Danzig Street shooting

The Danzig Street shooting or Danzig shooting was a Canadian gang-related shooting. It occurred on the evening of 16 July 2012 at a block party on Danzig Street in the West Hill neighbourhood of Toronto. Rival gang members Folorunso Owusu, 17, and Nahom Tsegazab, 19, along with an unidentified third gunman, opened fire in a crowd of two hundred people. This resulted in the deaths of Joshua Yasay and Shyanne Charles, and the injury of twenty-four others (including two of the perpetrators), making it the worst mass shooting in Toronto.[a]

Danzig Street shooting
Location of shooting in Toronto
LocationWest Hill, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Coordinates43°45′52″N 79°10′58″W / 43.7645°N 79.1829°W / 43.7645; -79.1829Coordinates: 43°45′52″N 79°10′58″W / 43.7645°N 79.1829°W / 43.7645; -79.1829[1]
Date16 July 2012; 9 years ago (2012-07-16)
10:40 pm
Attack type
Mass shooting
Weapons
Deaths2
Injured24 (22 victims + 2 perpetrators)
PerpetratorsGalloway Boys, Le Side Crew
AssailantsFolorunso Owusu, Nahom Tsegazab, and an unidentified gunman
MotiveGang rivalry
ConvictedShaquan Mesquito, Folorunso Owusu, Nahom Tsegazab, Naod Tsegazab

A 2008 provincial report had warned of increasing trends in youth violence but key recommendations to stop at-risk youth from joining gangs had not been adopted. Around 2010 the West Hill-based Galloway Boys gang was re-forming, recruiting youths who obtained guns used in conflicts for territory and leadership. Some of these youths held a party with free alcohol following a children's barbecue at a social housing complex. After a series of confrontations, threats escalated into the shooting.

Although initially believed to be the resumption of a 2003 gang war between the Galloway Boys and the Malvern Crew, it later became clear that the Danzig Street shooting was not part of a territorial dispute or retaliation for another incident but a disagreement between teenagers who then had a gunfight at a party.[3] Police initially received few tips from frightened witnesses but were able to make two arrests that month; two additional arrests came following a reprisal shooting in September. The four young men convicted were aged 15 to 19 at the time of the shooting; two were minors and their names were withheld under the Youth Criminal Justice Act until they were sentenced as adults.[4][5] Justice Ian Nordheimer said of the incident, "Ordinary persons do not understand how anyone, much less teenagers, can come not only to possess such weapons, but to use them in such a brutal and indifferent way."[6]

The incident, in conjunction with the Eaton Centre shooting six weeks earlier and a shooting in a Colorado movie theatre four days later, renewed debate on gun crime in urban areas. Despite falling national crime rates, a poll taken the following week showed that a majority of Canadians were in fear of "a violent crime wave".[7] The shooting led the Toronto Police Service to develop new crime-prevention strategies for the Neighbourhood Officers program, established to build community relationships in at-risk areas to gain information on local crime, making possible targeted crackdowns on gang activity and a dramatic reduction in shootings and other crimes. Police 43 Division (which includes Danzig Street) reported no homicides the following year.

BackgroundEdit

The Galloway Boys (a.k.a. G-Way) were one of the most well-known and violent criminal gangs in Toronto,[8][1] their turf centered on the intersection of Galloway and Kingston Roads in the neighbourhood of West Hill.[9] They raised fears of violence in the city's eastern district of Scarborough in 2003 and 2004 while battling with rival gang the Malvern Crew over territory for street drugs and prostitution.[3] The deadly turf war resulted in Ontario's largest street-gang crackdown and prosecutions,[10] with 75 arrests of alleged gang members on more than 600 criminal charges.[11]

With the Galloway Boys' leadership locked away,[b] there was a notable decrease in violent crime. However, many of those gang leaders had been sentenced to five- or seven-year jail terms; when they were released around 2010, they began mentoring youths recruited into the gang.[10] The younger members obtained guns and used them[8] in conflicts for control of the gang and territory, resulting in a string of shootings and killings in 2011 and 2012.[9] From January to September 2012 there was a 22 percent increase in shooting incidents and a 41 percent increase in shooting victims in the city compared to the same period in 2011.[10]

Kingston–Galloway had been identified in 2004 as one of thirteen areas of poverty and substandard city services designated as priority investment neighbourhoods in Toronto's Strong Neighbourhoods Strategy. The plan sought to counter gang involvement and improve economic opportunities under a citizenship model of governance. It lost political support following the retirement of Mayor David Miller in 2010 and was effectively dismantled in early 2012.[13][14][c]

 
Morningside-Coronation housing complex viewed from Danzig Street, 2018

In Toronto, blockos are a form of block party based on a tradition of outdoor gatherings in the West Indies. They are held by neighbours and outreach workers, particularly during the city's warm, humid summers. Daytime activities are focused on children, and the evenings provide an alternative for residents who cannot afford to go out to restaurants, clubs, etc. Since the 1970s many blockos have been held each year at Toronto Community Housing Corporation (TCHC) developments without incident.[15][16]

The 101-unit townhouse social housing complex at Danzig Street and Morningside Avenue is called Morningside Coronation by TCHC and D-Block by the young families that reside there.[17] Alcohol is prohibited in common areas without a special-occasion permit.[15] There is a strict no-gun policy: anyone caught with a gun is turned over to police, and tenants caught housing someone with a gun are evicted.[18]

EventEdit

Block partyEdit

A blocko was organized at the Danzig Street housing complex for 15 July 2012 by resident Shannon Longshaw, a 28-year-old mother of two, as an afternoon children's barbecue. Meanwhile, from 7 July the Twitter account @2ToneShorty, linked to 19-year-old Galloway Boys member Nahom Tsegazab,[17][19] had been promoting the gathering as a "HennessyBlock Party". The messages promised a live DJ and 30 bottles of Hennessy cognac on ice, free for all. Over the course of a week, more than two dozen open invitations were sent from the account and spread across social media as #hennessyblockparty.[17][9] Some residents made Twitter posts expressing concerns over the potential for violence.[20]

The party, which was delayed to Monday 16 July due to a rainstorm, began in Longshaw's backyard at 2 pm. Tenants provided food and children's activities,[17] including face painting[21] and an improvised water slide.[15] Tsegazab handed out school supplies and basketballs.[22] The children's party was to end at 5 pm, but by then adults were already assembling in the parking lot,[23] and the Galloway Boys "took ownership" of the blocko. By 7 pm a crowd was gathering and alcohol was being consumed to loud hip hop music. An hour later there were Jaguars and Hummers parked around the block, marijuana smoke in the air,[d] and more than 200 people packing the complex's narrow internal lane. Worried about the presence of people they did not know, some residents took their children inside their homes.[17] One resident could not use the walkway without bumping into people, describing it as being like a jammed nightclub.[15]

Several noise complaints were made to police, and bicycle patrols were dispatched, but the party was allowed to continue.[17] According to Gene Jones, then-CEO of TCHC, the event had not been sanctioned by TCHC and should have ended before 9 pm.[18][20]

ProvocationsEdit

The crowd in the complex's lane was filling in when the Galloway Boys began "G-checking", confronting people they did not recognize and telling those from rival gang territories to leave.[3] 18-year-old Shaquan Mesquito of Malvern, an alleged Malvern Crew member known as "Bam Bam",[25] who had come to the party unarmed, was ordered to leave[26] by Tsegazab's 15-year-old brother Naod.[4] Naod threatened to shoot Mesquito if he did not leave immediately.[4][26]

Angry at being forced to leave, Mesquito sent out a number of Twitter posts[26] urging others to go on a killing spree and shoot up the party.[4] Shortly after 9 pm, Nahom Tsegazab was warned about these threats. Tsegazab then armed himself with a .40 calibre pistol and told others to be prepared for a possible shootout.[26]

ShootingEdit

Folorunso Owusu, a 17-year-old Le Side Crew gang member,[27] arrived at the party and was confronted by Nahom Tsegazab, who displayed a handgun and challenged Owusu to fight if he did not leave. At approximately 10:40 pm, less than two minutes after arriving at the party, Owusu opened fire with a 9 mm handgun, shooting Tsegazab twice.[4] He was hit once in the right biceps and once in abdomen; one of the bullets passed through Tsegazab and injured a bystander.[28] Tsegazab fell to the ground in front of 207 Danzig Street and reached for his gun, recklessly firing eleven rounds at Owusu, who retreated through the crowd.[22] One of these bullets struck Owusu in the leg.[28] A third shooter, who remains unidentified, fired fourteen rounds from an Uzi submachine-gun into the crowd.[29]

Twenty-four bystanders were shot, two fatally, and three people were trampled by the panicked crowd (including a pregnant woman[30]).[23][e] The shooting victims were aged 22 months to 33 years.[30] Shyanne Charles, 14, was fleeing from the initial gunfire when she ran into the line of fire of the third shooter. She was struck by several bullets and collapsed and died on the doorstep of 203 Danzig Street.[36] Joshua Yasay, 23, a community mentor with an honours degree in criminology who aspired to be a police officer,[37] was shot by a bullet that pierced his heart and lungs.[29] It has not been determined whether Tsegazab or the third shooter killed him.[22]

Aftermath and initial arrestsEdit

The injured were taken to five area hospitals by sixteen ambulances and an emergency medical services bus.[17][38] This was the first occasion that Sunnybrook Hospital's trauma centre – then the largest of its kind in Canada – declared a Code Orange for mass casualties with almost 100 staff involved in the response.[31] In May 2015 a team of paramedics were honoured for their actions during the shooting.[35]

Investigators found more than 25 fired shell casings at the scene and recovered five firearms.[39] Thirty alcohol bottles were picked up after the shooting.[15] Police, community workers, and the media suspected that the shooting was between members of the Galloway Boys and the Malvern Crew, having anticipated a violent clash as some senior members of the rival gangs had been released from prison.[40][26] This belief was reinforced when, two and a half hours after the shooting on Danzig Street, there was a shooting at another TCHC complex on Whiteleas Avenue, 10 km (6.2 mi) away. Two bullets were fired through the front window of the house where Mesquito lived with his mother. No one was injured.[41]

On 19 July, while being treated at hospital, Nahom Tsegazab was charged with reckless discharge of a firearm in relation to the Danzig Street shooting.[42] The following day, approximately 1,000 people participated in a memorial march for Charles and Yasay.[43] Mesquito was arrested on 27 July for two counts of uttering threats to cause serious bodily harm at the block party. At the time of his arrest, Mesquito had been carrying a loaded .22 calibre revolver for which he was charged with nine weapons-related offenses. Within 12 days of his arrest, Mesquito's family were evicted by TCHC for a lease violation.[41][3]

In the search for gunmen, police executed a series of vehicle inspections, checks on parolees, and search warrants in the week of 29 July – 4 August, during the course of which over twenty firearms and hundreds of rounds of ammunition were seized.[44] There were concerns about violence during the 4 August Caribana parade, which attracts one million people,[45] and which had been the site of a fatal shooting in 2011.[46] Hundreds of additional officers were deployed and police announced no serious incidents at the parade.[47]

Social mediaEdit

Initial reports from the shooting came via Twitter posts from witnesses and victims.[48] Within hours of the shooting, Twitter was flooded with posts warning that a possible relative of Charles would seek out those responsible.[49] "This is just the beginning. Touched the wrong people," read another message. Police also looked into whether a rap video posted two days before the shooting may have been related.[20][50] As part of the investigation, police went through thousands of text messages and intercepted phone calls to rebuild the sequence of events. Among these messages were several in which Mesquito claimed responsibility for the shooting.[33]

Investigation and later arrestsEdit

Police were met with silence in many areas as they asked for witnesses to come forward,[51] receiving few tips despite so many people having been witnesses to, or victims of, the events. The investigation gained momentum within a few weeks[52] while the Summer Safety Initiative was launched to confront gangs and violence,[53] putting officers on foot patrol in high-crime areas. Officers built relationships with residents of those communities, where some had a historic distrust of police and fears of gang retaliation.[54]

A related shooting occurred on 2 September at a TCHC townhouse complex on Chester Le Boulevard. Naod Tsegazab had tracked down Owusu to retaliate for trying to kill his brother, Nahom.[55] Naod found Owusu riding a bicycle and shot him in the upper thigh.[55] Owusu fell and Naod approached and aimed down to shoot Owusu in the head but the gun had jammed.[56] Owusu fled and was taken to hospital.[57] As a result of the shooting, a search warrant was carried out on Owusu's Chester Le Boulevard home, leading to cocaine trafficking charges[55] being laid on 3 September.[52] On 4 September, a search warrant was executed at Naod's home and Naod was charged with 16 offences including weapon and cocaine charges and the attempted murder of Owusu.[57][32]

The first murder charge of the Danzig Street shooting investigation was made against Mesquito on 7 November. He was charged with the attempted murder of Nahom Tsegazab, two counts of first-degree murder and 23 counts of aggravated assault.[39] Later that month Nahom Tsegazab was charged with two counts of second-degree murder and 22 counts of aggravated assault.[58][59] Owusu was arraigned with similar charges at the end of November.[32] As the fourth person charged in connection with the Danzig Street shooting, Naod was charged on 4 December with threatening death and weapons offenses but not murder.[3]

On 23 January 2015, the murder and assault charges against Mesquito were dropped after police uncovered evidence that he was in an apartment building 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) away at the time of the shooting. Mesquito had continued to claim credit for the shooting throughout the 30 months he was in custody. His lawyer suggested that since Mesquito had called for people to shoot up the party, he may have thought people close to him had done it and so took responsibility. In fact, no connection was found between Mesquito and Owusu, who had initiated the shooting. The defence lawyer praised police and the Crown Attorney, and stated that he had never before been involved in a case where law enforcement, the prosecution, and the defence had worked together to uncover the facts.[33]

ConvictionsEdit

Nahom Tsegazab pleaded guilty on 11 April 2014[60] to two counts of manslaughter and six counts of aggravated assault, and was sentenced to fourteen years in prison.[36][4] Tsegazab admitted that in participating in the gunfight he was a party to all the deaths and injuries that ensued.[29] In March 2020 he was granted day parole[61] which was extended in October for another six months.[62]

Shaquan Mesquito pleaded guilty on 23 January 2015 to counselling to commit murder, possession of a firearm, breach of a prohibition order, and uttering a threat. He was sentenced to nine years in prison (less time served).[63] Although no connection was found to link Mesquito with Owusu, it was determined that Mesquito's threats to revisit the block party and "shoot it up" had put the Galloway Boys on a "hair trigger".[4]

Naod Tsegazab pleaded guilty in 2015 to the attempted murder of Owusu in the 2 September Chester Le Boulevard shooting, carried out in the belief that Owusu had shot his brother. He was sentenced as an adult to seven years in prison.[4] He was released in January 2018.[56]

Folorunso Owusu pleaded not guilty to two counts of second-degree murder, one count of attempted murder against Nahom Tsezagab, two counts of aggravated assault, and one charge of reckless discharging of a firearm.[26] The defence maintained during the seven-week trial that Owusu was innocent and a victim of circumstance, shot while attending the party.[4] The Crown provided a recording of Naod Tsegazab in the courthouse cells identifying Owusu, by nickname, as his brother's shooter. However, Naod testified that he invented the story to look tougher in jail, and Nahom Tsegazab testified that Owusu did not shoot him.[4] Found guilty, Owusu was sentenced as an adult to life in prison on 7 December 2016.[5] None of the bullets Owusu fired had killed anyone, but his actions had initiated the gunfire that killed two and injured twenty-two bystanders.[26] In May 2017 Owusu was found guilty of criminal negligence charges,[27][f] and sentenced to four years, to be served concurrently with the life sentence.[27] He was incarcerated at the Roy McMurty Youth Centre (where he had been held since November 2012) and in July 2019 was transferred to an adult prison.[64]

EffectsEdit

Crime and policingEdit

The 16 July Danzig Street shooting was the worst mass shooting in Toronto,[39][65][3][61][a] and occurred just six weeks after the Eaton Centre shooting.[27] The event made headlines around the world[1] and prompted renewed debate on gun crime in urban areas. Two other deadly shooting incidents in the city followed within three days,[66][42] and three shootings occurred that Friday night.[43] That same evening a lone gunman opened fire in a Colorado movie theatre, killing twelve.[67][68][69][70]

Although data showed crime was decreasing nationally, a 25–26 July Forum Research poll for the National Post suggested that Canadians believed otherwise. The recent mass shootings and media coverage had a majority fearing "a violent crime wave". Pamela Rutledge, a media researcher studying the psychological impact of news coverage, stated that the apparent randomness of the crimes could lead to this perception. "They really trigger a sense of fear in us because they aren't explainable [...] There's no way of making sense of it or figuring out why it didn't happen to me. So that anxiety accelerates your sense of danger."[7]

The Toronto Police Service established a strong uniform presence at Danzig Street, Kingston–Galloway, and other areas that struggled with gang violence, in an attempt to stop acts of revenge.[20] This was extended with the Summer Safety Initiative, a seven-week program of mandatory overtime that effectively added more than 300 officers to patrols. The program emphasized "old-school policing", with officers walking street patrols in high-crime areas, building relationships with residents and the community. During those summer weeks, which typically see a spike in shootings and other crime, shooting deaths declined from a seven-year average of 6.4 to 2,[71] with dramatic drops in other violent crime categories. The initiative cost $2 million, though Police Chief Bill Blair said it saved money by preventing crimes that are expensive to investigate.[54]

The 2012 Summer Safety Initiative led to crime-prevention strategies and the development in 2013 of the Neighbourhood Officers program, which focused on high-crime areas in each of Toronto's seventeen police divisions. In the program, officers are dedicated to a specific area for a period of at least two years, shifting away from enforcement-based policing to building relationships with residents, learning of specific issues affecting the communities, and improving intelligence about local crime.[71] The provincially-funded TAVIS (Toronto Anti-violence Intervention Strategy) program saw a similar shift in focus, having faced controversy for a practice of stopping, questioning, and documenting people – a procedure known as carding – which resulted in community distrust.[71]

The shooting brought an offer from Customs and Immigration officers to patrol with Toronto Police in hunts for gunmen. A liaison officer was established so police could quickly obtain immigration information on suspects. Nahom Tsegazab had arrived in Canada as a refugee from Somalia.[45]

Violent crime rates dropped in the year following the shooting,[72] and in 2013 there were no homicides in 43 Division (southeast Scarborough, including Danzig Street), which recorded falling crime rates in every category.[73] Deputy Chief of Police Peter Sloly credited the declining crime rates to several actors: the city, non-profit organizations, volunteers, youth outreach workers, community organizations, and a new victim and witness support program.[71] In 2015 community policing officers reported feeling more welcome and receiving more information from residents, intelligence that allowed police to implement a more "surgical policing model" that was less invasive on the community.[74]

Toronto Police Association President Mike McCormack said of the Danzig Street shooting: "It changed the way we gather intelligence, do investigations and it really brought the whole issue of gang culture and some of the challenges that we have in policing to the forefront."[74]

Gang crackdownEdit

The Danzig Street shooting generated new intelligence for police[8] of an internal leadership struggle for control of the Galloway Boys and a territorial dispute with the neighbouring Orton Park Boys.[10] Police linked the Galloway Boys to eight shooting incidents between 4 September 2011 and 10 August 2012, including:[9]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Locations of Danzig Street shooting (red), Whiteleas Ave shooting (blue), Chester Le Blvd shooting (magenta), and other 2011–2012 shootings linked to the Galloway Boys (lime).
  • Domino's shooting (4 September 2011) – three men were shot outside a Domino's Pizza parlour at Lawrence Avenue East and Susan Street.[75]
  • Northfield Drive shooting (4 November 2011) – a man was shot in the neck and chest during a drug deal on Northfield Drive off of Orton Park Road. Ramon Williams was charged with attempted murder.[8]
  • Kingston Road drive-by (28 December 2011) – three young men were shot at 4315 Kingston Road in the territory of the Galloway Boys.[75]
  • Murder of D'Mitre Barnaby (30 December 2011) – Barnaby was shot to death in the parking lot of the Susan Towers apartment building at 3847 Lawrence Avenue East, mistaken for the drive-by shooter.[8][75]
  • 3827 Lawrence East shooting (15 January 2012) – several shots were fired on the second floor of an apartment. Blood was found at the scene, but no victim has been identified.[75]
  • Danzig Street shooting (16 July 2012)
  • 4100 Lawrence East shooting (6 August 2012) – several shots were fired, with no known victims.[75]
  • Lawrence LRT shooting (10 August 2012) – one of the emerging leaders of the Galloway Boys was chased through the Lawrence LRT station and gunned down against a fence, surviving with critical injuries.[3][76]

D'Mitre Barnaby's murder sparked a police crackdown on the Scarborough gangs. Project Brazen was carried out from April to September 2012, resulting in nine arrests, the seizure of five firearms, and attempted murder charges for four shootings. Homicide detectives and officers from Scarborough divisions reviewed the evidence and launched Project Quell in June 2013, identifying seven members of the Orton Park Boys and twenty-five members of the Galloway Boys, charging them with a total of 363 offenses. Search warrants were executed on 3 October in Toronto, London, and Waterloo, seizing more than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of cocaine and $10,000 in drug proceeds.[77][11] Project Quell officers confirmed that the Danzig Street investigation triggered investigations into the Galloway Boys and Orton Park.[11]

Social programsEdit

The Danzig Street shooting brought renewed attention to the 2008 report Roots of Youth Violence commissioned by the Ontario Liberal government following a fatal Toronto high school shooting. The report warned of "deeply troubling" increases in the frequency and severity of youth violence, and addressed children's mental health issues, poverty, racism, education, family issues, the justice system, and a lack of voice for youth. In August 2012 the Liberal government incorporated some of the recommendations in a $20 million action plan to curb youth violence.[72][78]

Nigerian-born businessman Akanimo Udofiya donated $150,000 to help found Our Space, a community drop-in centre established in a formerly vacant townhouse at 230 Danzig Street. The centre provided after-school programs, a homework club, hot meals for area youth, employment resources, and a base for the Danzig Residents Committee and community outreach programs.[74][79][80] Toronto Community Housing donated space for the community hub, evicted one resident in connection with the shooting, and installed new lighting and twenty security cameras in May 2013.[81]

A number of memorial scholarships were created. York University set up the Joshua Yasay Award for excellence in criminology and community service.[37] Two trusts were set up in Shyanne Charles's name, for scholarships starting at the elementary school level.[82]

Disenfranchisement of immigrantsEdit

Mayor Rob Ford called for the Danzig Street shooters to be expelled from the city, saying: "I want these people out of the city. And I'm not going to stop. Not put 'em in jail, then come back and you can live in the city. No. I want 'em out of the city. Go somewhere else. I don't want 'em living in the city anymore."[83] The day after the shooting, he added, "We must use every legal means to make life for these thugs miserable, to put them behind bars, or to run them out of town. We will not rest until being a gang member is a miserable, undesirable life."[84] Ford called for longer prison sentences and decried "hug a thug" social programs; he was the only member of city council to vote against accepting federal grants worth more than $16 million.[85]

Sociologist Paloma Villegas noted that Ford's comments fit an imported crime narrative: positing that the city's criminal activity originated elsewhere, pitting so-called "old stock" Canadians against immigrants.[86][g] Immigration minister Jason Kenney agreed with Ford's early comments, stating in the aftermath of the shooting that "foreign gangsters should be deported [without] delay" despite the citizenship status of the shooters being unknown at the time. Kenney cited the shooting in parliamentary debate of the Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act which empowers the minister to deport permanent residents convicted of a serious crime.[86] The Canadian Bar Association described the majority of the Act's amendments as "excessive, harmful and unnecessary."[89] Amnesty International criticized the Act on humanitarian grounds and for failing to ensure justice under international law.[90] The Act was passed by the Conservative-majority parliament and came into force in June 2013.[91]

In 2013 Ford was the subject of a video scandal[92][93] and admitted to smoking crack cocaine and associating with drug dealers.[94] While campaigning for re-election in 2014, Ford visited Danzig Street on the second anniversary of the mass shooting, dodging questions about his own connection to drug dealers. Councillor Paula Fletcher criticized his attending the event: "You can't have it both ways – you can't be part of it and then crusading to stop it ... You can't technically be condoning guns and gangs and then going out saying how terrible it is that people have been shot and killed."[95]

In mediaEdit

Toronto Police Sergeant Rod Chung collaborated with local hip hop artist Promise to reach out to urban youth. With help from artists Kaid and Liya, they released a track titled "Make a Change", inspired by the Danzig Street shooting. Promise wrote the lyrics, which call for taking ownership of the city and an end to violence. The track premiered on 30 September 2012 on CKFG-FM, a black owned and operated commercial radio station, which hosted an on-air town hall meeting to continue discussions between the community, artists, and the police.[96]

The day after the Danzig Street shooting, Toronto-born rapper Drake tweeted his condolences to the families of Yasay and Charles.[97] He rapped about this "one summer day that went horribly wrong" as a featured artist on Snoop Dogg's reggae track "No Guns Allowed":[98][99]

Told you no guns and you didn't listen
Life is so heavy with that on your soul
Dedicate this to Shyanne and Josh
And pour something out for the lives that they stole

The track premiered live on Conan on 11 March 2013[100] and was released on 2 April 2013 as a single from Snoop's album Reincarnated.[101]

In response to the shooting, historian Adrian De Leon wrote a book of poetry entitled Rouge (2018). The collection concludes with two eponymous poems which examine headlines, text messages and soundbites about the shooting and the author's response to the inherent media and political bias.[102] Youth leader Randell Adjei (who subsequently became the first Poet Laureate of Ontario[103]) was inspired by the shooting to found the Scarborough-based RISE (reaching intelligent souls everywhere) spoken word nights.[104]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b The 2018 Danforth Shooting had a lower overall number of shooting victims at sixteen, including fatalities of two victims and the single perpetrator. This incident would fit some definitions for a spree shooting as it occurred over several blocks and ended in suicide.[2]
  2. ^ Of the suspected Galloway Boys arrested in 2004, all but four were remanded into custody until hearings began in 2007.[12]
  3. ^ The Strong Neighbourhoods Strategy was based on Neighbourhood Renewal Programmes in the UK. It was replaced in 2012 by Toronto Strong Neighbourhoods Strategy 2020, which no longer targeted poverty, racism, or lack of opportunities for youth, and did not consult with the communities.[13]
  4. ^ Recreational use of cannabis was notlegalized in Canada until October 2018.[24]
  5. ^ There are some discrepancies between sources as to the number of people shot. The reporting of victims by early sources was problematic as the identities of the shooters were unknown or could not be published. Many sources from 2012 note 2 killed and 23 wounded. A hospital report from 2013 notes 2 killed and 24 wounded in the shooting,[31] which is consistent with the aggravated assault charges filed against Mesquito and Nahom Tsegazab,[32][33] and a report at Tsegazab's 2014 sentencing of the number of bystanders injured.[29] A list of 22 wounded (including Owusu but not Tsegazab) was published by the Toronto Star[34] with an additional shooting victim coming forward in a 2017 interview.[35]
  6. ^ Owusu had a second trial for several charges of criminal negligence causing bodily harm, which had been severed (separated) from the murder charges in a pre-trial motion.[4]
  7. ^ In the 2016 census, the demographics of Scarborough—Rouge Park, which included Danzig Street, was 52% immigrants[87] and 72% visible minorities.[88]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Galloway Boys linked to Danzig Street shooting spree, 2011 murder: Toronto Police". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  2. ^ Warnica, Richard; Edmiston, Jake; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Hamilton, Graeme (23 July 2018). "Block by block, bullet by bullet, this is how Toronto's Greektown lost its innocence". National Post. Toronto, Ontario: Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Poisson, Jayme; Dempsey, Amy (12 September 2012). "Danzig St.: Police link Scarborough barbecue deaths with Galloway Boys gang war". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hasham, Alyshah (17 March 2016). "Danzig shooter guilty, families, community close violent chapter". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  5. ^ a b Janus, Andrea (7 December 2016). "Danzig Street shooter sentenced as adult, gets life in prison". CBC News. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  6. ^ Hasham, Alyshah (7 December 2016). "Teenage Danzig shooter sentenced to life in prison". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  7. ^ a b Edmiston, Jake (4 August 2012). "Canada's inexplicable anxiety over violent crime". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e Doucette, Chris (11 September 2012). "Police pin Toronto gun mayhem on notorious Galloway Boys gang". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d Ha, Tu Thanh; Mackrael, Kim (11 September 2012). "Leadership fight, revenge behind gang-related violence in Toronto: police". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d "Fight for street drugs, prostitution empire behind shootings: Police". Metro. Toronto: Free Daily News Group Inc. Torstar Syndication Services. 11 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Halim, George (4 October 2013). "Toronto gang sweep yields 41 arrests, 400-plus charges". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  12. ^ Powell, Betsy (19 December 2006). "Gang case heading to new court; 17 reputed members of the Galloway Boys face charges including murder". Toronto Star. p. A3. ProQuest 439120825.
  13. ^ a b Agocs, Carol (2021). "Do Ideas Matter? Competing Models of Municipal Public Administration and Their Influence on Policy and Implementation of a Toronto Social Program". Across Boundaries: Essays in Honour of Robert A. Young. McGill–Queen's University Press. pp. 56–65. ISBN 9780228006084. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022 – via Dokumen.pub.
  14. ^ "Priority Investment Neighbourhoods in Toronto" (PDF). City of Toronto. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d e Vincent, Donovan (20 July 2012). "'Blocko' parties have a long history in Toronto". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  16. ^ Vincent, Donovan (21 July 2012). "'Blockos' have defenders – and a long history". Toronto Star. p. GT1. ProQuest 1027205811. Daytime activities are geared to the kids - freezies, hot dogs and water slides. Then, as evening approaches, the teens and adults take over with their music and socializing.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Yang, Jennifer; Dempsey, Amy; Casey, Liam; Poisson, Jayme (21 July 2012). "Scarborough shootings: What really happened on Danzig?". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  18. ^ a b Coutts, Matthew (17 July 2012). "Community housing chief warns of U.S.-style gun culture". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  19. ^ Shum, David (7 December 2016). "Man, 21, sentenced to life in deadly 2012 Danzig Street shooting". Global News. Toronto: Corus Entertainment. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d "Police call for witnesses in deadly Toronto shooting". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  21. ^ Morrow, Adrian; Mills, Carys; Moore, Oliver; Mackrael, Kim (17 July 2012). "Toronto police warn of retaliation in shooting that killed two, hurt 23". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  22. ^ a b c Cherry, Tamara (11 April 2014). "Toronto man sentenced in Danzig Street shooting case". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  23. ^ a b Yuen, Jenny (17 July 2012). "Scarborough shooting housing complex 'whole different world'". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  24. ^ Hannay, Chris (17 December 2018). "Politics Briefing: The year Canada legalized cannabis". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 21 December 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  25. ^ Rush, Curtis (8 November 2012). "Danzig shooting: Man known as Bam Bam stands accused of 2 murders, 1 attempted, 23 assaults". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Pazzano, Sam (14 March 2016). "Alleged Danzig mass shooting instigator awaits fate". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  27. ^ a b c d Pazzano, Sam (20 May 2017). "Final chapter in Danzig shooting". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  28. ^ a b Hasham, Alyshah (25 November 2016). "Danzig St. shooter is 'poster child' for rehabilitation, defence lawyer argues". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  29. ^ a b c d Mandel, Michele (11 April 2014). "Guilty plea in deadly Danzig shooting spree". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  30. ^ a b "Retaliation feared after two killed, 21 wounded in 'Toronto's worst incident of gun violence'". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. 17 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  31. ^ a b Baluja, Tamara (Spring 2013). "//Code Orange: Toronto's horrific Danzig Street mass shooting made for a night of intense drama at Sunnybrook's trauma centre" (PDF). Sunnybrook Magazine. Toronto: Sunnybrook Hospital. pp. 38–42. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  32. ^ a b c "More charges for 16-year-old in Danzig shooting aftermath". Metro News. Toronto: Free Daily News Group Inc. Torstar News Service. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  33. ^ a b c Freeman, Joshua (23 January 2015). "Murder charges dropped against man accused in Danzig Street shooting". CablePulse 24. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  34. ^ Rush, Curtis; Poisson, Jayme; Powell, Betsy (8 November 2012). "Danzig St. shooting: First-degree murder charges laid in July shootings". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  35. ^ a b "Five years later, a look back at the deadly Danzig shooting". CityNews. Toronto: Rogers Digital Media. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  36. ^ a b "Danzig Street shooter sentenced to 14 years". CBC News. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  37. ^ a b Dempsey, Amy (15 July 2013). "Danzig Street: Family still searching for answers in death of Joshua Yasay". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  38. ^ Scallon, Niamh; Kane, Laura (17 July 2012). "Scarborough shooting: injured people expected to recover". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  39. ^ a b c Commisso, Christina (8 November 2012). "Murder charges laid in Toronto BBQ mass shooting". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  40. ^ Doucette, Chris (4 December 2012). "16-year-old charged in relation with Danzig shooting". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  41. ^ a b Rush, Curtis; Dempsey, Amy (8 August 2012). "Second shooting probed in Danzig investigation". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  42. ^ a b Mackrael, Kim; Robinson, Matthew; Mills, Carys; Morrow, Adrian (19 July 2012). "Man charged in Scarborough shooting was 'very intelligent, always laughing'". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  43. ^ a b "Toronto police probe three shootings in 24 hours". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. 21 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  44. ^ Doucette, Chris (7 August 2012). "Cops seize two more guns". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  45. ^ a b "Alleged gunman arrived as a refugee". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Quebecor Media. 29 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  46. ^ Hannay, Chris (30 July 2011). "One dead, two injured in shooting along Caribbean parade route in Toronto". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  47. ^ Switzer, Jane (4 August 2012). "Revelers at Toronto's Caribbean festival pounded by sweltering heat". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. ProQuest 2384237968.
  48. ^ Learn, Joshua Rapp (24 July 2012). "What we know, so far, about the Danzig Street shooting victims". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  49. ^ "Police fear relative of shooting victim seeking retribution". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  50. ^ Doucette, Chris (19 July 2012). "Lawrence Heights shooting victim was at Danzig party, source says". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  51. ^ Loriggio, Paola (18 July 2012). "Danzig Shooting: Shyanne Charles And Joshua Yasay Shooting Causes Police To Appeal For Information, Fear Retaliation". Huffington Post. Toronto: Verizon Communications. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  52. ^ a b Appleby, Timothy (5 September 2012). "Victim in Toronto-area Danzig shooting shot again". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  53. ^ Doucette, Chris (1 September 2012). "TAVIS tough police work". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  54. ^ a b Dempsey, Amy (14 September 2012). "Toronto crime down after summer police blitz, Chief Bill Blair says". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  55. ^ a b c Tamara, Cherry (22 November 2012). "Additional murder charges laid in Danzig Street shooting". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  56. ^ a b Pazzano, Sam (16 February 2019). "Accused's history of violence and ties to Danzig shooting". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network. p. A4. ProQuest 2182025499.
  57. ^ a b "Teen faces attempted murder charges in connection with shooting of cyclist". Scarborough Mirror. Toronto, Ontario: Metroland Media Group. 5 September 2012. p. 1. ProQuest 1038108427.
  58. ^ O'Toole, Megan (4 December 2012). "Boy, 16, is latest person charged in last summer's deadly Danzig St. shootings". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  59. ^ "Toronto Man Wounded In Danzig Shooting Charged In Deaths". CBC News. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  60. ^ "Man gets 14 years after pleading guilty to manslaughter in Danzig shooting". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. The Canadian Press. 11 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  61. ^ a b Pazzano, Sam (27 March 2020). "Danzig shooter gets parole; Gang member serving 11 years for killing". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network. ProQuest 2383742206. the worst mass shooting in Toronto's history
  62. ^ Hunter, Brad (30 October 2020). "Day parole extended for triggerman". Grande Prairie Daily Herald-Tribune. Grande Prairie, Alberta: Postmedia Network. p. A9. ProQuest 2456105434.
  63. ^ "Murder charges dropped against man accused in Danzig shooting". CBC News. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The Canadian Press. 23 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  64. ^ Pazzano, Sam (23 July 2019). "Danzig shooter moves to adult prison". Toronto Sun (online). Postmedia Network. ProQuest 2262856444.
  65. ^ Doucette, Chris (19 July 2012). "Man charged over Danzig shooting". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  66. ^ Kitching, Chris (19 July 2012). "Police lay firearm charge in Danzig St. shootout". CablePulse 24. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  67. ^ Johnson, Richard (28 July 2012). "Gun ownership around the world". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  68. ^ "There is no one answer to gun violence". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  69. ^ Giroux, Henry (30 July 2012). "Gun violence in America: What Canadians can learn from the U.S." The Hamilton Spectator. Hamilton, Ontario: Metroland Media Group. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2018. In light of the recent outbreaks of gun violence in Toronto, Canadians may be closely watching how the shooting rampage in Aurora, Colorado, is being addressed by the media, politicians, educators and others in the United States.
  70. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (25 July 2012). "Do U.S. Gun Laws Make All of North America Less Safe?". Time.com. New York City: Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  71. ^ a b c d Gillis, Wendy (2 September 2014). "What's behind the trend of declining crime rate in Toronto?". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  72. ^ a b Di Muccio, Maddie (20 July 2013). "One year after Danzig Street shooting". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  73. ^ Palamarchuk, Andrew (30 December 2013). "Southeast Scarborough's 43 Division police area murder free so far in 2013". Scarborough Mirror. Toronto, Ontario: Metroland Media Group. p. 1. ProQuest 1472012383. Retrieved 4 June 2017.  'Not just homicides, overall crime is down in every sector within 43 Division,' Arsenault said of 2013. 'I think it’s a direct result of police working with the community.' The 43 Division area could now be one of the safest in the world.[permanent dead link]
  74. ^ a b c Herralt, Chris (16 July 2015). "Danzig residents focus on what's improved three years after deadly mass shooting". CablePulse 24. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  75. ^ a b c d e Coutts, Matthew (11 September 2012). "Toronto police connect Galloway Boys to Danzig murders, other shootings". CTV News. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017. Investigators believe the conflict between the Galloway Boys and other neighbourhoods in the Scarborough area, in particular Orton Park, is fuelled by the Galloway Boys' propensity for violence, their ability to obtain guns and their willingness to seek revenge.
  76. ^ Smith Cross, Jessica (11 September 2012). "Innocent man mistaken for Galloway Boys target shot dead: Police". Metro. Toronto: Free Daily News Group Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  77. ^ Kitching, Chris (4 October 2013). "Police target rival gangs involved in violent drug feud". CablePulse 24. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  78. ^ Gallant, Jacques (22 July 2012). "Anti-violence summit: Sister of murdered preteen Ephraim Brown wonders what we've learned. Politicians and police meeting Monday to discuss ways to combat youth violence in Toronto". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  79. ^ Adler, Mike (28 November 2012). "Entrepreneur makes $150,000 donation to help Danzig Street community". Scarborough Mirror. Toronto, Ontario: Metroland Media Group. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  80. ^ Wilson, Codi (16 July 2014). "Residents commemorate Danzig shooting anniversary with community event". CablePulse 24. Toronto: Bell Media. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  81. ^ Armstrong, James (16 July 2013). "Danzig Street residents mark first anniversary of mass shooting". Global News. Toronto: Corus Entertainment. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  82. ^ Poisson, Jayme (1 September 2012). "Grandfather of Danzig St. shooting victim Shyanne Charles has no room for anger". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  83. ^ "The year in Rob Ford quotes". Toronto Star. 30 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017. I want these people out of the city. And I'm not going to stop. Not put 'em in jail, then come back and you can live in the city. No. I want 'em out of the city. Go somewhere else. I don't want 'em living in the city anymore.
  84. ^ Kuitenbrouwer, Peter (17 July 2012). "Life and death on 'the other side of the tracks'". National Post. Toronto: Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  85. ^ Grant, Kelly; Robinson, Matthew (20 July 2012). "Toronto 2012: more guns, fewer resources". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  86. ^ a b Villegas, Paloma (2018). ""We must use every legal means to ... put them behind bars, or to run them out of town": Assembling citizenship deservingness in Toronto". Journal of Critical Race Inquiry. 5 (1): 27–49. doi:10.24908/jcri.v5i1.9135. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  87. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Scarborough Rouge Park – Citizenship". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  88. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census – Scarborough Rouge Park – Visible minority population". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  89. ^ CBA National Immigration Law Section (November 2012). "Bill C-43, Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act". Canadian Bar Association. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  90. ^ Amnesty International (8 March 2017). "Brief to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration on Bill C-43, the Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act". Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  91. ^ "Faster Removal of Foreign Criminals Act Becomes Law". Government of Canada. 20 June 2013. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  92. ^ "Rob Ford scandal: Toronto Police have video apparently showing mayor smoking crack". Toronto Star. 31 October 2013. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  93. ^ Nathan, Denette (13 June 2013). "Connecting dots: Rob Ford, 15 Windsor Rd., the photo and the alleged video". Maclean's. Toronto: Rogers Media. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  94. ^ Bruser, David; Poisson, Jayme (6 November 2013). "Crack use connects Rob Ford to gang culture he condemned after Danzig shootings". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017. To inspire police officers to put their lives on the line to police gun crime, surely a public leader has to speak from a position of moral authority. How can Ford possibly do that when he's been smoking crack with a crew of suspected gun dealers?
  95. ^ Jeffords, Shawn (16 July 2014). "Rob Ford dodges gang questions at Danzig shooting site". Toronto Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  96. ^ Daubs, Katie (30 September 2012). "Hip hop hope: Police (Toronto's finest) and Promise (the hip hop artist) release song". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  97. ^ Daubs, Katie (20 March 2013). "Drake raps about Toronto's Danzig St. killings". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  98. ^ "Drake raps about Toronto's Danzig Street shooting on Snoop Lion song". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. The Canadian Press. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  99. ^ Broadus, Calvin; Bain, Andrew; Condon, Zach; Graham, Aubrey; Henry, Wayne; Hershey, Andrew; Hunte, Angela; Pentz, Thomas; Rechtshaid, Ariel (2 April 2013). "No Guns Allowed" (music single [digital download]).
  100. ^ Payne, Chris (20 March 2013). "Snoop Lion Drops New Single 'No Guns Allowed' Featuring Drake: Listen". Billboard. Billboard-Hollywood Media Group. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  101. ^ "Snoop Lion Releases "No Guns Allowed" Single From Forthcoming Reincarnated". Icon vs. Icon. Denton, Maryland, US: Icon vs. Icon. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  102. ^ Battler, Alexa (23 November 2018). "When 'the city becomes the poem': Author challenges Scarborough stereotypes by taking readers on TTC journey". U of T News. University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  103. ^ Benzie, Robert (28 April 2021). "Randell Adjei is named Ontario's first Poet Laureate". The Standard. St. Catherines, Ontario: Metroland Media Group. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  104. ^ Adler, Mike (28 January 2019). "Adrian De Leon's Rouge poems are a journey out of Scarborough and back". Scarborough Mirror. Toronto, Ontario. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.

External linksEdit

  • Roots of Youth Violence – 2008 provincial report by former Speaker and Liberal MPP Alvin Curling and former Ontario Chief Justice Roy McMurtry