dylann Roof's family in bizarre court speech". The New York Daily News. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Chuck, Elizabeth (June 20, 2015). "Judge Who Presided Over Dylann Roof Bond Hearing Was Reprimanded for Racial Slur". NBC News. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Neuman, Scott (June 19, 2015). "$1 Million Bond For Charleston Church Shooting Suspect". NPR.
- "S.C. governor calls for death penalty in church shooting". Boston Globe. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Chasmar, Jessica (June 3, 2016). "Nikki Haley links Donald Trump to Charleston shooting: 'I know what that rhetoric can do'". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Bacon, John (July 8, 2015). "Dylann Roof indicted in deadly Charleston rampage". USA Today. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- Kinnard, Meg (July 7, 2015). "New charges in Charleston church shooting: Attempted murder". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- "Charleston Shooting Suspect Roof To Be Indicted On Federal Hate Crime Charges". NPR. July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Knapp, Andrew (December 13, 2015). "In court, two cases against Dylann Roof playing out at different pace". The Post and Courier. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Kinnard, Meg; Smith, Bruce (July 31, 2015). "Not guilty plea in federal court for church shooting suspect". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Cohen, Andrew (July 31, 2015). "Meet Dylan Roof's Defender". The Marshall Project. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- Kinnard, Meg; Collins, Jeffrey (September 3, 2015). "Prosecutor: Church shooting suspect to face death penalty". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- McLeod, Harriet (September 16, 2015). "Accused gunman in Charleston church shooting proposes guilty plea". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- "Federal Trial Delayed for Charleston Church Shooter Dylann Roof". NBC News. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- "News Wrap: Federal trial postponed again for Dylann Roof". PBS NewsHour. December 1, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Court hearing scheduled for February for Dylann Roof, friend". FOX Carolina 21. January 7, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- Knapp, Andrew (January 7, 2016). "Federal hearing for church shooter Dylann Roof, friend set for Feb. 11". The Post and Courier. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
- Maxwell, Tonya (November 7, 2016). "Jury selection in 'Charleston 9' trial of Dylann Roof postponed". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof case: Jury selection postponed over competency issue". CNN. November 8, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- "Judge orders Dylann Roof competency hearing closed to media". The Washington Post. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Judge closes Dylann Roof competency hearing to the public". YAHOO! NEWS. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Judge Closes Dylann Roof Competency Hearing to the Public". The New York Times. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof represents self in Charleston murder trial". CNN. November 28, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Judge grants Dylann Roof's 'unwise' request to represent himself in church shooting trial". Chicago Tribune. November 28, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Charleston massacre accused Dylann Roof to defend himself". BBC NEWS. November 28, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Sack, Kevin (November 28, 2016). "Dylann Roof to Represent Himself at Trial in Charleston Church Shootings". New York Times. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof Wants His Lawyers Back to Begin Trial". New York Times. December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof: accused Charleston church gunman asks for defense team back". The Guardian. December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof to judge: Let lawyers back on death penalty case". Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof to judge: Let lawyers back on S.C. church death penalty case". Chicago Tribune. December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Judge Allows Dylann Roof to Hire Back His Lawyers for Guilt Phase of Trial". NBC News. December 5, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Accused Charleston church shooter Dylann Roof allowed to hire lawyers back, for now". Los Angeles Times. December 5, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- Johnson, Alex (December 6, 2016). "Judge Denies Motion to Delay Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof's Trial Over Slager Outrage". NBC News. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Stein, Sam (June 2, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Supports Death Penalty For Dylann Roof". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Feig, Zakk (November 25, 2016). "Dylan Roof declared competent to stand trial". Hotnewhiphop. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Alan Blinder, Dylann Roof, Charleston Church Killer, Is Deemed Competent for Sentencing, New York Times (January 2, 2017).
- Sack, Kevin; Blinder, Alan (December 7, 2016). "Heart-Rending Testimony as Dylann Roof Trial Opens". New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Alan Blinder & Kevin Sack, Spared by Gunman in Charleston, Churchgoer Describes Night of Terror, New York Times (December 4, 2016).
- Alan Blinder & Kevin Sack, Dylann Roof Found Guilty in Charleston Church Massacre, New York Times (December 15, 2016).
- Alan Blinder & Kevin Sack, Dylann Roof, Addressing Court, Offers No Apology or Explanation for Massacre, New York Times (January 4, 2017).
- Matt Zapotosky, Charleston church shooter: 'I would like to make it crystal clear, I do not regret what I did', Washington Post (January 4, 2016).
- "Dylann Roof, Charleston suspect, wore symbols of white supremacy". Gulf News USA. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- "Dylann Roof, Charleston Suspect, Wore Symbols of White Supremacy". The New York Times. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "The History Of Using White Female Sexuality To Justify Racist Violence". The Huffington Post. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- Bouie, Jamelle. "The deadly history of "They're raping our women"". Salon. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- "Charleston mass shooting: Reminder of past racist attacks on black churches". The Christian Science Monitor. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Lucas, Phillip (June 21, 2015). "Shootings' emotional burden looms over Sunday sermons". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Richardson, Clemon (June 24, 2015). "Charleston Church filled with signs of good and evil". North Dallas Gazette. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Goodwyn, Wade (June 26, 2015). "President Obama Delivers Eulogy At Funeral For Rev. Clementa Pinckney". NPR. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Jarvie, Jenny (June 24, 2015). "Hundreds line up in South Carolina's capital to honor slain pastor Clementa Pinckney". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Chuck, Elizabeth (June 27, 2015). "'They Will Not Have Died in Vain': Funerals Held for Three Charleston Victims". NBC News. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Foundation established for cause close to Charleston shooting victim's heart". WCNC. June 26, 2015. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Schafer, Susanne M. (July 2, 2015). "Last Funeral for Victim of Charleston Shooting in Columbia". ABC News. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "Charleston's Black Leaders Want To See Justice As Much As Forgiveness". NPR. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "Black Lives Matter: Charleston Shooting Was an Act of Terror". TeleSUR. June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- Pager, Tyler (August 16, 2015). "After Charleston, black churches straddle fine line between security, openness". USA Today. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Weismann, Lisa (May 30, 2016). "Artists donate talent for Emanuel AME victim portraits". Frankly Media and Raycom Media. Live5News. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- "Charleston portrait project pays tribute to Emanuel 9". Media General Communications Holdings, LLC. WCBD News 2. May 29, 2016. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Kinnard, Meg (July 1, 2016). "Charleston church shooting victims sue FBI over gun buy". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Collins, Jeffrey (June 30, 2015). "Another black church in South Carolina burns; cause unknown". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- Smith, Bruce; Henry, Ray (July 2, 2015). "Church fires not usually arson; weather found as cause in SC". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "The Black-Church Fires in Southern States Are Not Connected, Authorities Say". Time. July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Volokh, Eugene (July 11, 2015). "Dylann Roof apparently had not been arrested for a felony a month before he went through a gun purchase background check". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Collins, Jeffrey (July 13, 2015). "Jail clerical error acknowledged in church shooting gun buy". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- "Jail error led to Charleston shooting suspect's gun purchase". CBS News. July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Adcox, Seanna (December 19, 2015). "SC bills aim to close loophole that allowed Dylann Roof to buy a gun". The State. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Kinnard, Meg (September 17, 2015). "Official: Friend of Charleston church shooter arrested". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- Kinnard, Meg (September 18, 2015). "Indictment: Church shooter's friend knew about attack plans". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Joey Meek, friend of Dylann Roof, pleads not guilty to federal charges". The Washington Post. September 18, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Monk, John (April 29, 2016). "Joey Meek knew what Dylann Roof was going to do, told others not to talk to FBI". The State (newspaper). Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Dylann Roof friend sentenced to 27 months in prison". CNN. March 21, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "9 people killed in shooting at black church in Charleston, S.C." Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Obama On Charleston Shooting: 'This Type Of Mass Violence Does Not Happen In Other Advanced Countries'". The Huffington Post. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Read President Obama's Speech on the Charleston Church Shooting". Time. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "U.S. to fast track $29 million to help Charleston shooting victims' families". Reuters. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Kedmey, Dan (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof's Family Breaks Silence on Shooting". Time. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Barrabi, Thomas (June 25, 2015). "Dylann Roof's Family Releases New Statement On Charleston Church Shooting, Offers Condolences To Victims' Families". The International Business Times. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- "Organizers says 20,000 joined Bridge to Peace march on Ravenel Bridge". ABC News 4. June 21, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- "Response to Deadly Shootings at Church in Charleston, SC". World Methodist Council. 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Message of solidarity sent to African Methodist Episcopal Church". The Methodist Church in Britain. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Hahn, Heather; Brodie, Matt (June 18, 2015). "United Methodists stand with AME after church shooting". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Reddick, Lawrence (June 18, 2015). "News & Announcements for the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church". Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Kenny, Peter (June 18, 2015). "Worldwide churches condemn US 'race-hate' killing in Charleston". Ecumenical News.
- Kuruvilla, Carol; Blumberg, Antonia (June 18, 2015). "Faith Community Rallies Around Charleston Church After Shooting". The Huffington Post.
- "AJC Deplores Fatal Attack on Black Charleston Church". AJC. June 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- "Reform Movement Mourns Victims of Charleston AME Tragedy". RJ.org. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Wilner, Michael (June 18, 2015). "Jewish groups express 'heartbreak' over Charleston church shooting". The Jerusalem Post.
- DeSarro, Nina. "Muslim leader prays for peace in wake of Charleston shooting". myfoxlubbock.com. Retrieved June 30, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Our Community Responds to the Charleston Tragedy". detroitinterfaithcouncil.com/. DETROIT INTERFAITH COUNCIL. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "CAIR Stands with African-American Community After Terror Attack on Charleston Church". PR Newswire. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "ISNA Statement on Charleston Church Shooting". isna.net. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "US Muslims Call for Charleston 'Day of Prayer'". onislam.net. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- Blau, Max (July 10, 2015). "Muslim and Jewish groups at forefront of efforts to rebuild black churches". The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "U.S. presidential candidates react to South Carolina church shootings". Reuters. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Gonyea, Don; Montanaro, Domenico (June 19, 2015). "Predictably, Democrats, Republicans Don't Agree on Charleston Causes, Solutions". NPR. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Gass, Henry (June 22, 2015). "How presidential candidates are responding to Charleston, S.C., shooting". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Kreps, Daniel (June 19, 2015). "Watch Jon Stewart's Heartbreaking Charleston Shooting Monologue". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Thompson, Catherine (June 22, 2015). "Group That May Have Influenced Charleston Killer: He Had Some 'Legitimate Grievances'". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Garza, Lisa Maria (June 20, 2015). "NRA executive suggests slain Charleston pastor to blame for gun deaths". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Associated Press (June 19, 2015). "Charleston shooting the fault of slain pastor Clementa Pinckney, NRA board member writes". The Times-Picayune. Associated Press. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Rhodesians Worldwide homepage". Rhodesians Worldwide. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Panthers owner donates $100,000 to Charleston victims". National Football League. June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Panthers make generous donation for church shooting victims". WCNC.com. June 20, 2015. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Brown, Jeffrey (January 8, 2018). "This artist is taking on America's history of violence". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "Many Ask, Why Not Call Church Shooting Terrorism?". nytimes.com. June 18, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- "South Carolina Confederate Monument". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Moyer, Justin Wm. (June 19, 2015). "Why South Carolina's Confederate flag isn't at half-staff after church shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Alcindor, Yamiche; Stanglin, Doug (June 19, 2015). "Dylann Roof charged with 9 counts of murder in Charleston attack". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Rogers, Katie (June 19, 2015). "Charleston Shooting Reignites Debate About Confederate Flag". The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Barbaro, Michael (June 20, 2015). "Mitt Romney, Jeb Bush and Ted Cruz Weigh In on Confederate Flag at South Carolina Capitol". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Macpherson, Robert (June 20, 2015). "Protesters target Confederate flag after Charleston killings". Yahoo! News. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Niquette, Mark (June 22, 2015). "South Carolina Governor Backs Removal of Confederate Flag". Bloomberg News. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Sack, Kevin; Alvarez, Lizette (June 26, 2015). "President Obama Eulogizes Charleston Pastor as One Who Understood Grace". The New York Times. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Hathaway, Jay (June 26, 2015). "In Breathtaking Moment, Obama Leads Charleston Mourners in 'Amazing Grace'". Gawker. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Washington Post, Jenny Horne: How a descendant of the president of the Confederacy helped vanquish his flag accessdate=2015-07-09
- Wagner, Meg; Siemaszko, Corky (July 10, 2015). "Confederate flag fans, critics gather at S.C. statehouse". The New York Daily News. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Lee, MJ (June 23, 2015). "Walmart, Amazon.com, Sears, eBay to stop selling Confederate flag merchandise". CNN. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Rich, McCormik (June 23, 2015). "Warner Bros. scraps Dukes of Hazzard car toys over Confederate flag controversy". The Verge. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- McAllister, Edward (June 24, 2015). "At rural South Carolina flag factory, sadness and pride". Reuters.
- Osborn, Katy (June 23, 2015). "Prominent Flag Manufacturer Will Stop Producing Confederate Flags". Time. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
- Chapa, Sergio (June 23, 2015). "Dixie Flag will no longer sell confederate flags". San Antonio Business Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- "New Orleans tears down Confederate monument".
- "Institutions reconsider Confederate memorials after Charleston, S.C., church shooting". Mass Live. July 5, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- "Poll: Majority sees Confederate flag as Southern pride symbol, not racist". CNN. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- Swaine, Jon; Glenza, Jessica (June 22, 2015). "Four Republican hopefuls return money after 'Dylann Roof manifesto's revelation". The Guardian. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Alexander, Harriet (June 22, 2015). "Republican candidates accepted donations from man whose organisation inspired Dylann Roof". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Lichtblau, Eric (June 22, 2015). "White Supremacist Donated to 2016 G.O.P. Campaigns". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- "Leader of group cited in 'Dylann Roof manifesto' donated to top Republicans". The Guardian. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Thompson, Catherine (June 22, 2015). "Santorum To Give Away Money Donated To Him By White Supremacist". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
- Chowdhry, Affan (June 19, 2015). "Questions surround reluctance to label Charleston shooting as 'terrorism'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Phillips, Brian J. (June 18, 2015). "Was what happened in Charleston terrorism?". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Bergen, Peter; Sterman, David (June 19, 2015). "Call it terrorism in Charleston". CNN. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Groll, Elias (June 18, 2015). "Was the Charleston Massacre an Act of Terrorism?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Cobb, Jelani (June 29, 2015). "Terrorism in Charleston". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- Gladstone, Rick (June 18, 2015). "Civil-rights experts have one word for church attack: It was terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "FBI Director: Charleston shooting not terrorism". WHAM-TV. June 20, 2015. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- Harris, Shane (June 22, 2015). "White House Won't Back FBI Chief on Charleston 'Terror'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Gumbel, Andrew (June 25, 2015). "Beyond Dylann Roof: inside the hunt for domestic extremists in the digital age". The Guardian. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- Melber, Ari (June 24, 2015). "FBI: Terrorism charges not ruled out in Charleston shooting". MSNBC. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- The Last Rhodesian via Archive.org – Dylann Roof website
- "South Carolina State Senate Debate on the Confederate Flag". C-SPAN. June 23, 2015.
- #Charlestonsyllabus, a list of academic sources related to the shooting
- Marcelo Pisarro, "Un año de la masacre de Charleston: el debate que no fue", La Nación, June 12, 2016. (Spanish)