A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of firearms-related violence. There is no widely accepted definition of the term "mass shooting". The United States' Congressional Research Service acknowledges that there is not a broadly accepted definition, and defines a "public mass shooting" as an event where someone selects four or more people indiscriminately, and kills them, echoing the FBI's definition of the term "mass murder".
The characterization of an event as a mass shooting depends upon definition and definitions vary. Under U.S. federal law the Attorney General may on a request from a state assist in investigating "mass killings", rather than mass shootings. The term was originally defined as the murder of four or more people with no cooling-off period but redefined by Congress in 2013 as being murder of three or more people. In "Behind the Bloodshed", a report by USA Today, a mass killing is defined as any incident in which four or more were killed and also includes family killings. A crowdsourced data site cited by CNN, MSNBC, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Economist, the BBC, etc., Mass Shooting Tracker, defines a mass shooting as any incident in which four or more people are shot, whether injured or killed. A noteworthy connection has been reported in the U.S. between mass shootings and domestic or family violence, with a current or former intimate partner or family member killed in 76 of 133 cases (57%), and a perpetrator having previously been charged with domestic violence in 21. The lack of a single definition can lead to alarmism in the news media, with some reports conflating categories of crimes.
However, according to the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012, signed into law in January 2013, a mass killing is defined as a killing with at least three deaths, excluding the perpetrator. Another unofficial definition of a mass shooting is an event involving the shooting (not necessarily resulting in death) of five or more people (sometimes four) with no cooling-off period.
In Australia, a 2006 paper defined a mass shooting as "one in which ⩾5 firearm‐related homicides are committed by one or two perpetrators in proximate events in a civilian setting, not counting any perpetrators". Arguably this was done to not have to label the Monash University shooting as such.
Crime violence research group Gun Violence Archive, whose research is used by all major American media outlets defines Mass Shooting as "FOUR or more shot and/or killed in a single event [incident], at the same general time and location not including the shooter" differentiating between Mass Shooting and Mass Murder [Killing] and not counting shooters as victims.
An act is typically defined as terrorist if it "appears to have been intended" to intimidate or to coerce people; a mass shooting is not, in itself, an act of terrorism. A U.S. Congressional Research Service report explicitly excluded from its definition of public mass shootings those in which the violence is a means to an end, for example where the gunmen "pursue criminal profit or kill in the name of terrorist ideologies".
By continent and regionEdit
Mass shootings have occurred on the African continent, including the 2016 Grand Bassam attack in C’ôte d’Ivoire/Ivory Coast, 2015 Sousse attacks in Tunisia, the 2015 Bamako hotel attack in Bamako, Mali, the 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack in Nairobi, Kenya, and the 1994 Kampala wedding massacre in Kampala, Uganda. Most mass shootings in Africa have stemmed from terrorism, with tourists and diplomats frequently being the targets. Workplace violence and prejudice against ethnic minorities have less-frequently been involved in such spontaneous acts of mass violence.
Several mass shootings have occurred in Asia, including the 1878 Hyderabad shooting and 1983 Pashypatinath Temple shooting India, the 1938 Tsuyama massacre in Japan, the 1948 Babrra massacre in Pakistan, the 1993 Chongqing shooting and the 1994 Tian Mingjian incident in China.
One of the earliest documented cases of a mass shooting in world history was the 1878 Hyderabad shooting, in which 6 were killed and a further 4 were injured by a sepoy in the British Indian Army in Hyderabad, Sindh, British Raj.
The single deadliest event was the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 (while India was under British rule)- in which, under the command of Acting Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, approximately 1,000 non-violent protesters and Baisakhi pilgrims were killed, and 1,500 more were injured (as estimated by the Indian National Congress). More recently were the 2008 Mumbai attacks, in which 164 people were killed and a further 308 people were wounded by Muslim terrorists.
There have several many mass shootings in Israel, including the 1972 Lod Airport Massacre, which killed 26 and injured 80, the 2002 Bat Mitzvah massacre in Hadera, the 2014 Jerusalem synagogue attack in Jerusalem and the June 2016 June 2016 Tel Aviv shooting at the popular Sarona center complex in Tel Aviv.
There have been two mass shootings by Jews in Israel. Ami Popper was convicted of murdering seven Palestinian men in a mass shooting carried out in 1990. In 1994 Baruch Goldstein murdered 29 Muslims worshipping and injuring a further 125 in Hebron. Also known as the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre.
There have been many mass shootings in Europe, including scores of massacres in the 20th, 19th and earlier centuries. Recent examples including the 1987 Hungerford massacre, the 1993 Greysteel massacre, the 1996 Dunblane massacre and the 2010 Cumbria shootings in the United Kingdom, the 1990 Puerto Hurraco massacre in Spain, the 2001 Zug massacre in Switzerland, the 2002 Erfurt school massacre, the 2009 Winnenden school shooting, the 2011 Frankfurt Airport shooting and the 2016 Munich shooting in Germany, the 2007 Jokela school shooting and the 2008 Kauhajoki school shooting in Finland, the 2010 Bratislava shooting in Slovakia, the 2011 Norway attacks in Norway, the 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting (and related attacks) and the November 2015 Paris attacks in France and the 2018 Macerata attack in Italy.
Notable mass shootings that occurred in the russian Empire, Soviet Union (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) and Russia include the Pogroms in the Russian Empire, 1992 Tatarstan shooting in Tatarstan, the 2002 Yaroslavsky shooting in Yaroslavsky, the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis, the 2012 Moscow shooting and the 2014 Moscow school shooting in Moscow, the 2004 Beslan school siege in Beslan and 2013 Belgorod shooting in Belgorod.
Notable mass shootings in Canada include the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre, the 1992 Concordia University massacre and the 2006 Dawson College shooting in Montreal, the 2012 Danzig Street shooting and the 2018 Danforth shooting in Toronto, the 2014 Edmonton killings in Edmonton and the 2017 Quebec City mosque shooting in Quebec City.
In one study by criminologist Adam Lankford, it was estimated that 31% of public mass shootings occur in the US, although it has only 5% of the world's population. The study concludes that "The United States and other nations with high firearm ownership rates may be particularly susceptible to future public mass shootings, even if they are relatively peaceful or mentally healthy according to other national indicators." Criminologist Gary Kleck criticized Adam's findings stating the study fails to provide evidence that gun ownership increases mass shootings and that Lankford has been unwilling to share a list of his cases, provide a list of the number of attacks per country, or even list his sources so that others can check his numbers. A study by economist John Lott also raised objections to Lankford's methodology and refusal to share his data. The study found that Lankford had overlooked a significant number of mass shootings outside the US and estimated that when these shootings are accounted for the nations share of mass shootings was closer to 2.88%, below the world average.
Mass shootings have also been observed to be followed by an increase in the purchase of weapons, but this phenomenon seems to be driven by a minority since neither gun owners nor non-owners report an increased feeling of needing guns.
Notable mass shootings in Australia include the 1987 Hoddle Street massacre in Hoddle Street, Clifton Hill, Melbourne and the 1996 Port Arthur Massacre in Port Arthur, Tasmania. There were 13 mass shootings with five or more deaths between 1979 and 1996, and depending on definition between 3 and 9, following stricter gun control laws.
Notable mass shootings in New Zealand include the 1990 Aramoana massacre in which 14 people were killed (including the perpetrator) in Aramoana and the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, which resulted in 51 deaths and is the largest mass shooting in New Zealand history.
Victims and survivorsEdit
After mass shootings, some survivors have written about their experiences and their experiences have been covered by journalists. A survivor of the Knoxville Unitarian Universalist church shooting wrote about his reaction to other mass shooting incidents. The father of a victim in a mass shooting at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, wrote about witnessing other mass shootings after the loss of his son. The survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks recounted their experience to GQ. In addition, one paper studied Swedish police officers' reactions to a mass shooting.
Notable mass shooters from outside the United States include Anders Behring Breivik (Norway, 2011), Robert Steinhauser and Tim Kretschmer (Germany, 2002 and 2009), William Unek (Africa, 1954 and 1957), Marc Lépine, Valery Fabrikant and Alexandre Bissonnette (Canada, 1989, 1992 and 2017), Pekka-Eric Auvinen and Matti Juhani Saari (Finland, 2007 and 2008), Genildo Ferreira de França (Brazil, 1997), Friedrich Leibacher (Switzerland, 2001), Ľubomír Harman (Slovakia, 2010), Tristan van der Vlis (Netherlands, 2011), Richard Komakech (Uganda, 1994), Omar Abdul Razeq Abdullah Rifai (Egypt, 2013), Farda Gadirov (Azerbaijan, 2009), Martin Bryant and Benjamin Hoffmann (Australia, 1996 and 2019), Michael Robert Ryan and Derrick Bird (England, 1987 and 2010), Thomas Hamilton (Scotland, 1996), Ljubiša Bogdanović (Serbia, 2013), Woo Bum-kon (South Korea, 1982), Heinz Schmidt (Germany, 1913), Stanisław Ławrynowicz and Janusz Obrąbalski (Poland, 1925), Zdenek Kovar (Czech Republic, 2015), Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (Nepal, 2001), Jessie Javier Carlos (Philippines, 2017), Mohammed Merah (France, 2012), David Ali Sonboly (Germany, 2016), Vladislav Roslyakov (Crimea, 2018), Guilherme Monteiro and Luiz Henrique de Castro (Brazil, 2019) and Brenton Tarrant (New Zealand, 2019).
Notable perpetrators of mass shootings in the U.S. include Edward Charles Allaway, James Edward Pough, Carl Robert Brown, Omar Mateen, Robert A. Hawkins, James Oliver Huberty, Nathan Dunlap, George Hennard, Dylann Roof, Adam Lanza, Nidal Malik Hasan, Charles Whitman, Jeff Weise, Gang Lu, Patrick Sherrill, Eric Houston, Barry Loukaitis, Laurie Dann, Christopher Harper-Mercer, Gian Luigi Ferri, Mark Essex, Scott Evans Dekraai, Steven Kazmierczak, Jennifer San Marco, James Eagan Holmes, Anthony F. Barbaro, Michael McLendon, Rodrick Shonte Dantzler, Jared Lee Loughner, Seung-Hui Cho, Elliot Rodger, Charles Carl Roberts IV, Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik, Robert Lewis Dear, Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden, Aaron Alexis, Wade Michael Page, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Patrick Edward Purdy, Gavin Eugene Long, Micah Xavier Johnson, Kyle Aaron Huff, One L. Goh, Randy Stair, Stephen Paddock, Devin Patrick Kelley, William Atchison, Nikolas Cruz, Dimitrios Pagourtzis, David Katz, Robert Bowers, Scott Beierle, Ian Long, Zephen Xaver, Dakota Theriot, Gary Martin, John T. Earnest, Trystan Terrell, Devon Erickson and Alec Maya McKinney, and DeWayne Craddock. Males account for 98% of mass shooters. According to a database compiled by Mother Jones magazine, the race of the shooters is approximately proportionate to the overall U.S. population, although Asians are overrepresented and Latinos underrepresented. Criminologist James Allen Fox said that most mass murderers do not have a criminal record, or involuntary incarceration at a mental health center, but an article in The New York Times in December 2015 about 15 recent mass shootings found that six perpetrators had had run-ins with law enforcement, and six had mental health issues.
Mass shootings can be motivated by political ideologies (i.e. white nationalism, neo-Nazism, black nationalism and left-wing beliefs), misanthropy, terrorism, mental illness, extensive bullying, among other reasons. Forensic psychologist Stephen Ross says that extreme anger and the thought shooters are working for a cause, rather than mental illness, is most often the explanation. A study by Vanderbilt University researchers found that "fewer than 5% of the 120,000 gun-related killings in the United States between 2001 and 2010 were perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental illness". John Roman of the Urban Institute argues that, while better access to mental health care, restricting high powered weapons, and creating a defensive infrastructure to combat terrorism are constructive, they don't address the greater issue, which is "we have a lot of really angry young men in our country and in the world."
Author Dave Cullen described killer Eric Harris as an "injustice collector" in his 2009 book Columbine. He expanded on the concept in a 2015 New Republic essay on injustice collectors, identifying several notorious killers as fitting the category, including Christopher Dorner, Elliot Rodger, Vester Flanagan, and Andrew Kehoe. Likewise, mass shooting expert and former FBI profiler Mary O'Toole also uses the phrase "injustice collector" in characterizing motives of some mass shooting perpetrators. In relation, criminologist James Alan Fox contends that mass murderers are "enabled by social isolation" and typically experience "years of disappointment and failure that produce a mix of profound hopelessness and deep-seated resentment." Jillian Peterson, an assistant professor of criminology at Hamline University who is participating in the construction of a database on mass shooters, noted that two phenomena surface repeatedly in the statistics: hopelessness and a need for notoriety in life or in death. Notoriety was first suggested as a possible motive and researched by Justin Nutt. Nutt stated in a 2013 article, "those who feel nameless and as though no one will care or remember them when they are gone may feel doing something such as a school shooting will make sure they are remembered and listed in the history books."
In considering the frequency of mass shootings in the United States, criminologist Peter Squires says that the individualistic culture in the United States puts the country at greater risk for mass shootings than other countries, noting that "many other countries where gun ownership is high, such as Norway, Finland, Switzerland and Israel . . . tend to have more tight-knit societies where a strong social bond supports people through crises, and mass killings are fewer." He is an advocate of gun control, but contends there is more to mass shootings than the prevalence of guns. The Italian Marxist academic Franco Berardi argues that the hyper-individualism, social alienation and competitiveness fomented by neoliberal ideology and capitalism creates mass shooters by causing people to "malfunction."
Social science and family structureEdit
Harvard sociologist Robert J. Sampson writes: "Family structure is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, predictor of variations in urban violence across cities in the United States. The close empirical connection between family breakdown and crime suggests that increased spending on crime-fighting, imprisonment, and criminal justice in the United States over the last 40 years is largely the direct or indirect consequence of marital breakdown." His views are echoed by the eminent criminologists Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi, who have written that "such family measures as the percentage of the population divorced, the percentage of households headed by women, and the percentage of unattached individuals in the community are among the most powerful predictors of crime rates."
Based on the research of another social scientist who was himself raised by a single mother, Bradford Wilcox, "boys living in single mother homes are almost twice as likely to end up delinquent compared to boys who enjoy good relationships with their father."
Moynihan said that "almost all school shooters come from families where the parents are either divorced or alienated", and Cook argued that "perhaps they wouldn't need more gun control if they had better divorce control."
Some people have considered whether media attention revolving around the perpetrators of mass shootings is a factor in sparking further incidents. In response to this, some in law enforcement have decided against naming mass shooting suspects in media-related events to avoid giving them notoriety.
The effects of messages used in the coverage of mass shootings has been studied. Researchers studied the role the coverage plays in shaping attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies.
In 2015 a paper written by a physicist and statistician, Sherry Towers, along with four colleagues was published, which proved that there is indeed mass shooting contagion using mathematical modeling. However, in 2017 Towers said in an interview that she prefers self-regulation to censorship to address this issue, just like years ago major news outlets successfully prevent copycat suicide.
In 2016 the American Psychological Association published a press release, claiming that mass shooting contagion does exist and news media and social media enthusiasts should withhold the name(s) and face(s) of the victimizer(s) when reporting a mass shooting to deny the fame the shooter(s) want to curb contagion.
Some news media have weighed in on the gun control debate. After the 2015 San Bernardino attack, the New York Daily News' front-page headline, "God isn't fixing this", was accompanied by "images of tweets from leading Republicans who shared their 'thoughts' and 'prayers' for the shooting victims". Since the 2014 Isla Vista killings, satirical news website The Onion has republished the story "'No Way To Prevent This', Says Only Nation Where This Regularly Happens" with minor edits after major mass shootings, to satirise the popular consensus that there is a lack of political power in the United States to prevent mass shootings.
Gun law reformEdit
Responses to mass shootings take a variety of forms, depending on the country and political climate.
As a result of the mass shootings Hungerford massacre in Hungerford, England and Dunblane school massacre in Stirling, Scotland, the United Kingdom enacted tough gun laws and a buyback program to remove specific classes of firearms (The Firearms Amendment Act 1988 limiting rifles and shotguns, and the 1997 Firearms Amendment Acts which restricted or made illegal many handguns) from private ownership. There have been two mass shootings since the laws were restricted, the Cumbria shootings in 2010 which killed 13 people and the Moss Side mass shooting in 2018, in which no-one was killed.
In the United States, support for gun law reform varies considerably by political party, with Democrats generally more supportive and Republicans generally more opposed. Some in the U.S. believe that tightening gun laws would prevent future mass shootings. Some politicians in the U.S. introduced legislation to reform the background check system for purchasing a gun. A vast majority of Americans support tighter background checks. "According to a poll [Made by CNN] by Quinnipiac University in Connecticut, 93 percent of registered voters said they would support universal background checks for all gun buyers."
Others contend that mass shootings should not be the main focus in the gun law reform debate because these shootings account for less than one percent of the U.S. homicide rate and believe that these shootings are hard to stop. They often argue that civilians with concealed guns will be able to stop shootings.
According to British criminologist Peter Squires who has studied gun violence in different countries, mass shootings may be more due to the "individualistic culture" in the U.S. than its firearm laws.
Gun control policies may cause a lot of controversy due to divided opinions on who should be able to carry a weapon. An opinion survey was conducted by the firm GfK Knowledge Networks to differentiate between the different attitudes towards gun control. There was a gun policy survey and a mental illness survey. Studies showed that over 85% of those questioned supported national background checks into the mental health records of citizens attempting to purchase a gun. More than 50% of people felt that those with mental health issues were more deviant and threatening than those who had good mental health. The study also found that there is large interest in contributing to mental health awareness as well as simply prohibiting those with mental illness from purchasing guns. Nearly two thirds of respondents supported greater government spending on mental health, with more than 60% of people believing this would reduce gun violence in the USA. (Colleen L. Barry, 2013)
As of June 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama had spoken in the aftermath of fourteen mass shootings during his nearly eight-year presidency, repeatedly calling for more gun safety laws in the United States. After the Charleston church shooting, U.S. President Barack Obama said, "At some point, we as a country will have to reckon with the fact that this type of mass violence does not happen in other advanced countries. It doesn't happen in other places with this kind of frequency." After the December 2015 San Bernardino attack, Obama renewed his call for reforming gun-safety laws and also said that the frequency of mass shootings in the United States has "no parallel in the world". After the February 2018 attack at Florida's Parkland school shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School, the school's student survivors, teachers, and parents became strong leaders in the effort to ban assault weapon sales and easy accessibility to military weapons.
Follman, Mark. "What Exactly Is A Mass Shooting". Mother Jones. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
What is a mass shooting?
Broadly speaking, the term refers to an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence. But there is no official set of criteria or definition for a mass shooting, according to criminology experts and FBI officials contacted by Mother Jones.
- Bjelopera, Jerome P. (March 18, 2013). "Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 8, 2015. "There is no broadly agreed-to, specific conceptualization of this issue, so this report uses its own definition for public mass shootings."
Morton, Robert J. "Serial Murder". FBI Updates, Reports and Publications. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
Generally, mass murder was described as a number of murders (four or more) occurring during the same incident, with no distinctive time period between the murders.
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(I)the term mass killings means 3 or more killings in a single incident;
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In January 2013, a mandate for federal investigation of mass shootings authorized by President Barack Obama lowered that baseline to three or more victims killed.line feed character in
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