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Right-wing terrorism is terrorism motivated by a variety of ideologies and beliefs, including anti-communism, neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, and a mindset against abortion. This type of terrorism has been sporadic, with little or no international cooperation.[1] Modern radical right-wing terrorism first appeared in Western Europe in the 1980s and it first appeared in Eastern Europe following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[2]

Right-wing terrorists aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented regimes.[1] The core of this movement includes neo-fascist skinheads, far-right hooligans, youth sympathisers and intellectual guides who believe that the state must rid itself of foreign elements in order to protect its rightful citizens.[3] However, they usually lack a rigid ideology.[4]

Contents

CausesEdit

Armin Falk and colleagues suggests that Right-Wing Extremist Crime (REC), which includes anti-foreigner and racist motivations, is associated with unemployment rates (261). Consequently, as unemployment rates increase, REC also increases. This correlation can be found in several countries including Germany, United States, and the United Kingdom. Additionally, this phenomenon is not necessarily associated with individuals, rather unemployment impacts society's humanitarian values of tolerance and altruism. Meaning, as unemployment rates increase, humanitarian values of tolerance and altruism decrease according to Falk. This cause of right-wing terrorism can be associated with a functionalist perspective on employment. Ferrante defines a functionalist approach as "how the parts of society contribute in expected and unexpected way of maintain an existing social order" (26). Work and employment serve several functions for society (University of Minnesota 12.2). The University of Minnesota Library suggests that employment provides workers with an income and also contributes to their self-identity and fulfillment (12.2). When employment is low, this leads to a perceived threat towards self-identity and fulfillment which can then lead to a larger possibility for right-wing terrorism to occur.

A second cause of right-wing terrorism as Thomas Greven suggests, is populism, or more accurately, right-wing populism. Jan-Werner Muller describes populism as a form of identity politics that is inherently anti-establishment and anti-pluralist (3). More simply put, populism supports the advancement of 'the average citizen', and it does not support the agendas of the privileged elite. Furthermore, Greven defines right-wing populist as those who support ethnocentrism, and oppose immigration (3). Right-wing populist policies that have recently been covered in the media include the Executive Order 13769, which is the travel ban from Muslim-majority countries to the United States, and the Immigration policy of Donald Trump which proposes that a wall should be built between the United States and Mexico in order to prevent illegal immigrants from coming to the United States. Greven suggests that immigration policy not only threatens economic competition, but also threatens traditional values and identities (5). Due to the ethnocentric motivations behind these policies, they are classified as right-wing populism. Because right-wing populism creates a climate of 'us versus them', terrorism is more likely to occur according to Greven. This cause of right-wing terrorism can be associated with a conflict perspective. Ferrante explains the conflict perspective as a focus on conflict regarding scarce resources and the strategies advantaged groups used to perpetuate social agreement arrangements from which they benefit (30). When people feel as though their traditional values are being threatened by the social elite who contribute to the rise in immigration, conflict ensues, and terrorism follows.

AfricaEdit

South AfricaEdit

In 1993 Chris Hani, the General Secretary of the South African Communist Party was murdered by Polish-born far-right anti-Communist Janusz Waluś who had been lent a firearm by far-right pro-Apartheid MP Clive Derby-Lewis. The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, a neo-Nazi paramilitary organisation has often been described as terrorist. In 2010 South African authorities foiled a plot by far-right terrorists to commit attacks as revenge for the murder of Eugène Terre'Blanche, seizing explosives and firearms.[5]

AmericasEdit

BrazilEdit

During Brazil's military government, some right-wing military engaged in violent repression. The Riocentro 1981 May Day Attack was a bombing attempt that happened on the night of April 30, 1981. Severe casualties were suffered by the terrorists. While an NGO held a fundraiser fighting for democracy and free elections and celebrating the upcoming holiday, a bomb exploded at Riocentro parking area killing army seargent Guilherme Pereira do Rosário and severely wounding captain Wilson Dias Machado, who survived the bomb explosion. The bomb exploded inside a car where both were preparing it. Rosário died instantaneously. They were the only casualties.

The Para-SAR example[6][7] was revealed by Brazilian Air Force captain Sérgio Ribeiro Miranda de Carvalho in 1968 before it reached the execution phase as it was made public to the press after a meeting with his superior Brigadier General João Paulo Burnier and chief of Para-SAR unity. Burnier discussed a secret plan to bomb a dense traffic area of Rio de Janeiro known as "Gasômetro" during commute and later claim that Communists were the perpretrators. He expected to be able to run a witch-hunt against the growing political military opposition. Burnier also mentioned his intentions on making the Para-SAR, a Brazilian Air Force rescue unity, a tool for eliminating some military government political oppositors throwing them to the sea at a wide distance of the coast. On both of these events, no military involved on these actions or planning was arrested, charged or faced retaliation from the Brazilian military government. The only exception is captain Sérgio de Carvalho which had to leave the air force for facing his superiors retaliation after whistleblowing brigadier Burnier's plan.

ColombiaEdit

Colombian paramilitary groups were responsible for most of the human rights violations in the latter half of the ongoing Colombian conflict.[8] The first paramilitary terrorist[9] groups were organized by U.S. military advisers who were sent during the Cold War to combat the spread of leftist politicians, activists and guerrillas.[10][11]

According to several international human rights and governmental organizations, right-wing paramilitary groups were responsible for at least 70 to 80% of political murders in Colombia per year.[8][12]

This groups were financed and protected by elite landowners, drug traffickers, members of the security forces, right wing politicians and multinational corporations.[13][14][15][16]

Paramilitary violence and terrorism there was principally targeted towards peasants, unionists, indigenous people, human rights workers, teachers and left-wing political activists or their supporters.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

NicaraguaEdit

The Contras were a right wing militant group, backed by the United States, that fought against the Sandinista National Liberation Front in Nicaragua. They were responsible for numerous human rights violations and carried out over 1300 terrorist attacks.[24][25]

United StatesEdit

Reconstruction eraEdit

The term "white terrorism" is used by scholars to label terrorism committed against African Americans during the Reconstruction era.[26][27]

Pre-2001Edit

According to George Michael, "right-wing terrorism and violence has a long history in America".[28] Right-wing violent incidents began to outnumber Marxist incidents in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s.[29]:29 Michael observes the waning of left-wing terrorism accompanying the rise of right-wing terrorism, with a noticeable "convergence" of the goals of militant Islam with those of the extreme right. Islamic studies scholar Youssef M. Choueiri classified Islamic fundamentalist movements involving revivalism, reformism, and radicalism as within the scope of "right-wing politics".[30]:9

During the 1980s, more than 75 right-wing extremists were prosecuted in the United States for acts of terrorism, carrying out six attacks.[31] In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a Posse Comitatus activist, killed two federal marshals and he was later killed by police. Also that year, the white nationalist revolutionary group The Order (also known as the Brüder Schweigen or the Silent Brotherhood) robbed banks and armored cars, as well as a sex shop,[32] bombed a theater and a synagogue and murdered radio talk show host Alan Berg.[33][34]

The April 19, 1995 attack on the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols killed 168 people and it was the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in the history of the United States.[35] McVeigh stated that it was committed in retaliation for the government's actions at Ruby Ridge and Waco.[36]

Eric Rudolph executed a series of terrorist attacks between 1996 and 1998. He carried out the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing—which claimed two lives and injured 111—aiming to cancel the games, claiming they promoted global socialism and to embarrass the U.S. government.[37] Rudolph confessed to bombing an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs, an Atlanta suburb, on January 16, 1997, the Otherside Lounge, an Atlanta lesbian bar, on February 21, 1997, injuring five and an abortion clinic in Birmingham, Alabama on January 29, 1998, killing Birmingham police officer and part-time clinic security guard Robert Sanderson and critically injuring nurse Emily Lyons.

Post-2001Edit

As of June 2015, right-wing attacks since the September 11 attacks (9/11) had claimed more lives (48) than attacks committed by jihadists (26).[38] Thereafter, jihadist terrorist attacks (the 2015 San Bernardino attack and the 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting) raised the Islamic extremist death toll above that caused by right-wing extremists. As of August 2017, the New America Foundation placed the number killed in terrorist attacks in the United States (since 9/11) as follows: 97 killed in jihadist terrorist attacks, 68 killed in far-right attacks, and 8 killed in black separatist/nationalist/supremacist attacks.[39] The politically conservative Daily Caller News Foundation using data from the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), found 92% of all "ideologically motivated homicide incidents" committed in the United States from 2007 to 2016 were done "with a right-wing extremist or white supremacist motive".[40] According to the Government Accountability Office of the United States, 73% of violent extremist incidents that resulted in deaths since September 12, 2001 were caused by right wing extremists groups.[41][42]

New America's tally shows that since September 11, 2001, incidents of right-wing terrorism have caused 68 deaths. Incidents causing death were:[39]

Year Occurrence Location Victims Wounded* Victims Killed*
2017 Car-ramming attack into counter-protestors at a white nationalist rally Charlottesville, Virginia 19 1
2017 Portland train attack Portland, Oregon 1 2
2017 Stabbing of Timothy Caughman New York City 0 1
2015 Shooting at a showing of the film Trainwreck Lafayette, Louisiana 9 2
2015 Planned Parenthood shooting Colorado Springs, Colorado 9 3
2015 Shooting attack on worshippers at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church Charleston, South Carolina 9
2014 Attack on Pennsylvania State Police barracks Blooming Grove, Pennsylvania 1 1
2014 Ambush attack on Las Vegas police officers Las Vegas, Nevada 3
2014 Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting Overland Park, Kansas
2013 Los Angeles International Airport shooting attack on TSA officer Los Angeles, California 6 1
2013 Double murder committed by Jeremy Lee Moody and Christine Moody Jonesville, South Carolina 0 2
2012 Ambush attack against St. John the Baptist Parish police St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana 2 2
2012 Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting Oak Creek, Wisconsin 4 6
2012 Tri-state killing spree by white supremacists David Pedersen and Holly Grigsby Multiple 4
2011 FEAR group attacks Georgia 3
2010 Murder committed by Aryan Brotherhood members Mississippi 0 1
2010 Shooting at bookstore cafe perpetrated by Ross William Muehlberger Wichita Falls, Texas 4 1
2010 Murder at gun range Carlisle, Pennsylvania 0 1
2010 Suicide attack by airplane Austin, Texas 0 1
2009 Murder of sex offender by white supremacists North Palm Springs, California 0 1
2009 Murder committed by Charles Francis Gaskins Carmichael, California 0 1
2009 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting Washington, D.C. 1 1
2009 Assassination of George Tiller Wichita, Kansas 1 1
2009 Murders of Raul and Brisenia Flores Brockton, Massachusetts 1 2
2009 Shooting of Pittsburgh police officers Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 2 3
2009 Double murder Brockton, Massachusetts 1 2
2009 Woodburn bank bombing Woodburn, Oregon 2 2
2008 Knoxville Unitarian Universalist church shooting Knoxville, Tennessee 8 2
2007 Murder of homeless man by Aryan Soldiers 0 1
2006 Murder committed by John Ditullio 1 1
2004 Bank robbery Tulsa, Oklahoma 0 1
2003 Torture, abduction and murder Salinas, California 0 1
2001 Post-September 11 shootings Multiple 1 2

* Count of "victims killed" and "victims wounded" excludes attackers.

EuropeEdit

FranceEdit

Neo-Nazi members of the French and European Nationalist Party were responsible for a pair of anti-Muslim terror bombings in 1988. Sonacotra hostels in Cagnes-sur-Mer and Cannes were bombed, killing Romanian immigrant George Iordachescu and injuring 16 people, mostly Tunisians.

In an attempt to frame Jewish extremists for the Cagnes-sur-Mer bombing, the terrorists left leaflets bearing Stars of David and the name Masada at the scene, with the message "To destroy Israel, Islam has chosen the sword. For this choice, Islam will perish."[43]

In 2015, in the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo shooting, six mosques and a restaurant were attacked in acts deemed as right-wing terrorism by authorities.[44] The acts included grenade throwing, shooting, and use of an improvised explosive device.

GermanyEdit

In 1980, a right-wing terrorist attack in Munich, Germany killed the attacker and 14 other people, injuring 215. Fears of an ongoing campaign of major right-wing terrorist attacks did not materialize.[1]

In addition to several bank robberies, the German National Socialist Underground was responsible for the Bosphorus serial murders (2000–2006), the 2004 Cologne bombing and the murder of policewoman Michéle Kiesewetter in 2007. In November 2011, two members of the National Socialist Underground committed suicide after a bank robbery and a third member was arrested some days later.

Right-wing extremist offenses in Germany rose sharply in 2015 and 2016.[45] Figures from the German government tallied 316 violent xenophobic offences in 2014 and 612 such offenses in 2015.[45]

In August 2014, a group of four Germans founded a Munich-based far-right terrorist group, the Oldschool Society (de). The group, which held racist, antisemitic, and anti-Muslim views, eventually attracted 30 members.[46] They stockpiled weapons and explosives and plotted to attack a refugee shelter in Saxony,[46] but the group's leaders were arrested in May 2015 before carrying out the attack.[47] In March 2017 four of the group's leaders were sentenced to prison terms.[46] The perpetrator of the 2016 Munich shooting also had far-right views.

ItalyEdit

In the 1970s and 1980s, Italy endured the Years of Lead, a period characterized by frequent terrorist attacks from both the far-left and the far-right. between 1969 and 1982, the nation suffered 8,800 terrorist attacks, in which a total of 351 people were killed and 768 were injured.[48] Right-wing terrorism was dominant in Italy from 1969 to 1974, while left-wing terrorism was dominant in the late 1970s.[48] The Years of Lead are considered to have begun with the Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan in December 1969,[48] perpetrated by Ordine Nuovo, a right-wing neofascist group.[49] Sixteen people were killed, and 90 injured, in the bombing.[49]

Ordine Nuovo continued its campaign of terror until the mid-1980s. In July 1970, the group carried out a bombing on a train going from Rome to Messina, killing six and wounding almost 100. The group also carried out the Piazza della Loggia bombing in 1974, killing eight antifascist activists.[49] Perhaps the most infamous right-wing terrorist attack in post-war Italy is the August 1980 Bologna bombing, in which neo-fascist Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari ("Armed Revolutionary Nuclei"), an Ordine Nuovo offshoot, killed 85 people and injured 200 at the Bologna railroad station.[49][50] Valerio Fioravanti, Francesca Mambro, and two others were convicted of mass murder in the attacks,[50] although both have always denied any connection with the attacks.[51][52]

In December 2011, a far-right gunman targeted Senegalese traders in Florence, killing two and injuring three others before killing himself.[53][54] The perpetrator was associated with CasaPound,[53][54] a neo-fascist organization that perpetrates political violence.[54][55]

NorwayEdit

On July 22, 2011, Norwegian right-wing extremist with Nazi[56][57] and fascist[58] sympathies, Anders Behring Breivik, carried out the 2011 Norway attacks, the largest mass killing of people in Norway by a single person during peacetime, excluding use of bombs. First he bombed several government buildings in Oslo, killing eight people and injuring more than 30. After the bombings, he went to Utøya island in a fake police uniform and began firing on people attending a political youth camp for the Worker's Youth League (AUF), a left-wing political party, killing 68 and injuring more than 60.

PolandEdit

Despite the country being nearly ethnically and religiously homogenous, Polish far-right targets, via propaganda or physical violence, religious and ethnic minorities such as Jews, Romani people, people with darker complexion or Middle Eastern appearance. In 1991, an anti-Romani pogrom broke out in Mława. During the UEFA Euro 2012, Polish hooligans targeted random Russian football supporters. There have been reports of hate crimes targeting Muslim minority in Poland. Far-right and right-wing populist political parties and organizations fuel fear and hatred towards Islam and Muslims.[59] Hate crimes such as arson and physical violence have occurred in Poland (despite having a Muslim population of only 0.1%, that is 30,000 out of 38 million).[60][61] In 2016, police arrested a man who they say tried to burn down a mosque in Gdansk.[44] The man belonged to the neo-nazi group called Blood & Honour.

SwedenEdit

Both the 2009–10 Malmö shootings and the Trollhättan school attack were conducted by right-wing terrorists along with a refugee centre bombing in 2017. A notable serial killer motivated by far-right motives is John Ausonius.[62]

United KingdomEdit

In April 1999, David Copeland, a neo-Nazi, planted a series of nail bombs over 13 days, causing explosions in Brixton, Brick Lane (in east London), and Soho (in central London). His attacks, which were aimed at London's black, Bangladeshi and gay communities, resulted in three dead and more than 100 injured.[63] Copeland was a former member of two far right political groups, the British National Party (BNP) and the National Socialist Movement. Copeland told police, "My aim was political. It was to cause a racial war in this country. There'd be a backlash from the ethnic minorities, then all the white people will go out and vote BNP."[64]

In July 2007, Robert Cottage, a former BNP member, was convicted for possessing explosive chemicals in his home – described by police at the time of his arrest as the largest amount of chemical explosive of its type ever found in that country.[65] In June 2008, Martyn Gilleard, a British Nazi sympathizer, was jailed after police found nail bombs, bullets, swords, axes and knives in his flat.[66] Also in 2008, Nathan Worrell was found guilty of possession of material for terrorist purposes and racially aggravated harassment. He was described by anti-terror police as a "dangerous individual". The court heard that police found books and manuals containing "recipes" to make bombs and detonators using household items, such as weedkiller, at Worrell's flat.[67] In July 2009, Neil Lewington was planning on waging a terror campaign using weapons made from tennis balls and weedkiller against those he classified as "non British".[68]

In 2012, the British Home Affairs Committee warned of the threat of far right terrorism in the UK, claiming it had heard "persuasive evidence" about the potential danger and cited the growth of similar threats across Europe.[69]

Members of Combat 18 (C18), a neo-Nazi organisation based on the concept of "leaderless resistance", have been suspected in numerous deaths of immigrants, non-whites and other C18 members.[70] Between 1998 and 2000, dozens of members were arrested.[71][72] A group calling itself the Racial Volunteer Force split from C18 in 2002, retaining close links to its parent organization.[73] Some journalists believed that the White Wolves were a C18 splinter group, alleging that the group had been set up by Del O'Connor, the former second-in-command of C18 and member of Skrewdriver Security.[74] C18 attacks on immigrants continued through 2009.[75] Weapons, ammunition and explosives were seized by police in the UK and almost every country in which C18 was active.

In 2016, Jo Cox, the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Batley and Spen constituency was murdered by Thomas Mair, who was motivated by far-right political views and had connections to several far-right organisations in the UK, US, and South Africa.[76]

On 16 December 2016 Home Secretary Amber Rudd designated the far-right, neo-Nazi National Action group as a terrorist organisation which criminalises membership or support for the organisation.[77]

Northern IrelandEdit

British far-right activists supplied funds and weaponry to Loyalist terrorist groups in Northern Ireland during the Troubles.[78] Following the Good Friday Agreement some members of Loyalist groups orchestrated racist attacks in Northern Ireland,[79][80][81] including pipe bomb and gun attacks on the homes of immigrants.[82][83][84][85][86] As a result, Northern Ireland has a higher proportion of racist attacks than other parts of the UK,[81][87] and was branded the "race-hate capital of Europe".[88]

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

In August 2016 Phillip Galea was charged with several terrorist offences. Galea had conducted "surveillance" of "left-wing premises" and planned to carry out bombings. Explosive ingredients were found at his home. Galea had links with organisations such as Combat 18 and the United Patriots Front.[89] In 2017 the Sydney Morning Herald reported on the conviction of neo-Nazi Michael James Holt, 26 who had threatened to carry out a mass shooting attack and considered Westfield Tuggerah as a target. He had manufactured home-made guns, knuckle dusters and slingshots in his grandfather's garage. Raids on his mothers home and a hotel room discovered more weapons including several firearms, slingshots and knuckle dusters.[90]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Aubrey 2004, p. 45.
  2. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, p. 57.
  3. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, pp. 57-58.
  4. ^ Moghadam & Eubank 2006, p. 58.
  5. ^ Smith, David (7 May 2010). "South African police foil white extremist bomb plot" – via The Guardian. 
  6. ^ "Brasileiros magazine". 
  7. ^ "Fatos magazine" (PDF). June 1, 1985. 
  8. ^ a b Constanza Vieira (August 27, 2008). "International Criminal Court Scrutinises Paramilitary Crimes". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. 
  9. ^ Rempe, Dennis M. (Winter 1995). "Guerrillas, Bandits, and Independent Republics: US Counter-insurgency Efforts in Colombia 1959–1965". Small Wars and Insurgencies. 6 (3): 304–27. doi:10.1080/09592319508423115. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. 
  10. ^ Rempe, 1995 Archived March 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Livingstone 2003, p. 155.
  12. ^ HRW, 1996: "III: The Intelligence Reorganization"
  13. ^ Schulte-Bockholt, Alfredo (2006). The Politics of Organized Crime and the Organized Crime of Politics: a study in criminal power. Lexington. p. 95. 
  14. ^ Marc Chernick (March–April 1998). "The paramilitarization of the war in Colombia". NACLA Report on the Americas. 31 (5): 28. 
  15. ^ Brittain & Petras 2010, pp. 129–31.
  16. ^ Forrest Hylton (2006). Evil Hour in Colombia. Verso. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-84467-551-7. 
  17. ^ Michael Taussig (2004). Law in a Lawless Land: Diary of limpieza in Colombia. New Press. 
  18. ^ Elizabeth F. Schwartz (Winter 1995–1996). "Getting Away with Murder: Social Cleansing in Colombia and the Role of the United States". The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review. 27 (2): 381–420. 
  19. ^ Lovisa Stannow (1996) "Social cleansing" in Colombia, MA Thesis, Simon Fraser University
  20. ^ Alfredo Molano (2005). The Dispossessed: Chronicles of the desterrados of Colombia. Haymarket. p. 113. 
  21. ^ Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, "Colombia: Activities of a Colombian social cleansing group known as 'Jóvenes del Bien' and any state efforts to deal with it", 2 April 2004
  22. ^ Brittain & Petras 2010, pp. 132–35.
  23. ^ William Avilés (May 2006). "Paramilitarism and Colombia's Low-Intensity Democracy". Journal of Latin American Studies. 38 (2): 380. 
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  29. ^ International Foundation for Protection Officers. 2003. The Protection Officer Training Manual. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-750-67456-3.
  30. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M. 2010. Islamic Fundamentalism: The Story of Islamist Movements. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-826-49801-9.
  31. ^ Smith 1994, pp. 25–26.
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  33. ^ "Death List Names Given to US Jury". New York Times. September 17, 1985. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  34. ^ Morris Dees and Steve Fiffer. Hate on Trial: The Case Against America's Most Dangerous Neo-Nazi. Villard Books, 1993. p. xiiv
  35. ^ Michael 2003, p. 107.
  36. ^ "McVeigh offers little remorse in letters". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Associated Press. June 10, 2001. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Full Text of Eric Rudolph's Confession". 
  38. ^ Joanna Plucinska (June 25, 2016). "Study: White Extremists More Dangerous Than Islamists Since 9/11". Time. 
  39. ^ a b "In Depth: Terrorism in America After 9/11: Part IV. What is the Threat to the United States Today? (click Dataset, then "terror_plots.csv")". New America Foundation. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
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  41. ^ "GAO-17-300, COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM: Actions Needed to Define Strategy and Assess Progress of Federal Efforts." U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Government Accountability Office, 6 Apr. 2017. Web. 4 June 2017.
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  44. ^ a b "EUROPEAN UNION TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT (TE-SAT) 2016". Europol. 2016. p. 41. 
  45. ^ a b Carla Bleiker, Sharp rise in right-wing crime in Germany just 'the tip of the iceberg', Deutsche Welle (February 11, 2016).
  46. ^ a b c Associated Press, Four jailed in Germany for forming far-right terrorist group (March 15, 2017).
  47. ^ Kate Brady, 'Oldschool Society' neo-Nazis go on trial for refugee home attacks, Deutsche Welle (April 27, 2016).
  48. ^ a b c Tobias Hof, "The Success of Italian Anti-terrorism Policy" in An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences (editors Jussi M. Hanhimäki & Bernhard Blumenau: Routledge, 2013), p. 100.
  49. ^ a b c d Richard McHugh, "Ordine Nuovo" in The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, 2d ed. (editor Gus Martin: SAGE Publications, 2011), pp. 451-52.
  50. ^ a b Four Convicted of Mass Murder in Italian Bombing that Killed 85, Associated Press (July 11, 1988).
  51. ^ Anna Cento Bull & Philip Cooke, Ending Terrorism in Italy (Routledge, 2013), pp. 141-42.
  52. ^ Anne Hanley, The accidental terrorist, Independent (May 5, 1997).
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  77. ^ Elgot, Jessica (12 December 2016). "Neo-Nazi group National Action banned by UK home secretary" – via The Guardian. 
  78. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (1 July 2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. NYU Press. pp. 40–41, 45. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0. 
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  90. ^ Olding, Rachel (28 January 2017). "White supremacist threatened to shoot up Central Coast shopping centre" – via The Sydney Morning Herald. 

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