Christianity is the most prevalent religion in the United States. Estimates from 2021 suggest that of the entire U.S. population (332 million) about 63% is Christian (210 million). A plurality of Christian Americans are Protestant Christians (140 million; 42%), though there are also significant numbers of American Roman Catholics (70 million; 21%) and other Christian denominations such as Latter-day Saints, Orthodox Christians and Oriental Orthodox Christians, and Jehovah's Witnesses (about 13 million in total; 4%). The United States has the largest Christian population in the world and, more specifically, the largest Protestant population in the world, with nearly 210 million Christians and, as of 2021, over 140 million people affiliated with Protestant churches, although other countries have higher percentages of Christians among their populations. The Public Religion Research Institute's "2020 Census of American Religion", carried out between 2014 and 2020, showed that 70% of Americans identified as Christian during this seven-year interval. In a 2020 survey by the Pew Research Center, 65% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians. They were 75% in 2015, 70.6% in 2014, 78% in 2012, 81.6% in 2001, and 85% in 1990. About 62% of those polled claim to be members of a church congregation.
All Protestant denominations accounted for 48.5% of the population, making Protestantism the most prevalent form of Christianity in the country and the majority religion in general in the United States, while the Catholic Church by itself, at 22.7% of the population, is the largest individual denomination if Protestantism is divided into various denominations instead of being counted as a single category. The nation's second-largest church and the single largest Protestant denomination is the Southern Baptist Convention. Among Eastern Christian denominations, there are several Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, with just below 1 million adherents in the U.S., or 0.4% of the total population. Christianity is the predominant religion in all U.S. states and territories. Conversion into Christianity has significantly increased among Korean Americans, Chinese Americans, and Japanese Americans in the United States. In 2012, the percentage of Christians in these communities were 71%, 30% and 37% respectively.
Christianity was introduced to the Americas as it was first colonized by Europeans beginning in the 16th and 17th centuries. Immigration further increased Christian numbers. Going forward from its foundation, the United States has been called a Protestant nation by a variety of sources. When the categories of "irreligion" and "unaffiliated" are included as religious categories for statistical purposes, Protestantism is technically no longer the religious category of the majority; however, this is primarily the result of an increase in Americans, such as Americans of Protestant descent or background, professing no religious affiliation, rather than being the result of an increase in non-Protestant religious affiliations, and Protestantism remains by far the majority or dominant form of religion in the United States among American Christians and those Americans who declare a religion affiliation. Today, most Christian churches in the United States are either Mainline Protestant, Evangelical Protestant, or Catholic.
Major denominational familiesEdit
Christian denominations in the United States are usually divided into three large groups: two types of Protestantism (Evangelical and Mainline) and Catholicism. There are also Christian denominations, making up a smaller percentage, that do not fall within the confines of these groups, such as Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, the Latter-day Saint movement, and Jehovah's Witnesses.
A 2004 survey of the United States identified the percentages of these groups as 26.3% (Evangelical), 17.5% (Catholics), and 16% (Mainline); the other groups made up 2.7%. In a Statistical Abstract of the United States, based on a 2001 study of the self-described religious identification of the adult population, the percentages for these same groups are 28.6% (Evangelical), 24.5% (Catholics), and 13.9% (Mainline). Saying that Christian religious groups made up 76.5% of the total, then the other group accounts for 9.5%.
In typical usage, the term mainline is contrasted with evangelical.
The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) counts 26,344,933 members of mainline churches versus 39,930,869 members of evangelical Protestant churches. There is evidence that there has been a shift in membership from mainline denominations to evangelical churches. Additionally, ARDA's 2010 study indicated Baptists were the largest Protestant group throughout the United States, followed by non-denominational Protestants. By 2014, the Pew Research Center determined non- and inter-denominational Protestants became the second-largest Christian group with Baptists third. ARDA's 2020 religion census also counted the movement as overtaking Baptists, making up more than 13.1% of the religious population and 6.4% of the general population.
As shown in the table below, some denominations with similar names and historical ties to Evangelical groups are considered Mainline.
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement. In typical usage, the term mainline is contrasted with evangelical. Most adherents consider the key characteristics of evangelicalism to be: a belief in the need for personal conversion (or being "born again"); some expression of the gospel in effort; a high regard for Biblical authority; and an emphasis on the death and resurrection of Jesus. David Bebbington has termed these four distinctive aspects conversionism, activism, biblicism, and crucicentrism, saying, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities that is the basis of Evangelicalism."
Note that the term "Evangelical" does not equal Fundamentalist Christianity, although the latter is sometimes regarded simply as the most theologically conservative subset of the former. The major differences largely hinge upon views of how to regard and approach scripture ("Theology of Scripture"), as well as construing its broader world-view implications. While most conservative Evangelicals believe the label has broadened too much beyond its more limiting traditional distinctives, this trend is nonetheless strong enough to create significant ambiguity in the term. As a result, the dichotomy between "evangelical" vs. "mainline" denominations is increasingly complex (particularly with such innovations as the "Emergent Church" movement).
The contemporary North American usage of the term is influenced by the evangelical/fundamentalist controversy of the early 20th century. Evangelicalism may sometimes be perceived as the middle ground between the theological liberalism of the Mainline (Protestant) denominations and the cultural separatism of Fundamentalist Protestantism. Evangelicalism has therefore been described as "the third of the leading strands in American Protestantism, straddl[ing] the divide between fundamentalists and liberals." While the North American perception is important to understand the usage of the term, it by no means dominates a wider global view, where the fundamentalist debate was not so influential.
Historically, Evangelicals held the view that modernist and liberal parties in the Protestant churches had compromised Christian teachings by accommodating the views and values of the secular world. At the same time, they criticized Fundamentalists for their separatism and rejection of the Social Gospel as it had been developed by Protestant activists during the previous century. They argued that the core Gospel and its message needed to be reasserted to distinguish it from the innovations and traditions of the liberals and fundamentalists.
They sought allies in denominational churches and liturgical traditions, disregarding views of eschatology and other "non-essentials," and joined also with Trinitarian varieties of Pentecostalism. They believed that in doing so, they were simply re-acquainting Protestantism with its own recent tradition. The movement's aim at the outset was to reclaim the Evangelical heritage in their respective churches, not to begin something new; and for this reason, following their separation from Fundamentalists, the same movement has been better known merely as "Evangelicalism." By the end of the 20th century, this was the most influential development in American Protestant Christianity.
The National Association of Evangelicals is a U.S. agency which coordinates cooperative ministry for its member denominations.
A 2015 study estimated that the U.S. has about 450,000 Christians from a Muslim background, most of whom are evangelicals or Pentecostals.
The mainline Protestant Christian denominations are those Protestant denominations that were brought to the United States by its historic immigrant groups; for this reason, they are sometimes referred to as heritage churches. The largest are the Episcopal (English), Presbyterian (Scottish), Methodist (English and Welsh), and Lutheran (German and Scandinavian) churches.
Mainline Protestantism, including the Episcopalians (76%), the Presbyterians (64%), and the United Church of Christ has the highest number of graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita, of any Christian denomination in the United States, as well as the most high-income earners.
Episcopalians and Presbyterians tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in Americans, and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business, law and politics, especially the Republican Party. Numbers of the most wealthy and affluent American families as the Vanderbilts and Astors, Rockefeller, Du Pont, Roosevelt, Forbes, Whitney, Morgans, and Harrimans are historically Mainline Protestant families.
According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes winners awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize laureates, have identified from a Protestant background. Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry, 60% in Medicine, and 58.6% in Physics between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants.
Some of the first colleges and universities in America, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Dartmouth, Williams, Bowdoin, Middlebury, and Amherst, all were founded by the Mainline Protestants, as were later Carleton, Duke, Oberlin, Beloit, Pomona, Rollins and Colorado College. Most of these schools, however, identify themselves as independent and non-sectarian institutions, having no juridical ties to formal religion. 
Many mainline denominations teach that the Bible is God's word in function, but tend to be open to new ideas and societal changes. They have been increasingly open to the ordination of women.
Mainline churches tend to belong to organizations such as the National Council of Churches and World Council of Churches.
The seven largest U.S. mainline Protestant denominations were called by William Hutchison the "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism" in reference to the major liberal groups during the period between 1900 and 1960.
- United Methodist Church: 6,268,310 members (2020)
- Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: 3,142,777 members (2020)
- Episcopal Church in the United States of America: 1,576,702 active baptized members (2020)
- Presbyterian Church (USA): 1,245,354 active members (2020)
- American Baptist Churches in the USA: 1,145,647 members (2017)
- United Church of Christ: 773,539 members (2020)
- Christian Church (Disciples of Christ): 350,618 (2020)
The Association of Religion Data Archives also considers these denominations to be mainline:
- Reformed Church in America: 194,064 members (2019)
- Religious Society of Friends (Quakers): 108,500 members
- International Council of Community Churches: 68,300 members (2010)
- National Association of Congregational Christian Churches: 65,569 members (2000)
- North American Baptist Conference: 47,150 members (2006)
- Moravian Church in America, Southern Province: 21,513 members (1991)
- Moravian Church in America, Northern Province: 20,220 members (2010)
- Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches: 15,666 members (2006)
- Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: 12,000 members (2007)
- Congregational Christian Churches (not part of any national CCC body)
- Moravian Church in America, Alaska Province
The Association of Religion Data Archives has difficulties collecting data on traditionally African American denominations. Those churches most likely to be identified as mainline include these Methodist groups:
The Catholic Church arrived in what is now the continental United States during the earliest days of the European colonization of the Americas. It secured and established itself formally as early as 1565, with the establishment of the first Catholic parish of the United States at St. Augustine, Florida. It spread in the 1600s through missionaries including Jesuit missionaries like Eusebio Kino, Jacques Marquette, Isaac Jogues and Andrew White (Jesuit). At the time the country was founded (meaning the Thirteen Colonies in 1776, along the Atlantic seaboard), only a small fraction of the population there were Catholic, mostly in Maryland, a "Catholic Proprietary," established in 1634 by the second Lord Baltimore, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore; however, as a result of expansion in former French, Spanish and Mexican (i.e., purchase of Louisiana Territory, of Florida, the acquisition of territory after the Mexican–American War) territories, and immigration over the country's history, the number of adherents has grown dramatically and it is now the largest denomination in the United States today. With over 67 million registered residents professing the faith in 2008, the United States has the fourth largest Catholic population in the world after Brazil, Mexico, and the Philippines, respectively.
The Church's leadership body in the United States is the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, made up of the hierarchy of bishops and archbishops of the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands, although each bishop is independent in his own diocese, answerable only to the Pope.
No primate for Catholics exists in the United States. The Archdiocese of Baltimore has Prerogative of Place, which confers to its archbishop a subset of the leadership responsibilities granted to primates in other countries, possibly because at the time it was created an archdiocese (and metropolitan see) in 1808, four newly created dioceses (Boston, New York, Bardstown [KY], and Philadelphia) were subject to it. In addition, the "principal determining elements in the character of American Catholicism" seemed to coalesce under the leadership of Archbishop John Carroll of Baltimore (the first bishop of the United States, consecrated in London, 1790) and his native Maryland Catholics, descendants of the original Catholic families of Maryland's Catholic Proprietary. In this regard, Baltimore had, among other things, a "prerogative of place," both historically and culturally, in the American Catholic mind and in Rome. This would change, of course, with immigration and the acquisition of new territories that currently make up continental U.S. It is important to note, however, the openness of Carroll to the American experiment. As early as 1784, he "wholeheartedly" affirmed the pattern of church-state relations then emerging in the new country, later to be incorporated into the Constitution. He also praised the promise which civil and religious liberty held out for all denominations, noting in an address to Catholics (Annapolis, MD), that "if we have the wisdom and temper to preserve, America may come to exhibit a proof to the world, that general and equal toleration, by giving a free circulation to fair argument, is the most effectual method to bring all denominations of Christians to a unity of faith."
The number of Catholics grew from the early 19th century through immigration and the acquisition of the predominantly Catholic former possessions of France, Spain, and Mexico, followed in the mid-19th century by a rapid influx of Irish, German, Italian and Polish immigrants from Europe, making Catholicism the largest Christian denomination in the United States. This increase was met by widespread prejudice and hostility, often resulting in riots and the burning of churches, convents, and seminaries. The integration of Catholics into American society was marked by the election of John F. Kennedy as president in 1960. Since then, the percentage of Americans who are Catholic has remained at around 25%.
According to the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities in 2011, there are approximately 230 Roman Catholic universities and colleges in the United States with nearly 1 million students and some 65,000 professors. 12 Catholic universities are listed among the top 100 national universities in the US. Catholic schools educate 2.7 million students in the United States, employing 150,000 teachers. In 2002, Catholic health care systems, overseeing 625 hospitals with a combined revenue of 30 billion dollars, comprised the nation's largest group of nonprofit systems. Owing to its size, more Catholics hold college degrees (26% of all US Catholics) and earn over $100,000 per year (19% of all US Catholics) than do members of any other US denomination.
Eastern Orthodox ChristianityEdit
Groups of immigrants from several different regions, mainly Eastern Europe and the Middle East, brought Eastern Orthodoxy to the United States. This traditional branch of Eastern Christianity has since spread beyond the boundaries of ethnic immigrant communities and now include multi-ethnic membership and parishes. Currently, there are between 6 and 7 million Eastern Christians in the United States of America, with most of them. There are several Eastern Orthodox ecclesiastical jurisdictions in the US, organized within the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States of America. Statistically, Eastern Orthodox Christians are among the wealthiest Christian denominations in the United States, and they also tend to be better educated than most other religious groups in America, in the sense that they have a high number of graduate (68%) and post-graduate degrees (28%) per capita.
Oriental Orthodox ChristianityEdit
Several groups of Christian immigrants, mainly from the Middle East, Caucasus, Africa and India, brought Oriental Orthodoxy to the United States.
This ancient branch of Eastern Christianity includes several ecclesiastical jurisdictions in the US, including the Armenian Apostolic Church in the United States, the Coptic Orthodox Church in the United States, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. The Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, an Oriental Protestant body in the Saint Thomas Christian tradition, also has congregations in the United States.
Latter Day Saint movementEdit
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a nontrinitarian restorationist denomination. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, and is the largest originating from the Latter Day Saint movement which was founded by Joseph Smith in Upstate New York in 1830. It forms the majority in Utah, the plurality in Idaho, and high percentages in Nevada, Arizona, and Wyoming; in addition to sizable numbers in Colorado, Montana, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Hawaii and California. Current membership in the U.S. is 6.7 million and total membership is 16.7 million worldwide, as of December 2020.
In 2021, around 12–13% of Latter-day Saints lived in Utah, the center of cultural influence for the Latter Day Saint movement. Utah Latter-day Saints (as well as Latter-day Saints living in the Intermountain West) are on average more culturally and politically conservative and Libertarian than those living in some cosmopolitan centers elsewhere in the U.S. Utahns self-identifying as Latter-day Saints also attend church somewhat more on average than Latter-day Saints living in other states. (Nonetheless, whether they live in Utah or elsewhere in the U.S., Latter-day Saints tend to be more culturally and politically conservative than members of other U.S. religious groups.) Utah Latter-day Saints often place a greater emphasis on pioneer heritage than international Latter-day Saints who generally are not descendants of the early Latter-day Saint pioneers.
The Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) is a trinitarian restorationist denomination based in Independence, Missouri, at the theologically significant Temple Lot. Community of Christ is the second largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement with 130,000 members in the United States and 250,000 worldwide (See Community of Christ membership statistics). The church owns some of the early Latter Day Saint historic sites, including the Kirtland Temple, near Cleveland, Ohio, and the Joseph Smith properties in Nauvoo, Illinois. The Community of Christ has taken an ecumenical and progressive approach recent years including joining the National Council of Churches, ordaining women to the church's priesthood since 1984, and more recently approving the blessing of same-sex marriages.
Small churches within the Latter-day Saint movement include Church of Christ (Temple Lot), Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Restoration Branches, and Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
Christianity was introduced during the period of European colonization. The Spanish and French brought Catholicism to the colonies of New Spain and New France respectively, while British and Germans introduced Protestantism. Among Protestants, adherents to Anglicanism, the Baptist Church, Calvinism, Congregationalism, Presbyterianism, Lutheranism, Quakerism, Anabaptism, Methodism, and Moravian Church were the first to settle in the American colonies.
Early colonial periodEdit
The Dutch founded the colony of New Netherland in 1624; they established the Dutch Reformed Church as the colony's official religion in 1628. When Sweden established New Sweden in the Delaware River Valley in 1638, Church of Sweden was the colony's religion.
Spain established missions and towns in what are now Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Florida, and California. Many cities and towns still retain the names of the Catholic saints these missions were named for; an excellent example of this is the full legal name of the city of Los Angeles: El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora Reina de Los Ángeles del Río Porciúncula, or The Town of Our Lady, Queen of the Angels of the Porciuncula River. The city was founded by Franciscan friars, who named their tiny church and later the town that formed around it after the Virgin Mary, also known to Catholics as Our Lady, Queen of the Angels. Similar patterns emerged wherever the Spanish went, such as San Antonio, Texas (named for Anthony of Padua), Santa Fe, New Mexico (named after Francis of Assisi,) and Saint Augustine, Florida (named for Augustine of Hippo), as was Saint Lucy County and Port Saint Lucy in Florida named for Saint Lucy/Santa Lucia although Saint Petersburg, Florida was not named for St. Peter, but for the city of the same name in Russia.
Conversion of Native Americans to Catholicism was a main goal of the Catholic missionaries, especially the Jesuits. This was common in places where French influence was strong, like Detroit or Louisiana. However, Christianity is also implicated in the deaths of one third of the indigenous population of California.
Many of the British North American colonies that eventually formed the United States of America were settled in the 17th century by men and women, who, in the face of European religious persecution, refused to compromise passionately-held religious convictions and fled Europe.
An Anglican chaplain was among the first group of English colonists, arriving in 1607. The Church of England was legally established in the colony in 1619; with a total of 22 Anglican clergymen having arrived by 1624. In practice, "establishment" meant that local taxes were funneled through the local parish to handle the needs of local government, such as roads and poor relief, in addition to the salary of the minister. There never was a bishop in colonial Virginia; the local vestry consisted of laymen controlled the parish. The colonists were typically inattentive, uninterested, and bored during church services, according to the ministers, who complained that the people were sleeping, whispering, ogling the fashionably dressed women, walking about and coming and going, or at best looking out the windows or staring blankly into space. There were too few ministers for the widely scattered population, so ministers encouraged parishioners to become devout at home, using the Book of Common Prayer for private prayer and devotion (rather than the Bible). The stress on personal piety opened the way for the First Great Awakening, which pulled people away from the established church and into the unauthorized Baptist and Methodist movements.
A group which later became known as the Pilgrims settled the Plymouth Colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620, seeking refuge from persecution in Europe.
The Puritans, a much larger group than the Pilgrims, established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers. Puritans were English Protestants who wished to reform and purify the Church of England in the New World of what they considered to be unacceptable residues of Catholicism. Within two years, an additional 2,000 settlers arrived. From 1620 to 1640 Puritans emigrated to New England from England to escape persecution and gain the liberty to worship as they chose independently of the Church of England, England being on the verge of the English Civil War. Most settled in New England, but some went as far as the West Indies. Theologically, the Puritans were "non-separating Congregationalists." The Puritans created a deeply religious, socially tight-knit and politically innovative culture that is still present in the modern United States. They hoped this new land would serve as a "redeemer nation."
Christianity's expansion had consequences for the indigenous people of the U.S. , dating back to King Philip's War, 1675-76. From the pulpits of New England's Puritan divines came "an unvarying message" of the "evil native genius" that needed to be dealt with.
Tolerance in Rhode Island and PennsylvaniaEdit
Roger Williams, who preached religious tolerance, separation of church and state, and a complete break with the Church of England, was banished from Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island Colony, which became a haven for other religious refugees from the Puritan community. Some migrants who came to Colonial America were in search of the freedom to practice forms of Christianity which were prohibited and persecuted in Europe. Since there was no state religion, and since Protestantism had no central authority, religious practice in the colonies became diverse.
The Quakers formed in England in 1652, where they were severely persecuted in England for daring to deviate so far from orthodox Anglican Christianity. Many sought refuge in New Jersey, Rhode Island and especially Pennsylvania, which was owned by William Penn, a rich Quaker. The Quakers kept political control until Indian wars broke out; the Quakers were pacifists and gave up control to groups that were eager to fight the Indians.
Beginning in 1683 many German-speaking immigrants arrived in Pennsylvania from the Rhine Valley and Switzerland. Starting in the 1730s Count Zinzendorf and the Moravian Brethren sought to minister to these immigrants while they also began missions among the Native American tribes of New York and Pennsylvania. Heinrich Melchior Muehlenberg organized the first Lutheran Synod in Pennsylvania in the 1740s.
In the English colonies, Catholicism was introduced with the settling of Maryland. Catholic fortunes fluctuated in Maryland during the rest of the 17th century, as they became an increasingly smaller minority of the population. After the Glorious Revolution of 1689 in England, penal laws deprived Catholics of the right to vote, hold office, educate their children or worship publicly. Until the American Revolution, Catholics in Maryland, like Charles Carroll of Carrollton, were dissenters in their own country but keeping loyal to their convictions. At the time of the Revolution, Catholics formed less than 1% of the population of the thirteen colonies, in 2007, Catholics comprised 24% of US population.
Evangelicalism is difficult to date and to define. Scholars have argued that, as a self-conscious movement, evangelicalism did not arise until the mid-17th century, perhaps not until the Great Awakening itself. The fundamental premise of evangelicalism is the conversion of individuals from a state of sin to a "new birth" through the preaching of the Word. The Great Awakening refers to a northeastern Protestant revival movement that took place in the 1730s and 1740s.
The first generation of New England Puritans required that church members undergo a conversion experience that they could describe publicly. Their successors were not as successful in reaping harvests of redeemed souls. The movement began with Jonathan Edwards, a Massachusetts preacher who sought to return to the Pilgrims' strict Calvinist roots. British preacher George Whitefield and other itinerant preachers continued the movement, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style. Followers of Edwards and other preachers of similar religiosity called themselves the "New Lights," as contrasted with the "Old Lights," who disapproved of their movement. To promote their viewpoints, the two sides established academies and colleges, including Princeton and Williams College. The Great Awakening has been called the first truly American event.
The supporters of the Awakening and its evangelical thrust—Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists—became the largest American Protestant denominations by the first decades of the 19th century. By the 1770s, the Baptists were growing rapidly both in the north (where they founded Brown University), and in the South. Opponents of the Awakening or those split by it—Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists—were left behind.
The First Great Awakening of the 1740s increased religiosity in most of the colonies. By 1780 the percentage of adult colonists who formally held membership in a church was between 10-30%. North Carolina had the lowest percentage at about 4%, while New Hampshire and South Carolina were tied for the highest, at about 16%. Many others informally associated with the churches.
The Revolution split some denominations, notably the Church of England, most of whose ministers supported the king. The Quakers and some German sects were pacifists and remained neutral. Religious practice suffered in certain places because of the absence of ministers and the destruction of churches, but in other areas, religion flourished.
Badly hurt, the Anglicans reorganized after the war. It became the Protestant Episcopal Church.
In 1794, the Russian Orthodox missionary St. Herman of Alaska arrived on Kodiak island in Alaska and began significantly evangelizing the native peoples. Nearly all Russians left in 1867 when the U.S. purchased Alaska, but the Eastern Orthodox faith remained.
Lambert (2003) has examined the religious affiliations and beliefs of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Of the 55 delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, 49 were Protestants, and two were Catholics (D. Carroll, and Fitzsimons). Among the Protestant delegates to the Constitutional Convention, 28 were Church of England (or Episcopalian, after the American Revolutionary War was won), eight were Presbyterians, seven were Congregationalists, two were Lutherans, two were Dutch Reformed, and two were Methodists.
Church and state debateEdit
After independence, the American states were obliged to write constitutions establishing how each would be governed. For three years, from 1778 to 1780, the political energies of Massachusetts were absorbed in drafting a charter of government that the voters would accept. One of the most contentious issues was whether the state would support the church financially. Advocating such a policy were the ministers and most members of the Congregational Church, which received public financial support, during the colonial period. The Baptists tenaciously adhered to their ancient conviction that churches should receive no support from the state. The Constitutional Convention chose to support the church and Article Three authorized a general religious tax to be directed to the church of a taxpayers' choice.
Such tax laws also took effect in Connecticut and New Hampshire.
Separation of church and stateEdit
In October 1801, members of the Danbury Baptists Associations wrote a letter to the new President-elect Thomas Jefferson. Baptists, being a minority in Connecticut, were still required to pay fees to support the Congregationalist majority. The Baptists found this intolerable. The Baptists, well aware of Jefferson's own unorthodox beliefs, sought him as an ally in making all religious expression a fundamental human right and not a matter of government largesse.
In his January 1, 1802, reply to the Danbury Baptist Association Jefferson summed up the First Amendment's original intent, and used for the first time anywhere a now-familiar phrase in today's political and judicial circles: the amendment, he wrote, established a "wall of separation between church and state." Largely unknown in its day, this phrase has since become a major Constitutional issue. The first time the U.S. Supreme Court cited that phrase from Jefferson was in 1878, 76 years later.
Second Great AwakeningEdit
The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant movement that began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the 1840s. It was a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, and was especially attractive to young women. Millions of new members enrolled in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The network of voluntary reform societies inspired by the Awakening was called the Benevolent Empire.
During the Second Great Awakening, new Protestant denominations emerged such as Adventists, churches in the Restoration Movement, and groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. While the First Great Awakening was centered on reviving the spirituality of established congregations, the Second focused on the unchurched and sought to instill in them a deep sense of personal salvation as experienced in revival meetings.
The principal innovation produced by the revivals was the camp meeting. When assembled in a field or at the edge of a forest for a prolonged religious meeting, the participants transformed the site into a camp meeting. Singing and preaching were the main activities for several days. The revivals were often intense and created intense emotions. Some fell away but many if not most became permanent church members. The Methodists and Baptists made them one of the evangelical signatures of the denomination.
African American churchesEdit
The Christianity of the black population was grounded in evangelicalism. The Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity." During these revivals Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks. However, many were disappointed at the treatment they received from their fellow believers and at the backsliding in the commitment to abolish slavery that many white Baptists and Methodists had advocated immediately after the American Revolution.
When their discontent could not be contained, forceful black leaders followed what was becoming an American habit—they formed new denominations. In 1787, Richard Allen and his colleagues in Philadelphia broke away from the Methodist Church and in 1815 founded the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.
After the Civil War, Black Baptists desiring to practice Christianity away from racial discrimination, rapidly set up several separate state Baptist conventions. In 1866, black Baptists of the South and West combined to form the Consolidated American Baptist Convention. This convention eventually collapsed but three national conventions formed in response. In 1895 the three conventions merged to create the National Baptist Convention. It is now the largest African-American religious organization in the United States.
The "secularization of society" is attributed to the time of the Enlightenment. In the United States, religious observance is much higher than in Europe, and the United States' culture leans conservative in comparison to other western nations, in part due to the Christian element.
Liberal Christianity, exemplified by some theologians, sought to bring to churches new critical approaches to the Bible. Sometimes called "liberal theology", liberal Christianity is an umbrella term covering movements and ideas within 19th- and 20th-century Christianity. New attitudes became evident, and the practice of questioning the nearly universally accepted Christian orthodoxy began to come to the forefront.
In the post–World War I era, liberalism was the faster-growing sector of the American church. Liberal wings of denominations were on the rise, and a considerable number of seminaries held and taught from a liberal perspective as well. In the post–World War II era, the trend began to swing back towards the conservative camp in America's seminaries and church structures.
By 1850 Catholics had become the country's largest single denomination. Between 1860 and 1890 the population of Catholics in the United States tripled through immigration; by the end of the decade, it would reach seven million. These huge numbers of immigrant Catholics came from Ireland, Quebec, Southern Germany, Italy, Poland and Eastern Europe. This influx would eventually bring increased political power for the Catholic Church and a greater cultural presence led at the same time to a growing fear of the Catholic "menace". As the 19th century wore on, animosity waned; Protestant Americans realized that Catholics were not trying to seize control of the government.
Protestant fundamentalism began as a movement in the late 19th century and early 20th century to reject influences of secular humanism and source criticism in modern Christianity. In reaction to liberal Protestant groups that denied doctrines considered fundamental to these conservative groups, they sought to establish tenets necessary to maintaining a Christian identity, the "fundamentals," hence the term fundamentalist.
Over time, the movement divided, with the label Fundamentalist being retained by the smaller and more hard-line group(s). Evangelical has become the main identifier of the groups holding to the movement's moderate and earliest ideas.
In the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, there has been a marked rise in the evangelical wing of Protestant denominations, especially those that are more exclusively evangelical, and a corresponding decline in the mainstream liberal churches.
The 1950s saw a boom in the Evangelical church in America. The post–World War II prosperity experienced in the U.S. also had its effects on the church. Church buildings were erected in large numbers, and the Evangelical church's activities grew along with this expansive physical growth. In the southern U.S., the Evangelicals, represented by leaders such as Billy Graham, have experienced a notable surge displacing the caricature of the pulpit pounding country preachers of fundamentalism. The stereotypes have gradually shifted.
Although the Evangelical community worldwide is diverse, the ties that bind all Evangelicals are still apparent: a "high view" of Scripture, belief in the Deity of Christ, the Trinity, salvation by grace through faith, and the bodily resurrection of Christ.
The Federal Council of Churches, founded in 1908, marked the first major expression of a growing modern ecumenical movement among Christians in the United States. It was active in pressing for reform of public and private policies, particularly as they impacted the lives of those living in poverty, and developed a comprehensive and widely debated Social Creed which served as a humanitarian "bill of rights" for those seeking improvements in American life.
In 1950, the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) represented a dramatic expansion in the development of ecumenical cooperation. It was a merger of the Federal Council of Churches, the International Council of Religious Education, and several other interchurch ministries. Today, the NCC is a joint venture of 35 Christian denominations in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and 45,000,000 adherents. Its member communions include Mainline Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, African-American, Evangelical and historic Peace churches. The NCC took a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement and fostered the publication of the widely used Revised Standard Version of the Bible, followed by an updated New Revised Standard Version, the first translation to benefit from the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The organization is headquartered in New York City, with a public policy office in Washington, DC. The NCC is related fraternally to hundreds of local and regional councils of churches, to other national councils across the globe, and to the World Council of Churches. All of these bodies are independently governed.
Carl McIntire led in organizing the American Council of Christian Churches (ACCC), now with 7 member bodies, in September 1941. It was a more militant and fundamentalist organization set up in opposition to what became the National Council of Churches.
The National Association of Evangelicals for United Action was formed in St. Louis, Missouri on April 7–9, 1942. It soon shortened its name to the National Association of Evangelicals (NEA). There are currently 60 denominations with about 45,000 churches in the organization. The NEA is related fraternally the World Evangelical Fellowship.
In 2006, 39 communions and 7 Christian organizations officially launched Christian Churches Together in the USA (CCT). CCT provides a space that is inclusive of the diversity of Christian traditions in the United States—Evangelical/Pentecostal, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, historic Protestant, and historic Black churches. CCT is characterized by its emphasis on relationships and prayer. Every year these communions and organizations meet over four days to discuss critical social issues, pray and strengthen their relationships.
Another noteworthy development in 20th-century Christianity was the rise of the modern Pentecostal movement. Pentecostalism, which had its roots in the Pietism and the Holiness movement, many will cite that it arose out of the meetings in 1906 at an urban mission on Azusa Street in Los Angeles, but it actually started in 1900 in Topeka, Kansas with a group led by Charles Parham and the Bethel Bible School. From there it spread by those who experienced what they believed to be miraculous moves of God there.
Pentecostalism would later birth the Charismatic movement within already established denominations, and it continues to be an important force in Western Christianity.
By the beginning of the 20th century, approximately one-sixth of the population of the United States was Catholic. Modern Catholic immigrants come to the United States from the Philippines, Poland, and Latin America, especially from Mexico. This multiculturalism and diversity have greatly impacted the flavor of Catholicism in the United States. For example, many dioceses serve in both the English language and the Spanish language.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2021)
While children and youth in the colonial era were treated as small adults, awareness of their special status and needs grew in the nineteenth century, as one after another the denominations large and small began special programs for their young people. Protestant theologian Horace Bushnell in Christian Nurture (1847) emphasized the necessity of identifying and supporting the religiosity of children and young adults. Beginning in the 1790s the Protestant denominations set up Sunday school programs. They provided a major source of new members. Urban Protestant churchmen set up the interdenominational YMCA (and later the YWCA) programs in cities from the 1850s. Methodists looked on their youth as potential political activists, providing them with opportunities to engage in social justice movements such as prohibition. Black Protestants, especially after they could form their own separate churches, integrated their young people directly into the larger religious community. Their youth played a major role in the leadership of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and the 1960s. White evangelicals in the twentieth century set up Bible clubs for teenagers and experimented with the use of music to attract young people. The Catholics set up an entire network of parochial schools, and by the late nineteenth century probably more than half of their young members were attending elementary schools run by local parishes. Some Missouri Synod German Lutherans and Dutch Reformed churches also set up parochial schools. In the twentieth century, all the denominations sponsored programs such as the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts.
Demographics by stateEdit
Beliefs and attitudesEdit
The Baylor University Institute for Studies of Religion conducted a survey covering various aspects of American religious life. The researchers analyzing the survey results have categorized the responses into what they call the "four Gods": An authoritarian God (31%), a benevolent God (25%), a distant God (23%), and a critical God (16%). A major implication to emerge from this survey is that "the type of god people believe in can predict their political and moral attitudes more so than just looking at their religious tradition."
As far as religious tradition, the survey determined that 33.6% of respondents are evangelical Protestants, while 10.8% had no religious affiliation at all. Out of those without affiliation, 62.9% still indicated that they "believe in God or some higher power".
Another study, conducted by Christianity Today with Leadership magazine, attempted to understand the range and differences among American Christians. A national attitudinal and behavioral survey found that their beliefs and practices clustered into five distinct segments. Spiritual growth for two large segments of Christians may be occurring in non-traditional ways. Instead of attending church on Sunday mornings, many opt for personal, individual ways to stretch themselves spiritually.
- 19 percent of American Christians are described by the researchers as Active Christians. They believe salvation comes through Jesus Christ, attend church regularly, are Bible readers, invest in personal faith development through their church, accept leadership positions in their church, and believe they are obligated to "share [their] faith", that is, to evangelize others.
- 20 percent are referred to as Professing Christians. They are also committed to "accepting Christ as Savior and Lord" as the key to being a Christian, but focus more on personal relationships with God and Jesus than on church, Bible reading or evangelizing.
- 16 percent fall into a category named Liturgical Christians. They are predominantly Lutheran, Catholic, Episcopalian, Eastern Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox. They are regular churchgoers, have a high level of spiritual activity and recognize the authority of the church.
- 24 percent are considered Private Christians. They own a Bible but do not tend to read it. Only about one-third attend church at all. They believe in God and in doing good things, but not necessarily within a church context. This was the largest and youngest segment. Almost none are church leaders.
- 21 percent in the research are called Cultural Christians. These do not view Jesus as essential to salvation. They exhibit little outward religious behavior or attitudes. They favor a universality theology that sees many ways to God. Yet, they clearly consider themselves to be Christians.
Gallup International indicates that 41% of American citizens report they regularly attend religious services, compared to 15% of French citizens, 10% of British citizens, and 7.5% of Australian citizens.
The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.
Church attendance varies significantly by state and region. In a 2014 Gallup survey, less than half of Americans said that they attended church or synagogue weekly. The figures ranged from 51% in Utah to 17% in Vermont.
|—||District of Columbia||23%|
Below is the percent of population that are Christians in the U.S. territories in 2015.
|Northern Mariana Islands||81.1%|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||81.8%|
Data from the Pew Research Center show that as of 2008, the majority of White Americans were Christian, and about 51% of the White American were Protestant, and 26% were Catholic.
The most methodologically rigorous study of Hispanic and Latino Americans religious affiliation to date was the Hispanic Churches in American Public Life (HCAPL) National Survey, conducted between August and October 2000. This survey found that 70% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans are Catholic, 20% are Protestant, 3% are "alternative Christians" (such as Latter-Day Saints or Jehovah's Witnesses). According to a Public Religion Research Institute study in 2017, the majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are Christians (76%), and about 11% of Americans identify as Hispanic or Latino Christian.
The majority of African Americans are Protestant (78%), many of whom follow the historically black churches. A 2012 Pew Research Center study found that 42% of Asian Americans identify themselves as Christians.
Beginning around 1600, Northern European settlers introduced Anglican and Puritan religion, as well as Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Quaker, and Moravian denominations.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Spanish (and later the French and English) introduced Catholicism. From the 19th century to the present, Catholics came to the US in large numbers due to the immigration of Irish, Germans, Italians, Hispanics, Portuguese, French, Polish, Hungarians, Lebanese (Maronite), and other ethnic groups.
Most of the Eastern Orthodox adherents in the United States are descended from immigrants of Eastern European or Middle Eastern background, especially from Greek, Russian, Ukrainian, Arab, Bulgarian, Romanian, or Serbian backgrounds.
Most of the Oriental Orthodox adherents in the United States are from Armenian, Coptic-Egyptian and Ethiopian-Eritrean backgrounds.
Along with the Ethiopian-Eritrean Christians also came the P'ent'ay Evangelical Churches, a part of Evangelicalism that maintains the Eastern Christian Calendar and other cultural traditions. 
Most of the traditional Church of the East adherents in the United States are ethnically Assyrian.
Data from the Pew Research Center show that as of 2013, there were about 1.6 million Christians from Jewish background, most of them Protestant. According to the same data, most of the Christians of Jewish descent were raised as Jews or are Jews by ancestry.
A study from 2015 estimated some 450,000 American Muslims who had converted to Christianity, most of whom belong to an evangelical or Pentecostal community. In 2010 there were approximately 180,000 Arab-Americans and about 130,000 Iranian Americans who converted from Islam to Christianity. Dudley Woodbury, a Fulbright scholar of Islam, estimates that 20,000 Muslims convert to Christianity annually in the United States. Many Druze immigrants to the United States converted to Protestantism, becoming communicants of the Presbyterian or Methodist Churches.
It's been also reported that conversion into Christianity is significantly increasing among Korean Americans, Chinese Americans, and Japanese Americans. By 2012, the percentage of Christians within the mentioned communities was 71%, more than 30% and 37%.
Messianic Judaism (or Messianic Movement) is the name of a Protestant movement comprising a number of streams, whose members may consider themselves Jewish. It blends elements of religious Jewish practice with evangelical Protestantism. Messianic Judaism affirms Christian creeds such as the messiahship and divinity of "Yeshua" (the Hebrew name of Jesus) and the Triune Nature of God, while also adhering to some Jewish dietary laws and customs. As of 2012[update], population estimates for the United States were between 175,000 and 250,000 members.
A 2013 Pew Research Center report found that 1.7 million American Jewish adults, 1.6 million of whom were raised in Jewish homes or had Jewish ancestry, identified as Christians or Messianic Jews but also consider themselves ethnically Jewish. According to a 2020 study by the Pew Research Center, 19% of those who say they were raised Jewish, consider themselves Christian.
Self-reported membership statisticsEdit
This table lists total membership and number of congregations in the United States for religious bodies with more than 1 million members. Numbers are from reports on the official web sites, which can vary widely based on information source and membership definition.
- Christian nationalism
- Church fan - Special fan used in American churches with little to no air conditioning
- Demographics of the United States
- History of religion in the United States
- Religion in the United States
- Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches
- ^ "About Three-in-Ten U.S. Adults Are Now Religiously Unaffiliated". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel. Pew Research Center. December 14, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
- ^ GALLUP, GALLUP (December 22, 2017). "2017 Update on Americans and Religion". Archived from the original on December 23, 2017.
- ^ "The American Religious Landscape in 2020s". Public Religion Research Institute. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
- ^ "Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel | Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- ^ Newport, Frank (December 25, 2015). "Percentage of Christians in U.S. Drifting Down, but Still High". Gallup. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
- ^ a b "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- ^ "Church Statistics and Religious Affiliations". Pew Research. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- ^ "'Nones' on the Rise". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. October 9, 2012.
- ^ "American Religious Identification Survey". CUNY Graduate Center. 2001. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
- ^ Finke, Roger; Rodney Stark (2005). The Churching of America, 1776-2005. Rutgers University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-8135-3553-0. online at Google Books.
- ^ Newport, Frank (December 22, 2017). "2017 Update on Americans and Religion". Gallup. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
- ^ "Trends continue in church membership growth or decline", Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches (reports), US: National Council of Churches, February 14, 2011, retrieved May 14, 2017
- ^ "ARDA Sources for Religious Congregations & Membership Data". ARDA. 2000. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- ^ "Leave China, Study in America, Find Jesus". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on February 12, 2016.
- ^ Tri-Faith America: How Catholics and Jews Held Postwar America to Its Protestant Promise by Kevin M. Schultz, p. 9
- ^ Obligations of Citizenship and Demands of Faith: Religious Accommodation in Pluralist Democracies by Nancy L. Rosenblum, Princeton University Press, 2000 - 438, p. 156
- ^ The Protestant Voice in American Pluralism by Martin E. Marty, chapter 1
- ^ "10 facts about religion in America". August 27, 2015.
- ^ "Protestants no longer the majority in U.S." CBS News. October 9, 2012.
- ^ God's Continent: Christianity, Islam, and Europe's Religious Crisis, p 284, Philip Jenkins - 2007
- ^ Green, John C. "The American Religious Landscape and Political Attitudes: A Baseline for 2004" (PDF). University of Akron. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2005. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
- ^ The figures for this 2007 abstract are based on surveies for 1990 and 2001 from the Graduate School and University Center at the City University of New York. Kosmin, Barry A.; Egon Mayer; Ariela Keysar (2001). "American Religious Identification Survey" (PDF). City University of New York.; Graduate School and University Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
- ^ a b "The Association of Religion Data Archives - Maps and Reports - Reports - Denomination Listing: Mainline". Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ "The U.S. Church Finance Market: 2005-2010" Non-denominational membership doubled between 1990 and 2001. (April 1, 2006, report)
- ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved January 24, 2023.
- ^ Blair, Leonardo; Reporter, Senior Features (November 16, 2022). "Nondenominational churches surpass Southern Baptists in adherents: report". The Christian Post. Retrieved January 24, 2023.
- ^ Silliman, Daniel. "'Nondenominational' Is Now the Largest Segment of American Protestants". Christianity Today. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
- ^ "America's Changing Religious Landscape, Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations". Pew Research Center. May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- ^ Eskridge, Larry (1995). "Defining Evangelicalism". Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- ^ Bebbington, p. 3.
- ^ George Marsden Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism Eerdmans, 1991.
- ^ Luo, Michael (April 16, 2006). "Evangelicals Debate the Meaning of 'Evangelical'". The New York Times.
- ^ Mead, Walter Russell (2006). "God's Country?". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- ^ a b Miller, Duane; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10). Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- ^ The Death of Protestant America: A Political Theory of the Protestant Mainline by Joseph Bottum, First Things (August/September 2008)
- ^ a b Leonhardt, David (May 13, 2011). "Faith, Education and Income".
- ^ a b US Religious Landscape Survey: Diverse and Dynamic (PDF), The Pew Forum, February 2008, p. 85, retrieved September 17, 2012
- ^ a b Leonhardt, David (May 13, 2011). "Faith, Education and Income". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- ^ a b B. Drummond Ayres Jr. (December 19, 2011). "The Episcopalians: An American Elite With Roots Going Back to Jamestown". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- ^ Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity, 1975 154+
- ^ Hacker, Andrew (1957). "Liberal Democracy and Social Control". American Political Science Review. 51 (4): 1009–1026 [p. 1011]. doi:10.2307/1952449. JSTOR 1952449. S2CID 146933599.
- ^ Baltzell (1964). The Protestant Establishment. New York, Random House. p. 9.
- ^ a b c d Harriet Zuckerman, Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States New York, The Free Press, 1977, p.68: Protestants turn up among the American-reared laureates in slightly greater proportion to their numbers in the general population. Thus 72 percent of the seventy-one laureates but about two thirds of the American population were reared in one or another Protestant denomination-)
- ^ "The Harvard Guide: The Early History of Harvard University". News.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- ^ "Increase Mather". Archived from the original on February 11, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2015., Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica
- ^ Princeton University Office of Communications. "Princeton in the American Revolution". Retrieved May 24, 2011. The original Trustees of Princeton University "were acting in behalf of the evangelical or New Light wing of the Presbyterian Church, but the College had no legal or constitutional identification with that denomination. Its doors were to be open to all students, 'any different sentiments in religion notwithstanding.'"
- ^ McCaughey, Robert (2003). Stand, Columbia : A History of Columbia University in the City of New York. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0231130082.
- ^ "Duke University's Relation to the Methodist Church: the basics". Duke University. 2002. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
Duke University has historical, formal, on-going, and symbolic ties with Methodism, but is an independent and non-sectarian institution ... Duke would not be the institution it is today without its ties to the Methodist Church. However, the Methodist Church does not own or direct the University. Duke is and has developed as a private non-profit corporation which is owned and governed by an autonomous and self-perpetuating Board of Trustees.
- ^ "2022-20-23 Best Colleges | College Rankings and Data | US News Education," US News and World Report www.usnews.com 2023
- ^ "The Decline of Mainline Protestantism". Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- ^ Protestant Establishment I (Craigville Conference) Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Hutchison, William. Between the Times: The Travail of the Protestant Establishment in America, 1900-1960 (1989), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-40601-3
- ^ "UMData". umdata.org. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
- ^ "Summary of Congregational Statistics as of 12/31/2020" (PDF). ELCA.org. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
- ^ Facts Trends: 2016-2020: From Parochial Report Data 2020, The Episcopal Church, 2021, retrieved August 6, 2022
- ^ Church (U.S.A.), Presbyterian (April 24, 2021). "Statistics - Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) - PC(USA) s- 2020" (PDF). www.pcusa.org.
- ^ "ABC USA Summary of Statistics" (PDF). December 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- ^ "The United Church Of Christ: A Statistical Profile" (PDF). 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- ^ "'Congregations in Crisis': Dour News from Disciples, Brethren". Retrieved October 15, 2022.
- ^ Church Statistical Data Reformed Church in America
- ^ "International Council of Community Churches- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- ^ "National Association of Congregational Christian Churches- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ North American Baptist Conference - Membership Data ARDA
- ^ "Moravian Church in America (Unitas Fratrum), Southern Province- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ "Moravian Church in America (Unitas Fratrum), Northern Province- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved March 6, 2018.
- ^ "Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ "History of the Catholic Church in the United States". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 2021.
- ^ John Tracy Ellis, American Catholicism (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1956), 5-25, 181
- ^ Richard Middleton, Colonial America: A History, 1565-1776 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002)94-103
- ^ Ellis, American Catholicism, 47.
- ^ Ellis, American Catholicism, 164
- ^ Ellis, American Catholicism, 35-50.
- ^ Ellis, American Catholicism, 38-39, 163-164.
- ^ J. A. Birkhaeuser,  "1893 History of the church: from its first establishment to our own times. Designed for the use of ecclesiastical seminaries and colleges, Volume 3"
- ^ "Is the Bottom Really Falling Out of Catholic Mass Attendance? A Recent CARA Survey Ponders the Question - Community in Mission". December 15, 2010.
- ^ Jerry Filteau, "Higher education leaders commit to strengthening Catholic identity," National Catholic Reporter, Vol 47, No. 9, February 18, 2011, 1
- ^ "National University Ranking ", U.S. News & World Report, 2019.
- ^ Arthur Jones, "Catholic health care aims to make 'Catholic' a brand name," National Catholic Reporter July 18, 2003, 8.
- ^ "American's Changing Religious Landscape," (see both "Household income of US religious groups" and "Educational attainment of US religious groups" in report), Pew Research Center, May 12, 2015.
- ^ a b FitzGerald 2007, p. 269-276.
- ^ Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United States of America
- ^ a b FitzGerald 2007, p. 277-279.
- ^ The Armenian Church of America
- ^ Coptic Churches in the United States and Canada
- ^ Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
- ^ Arave, Lynn (November 27, 2008). "Symbolism Can Be Seen in Architecture of S.L. Temple". Mormon Times. LDS Church. Deseret News. Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- ^ a b "United States - Statistics and Church Facts - Total Church Membership".
- ^ "2020 Statistical Report for the April 2021 Conference". April 3, 2021.
- ^ "Utah - Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2021..
- ^ Mauss often compares Salt Lake City Latter-day Saints to California Latter-day Saints from San Francisco and East Bay. The Utah Latter-day Saints were generally more orthodox and conservative. Mauss (1994, pp. 40, 128); "A Portrait of Latter Day Saints in the U.S.: III. Social and Political Views". Pew Research Center. July 24, 2009..
- ^ Newport, Frank (January 11, 2010). "Latter Day Saints Most Conservative Major Religious Group in U.S.: Six out of 10 latter Day Saints are politically conservative". Gallup poll.; Pond, Allison (July 24, 2009). "A Portrait of latter Day Saints in the U.S". Pew Research Center..
- ^ Thomas W. Murphy (1996). "Reinventing Mormonism: Guatemala as Harbinger of the Future?" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
- ^ "New Netherland". Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ "The Reformed Church in America". Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- ^ Castillo, Edward D. "California Indian History – California Native American Heritage Commission". nahc.ca.gov. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- ^ Edward L. Bond and Joan R. Gundersen, The Episcopal Church in Virginia, 1607–2007 (2007)
- ^ Jacob M. Blosser, "Irreverent Empire: Anglican Inattention in an Atlantic World," Church History, Sept 2008, Vol. 77 Issue 3, pp. 596–628
- ^ Edward L. Bond, "Anglican theology and devotion in James Blair's Virginia, 1685–1743," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 1996, Vol. 104 Issue 3, pp. 313–40
- ^ Tuveson, Ernest Lee (1968). Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millennial Role. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226819211.
- ^ Russell Bourne, The Red King's Rebellion:Racial Politics in New England, 1675-78 (New York: Atheneum, 1990), 245.
- ^ Illick, Joseph E.; Kline, Milton M. (1976). Colonial Pennsylvania: A History. Scribner. ISBN 978-0684145655.
- ^ A. G. Roeber, Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (1998)
- ^ Carnes, Mark C.; John A. Garraty; Patrick Williams (1996). Mapping America's Past: A Historical Atlas. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 50. ISBN 0-8050-4927-4.
- ^ Albright, Raymond W (1964). A history of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The Macmillan Co. ISBN 978-0025006805.
- ^ a b Lambert, Franklin T. (2003). The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (published 2006). ISBN 978-0691126029.
- ^ Nancy Cott, “Young Women in the Great Awakening in New England,” Feminist Studies 3, no. 1/2 (Autumn 1975): 15.
- ^ Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)
- ^ "Institutionalizing Religious Belief: The Benevolent Empire", U.S. History Online Textbook, ushistory.org, archived from the original on March 24, 2020, retrieved February 5, 2011.
- ^ Dickson D., Bruce, Jr., And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974)
- ^ "History of CCT". Christian Churches Together. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- ^ Anne M. Boylan, Sunday School: The Formation of an American Institution, 1790-1880 (1990)
- ^ David Macleod, Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870-1920 (2004)
- ^ Timothy Walch, Parish School: A History of American Catholic Parochial Education from Colonial Times to the Present (1995)
- ^ Thomas E. Burgler, The Juvenilization of American Christianity (2012)
- ^ Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States, 2000. Collected by the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies (ASARB) and distributed by the Association of Religion Data Archives.
- ^ a b c d "Losing My Religion? No, Says Baylor Religion Survey". Baylor University. September 11, 2006.
- ^ "5 Kinds of Christians — Understanding the disparity of those who call themselves Christian in America. Leadership Journal, Fall 2007.
- ^ "How many people go regularly to weekly religious services?". Religious Tolerance website.
- ^ "'One in 10' attends church weekly". BBC News. April 3, 2007.
- ^ NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, Media release
- ^ "Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least". Gallup. February 17, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- ^ a b Inc., Gallup (February 17, 2015). "Frequent Church Attendance Highest in Utah, Lowest in Vermont". Retrieved June 28, 2016.
|last=has generic name (help)
- ^ http://thearda.com/internationalData/countries/Country_5_2.asp
thearda.com. The ARDA (Association of Religion Data Archives). American Samoa / Guam / Northern Mariana Islands / Puerto Rico / Virgin Islands (U.S.) Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- ^ "Latinos and the Transformation of american religion" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
- ^ a b America’s Changing Religious Identity
- ^ "Pew Forum: A Religious Portrait of African-Americans". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. January 30, 2009. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- ^ U.S.Religious Landscape Survey p.40 The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (February 2008). Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- ^ "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (overview) (). Pew Research. July 19, 2012. Retrieved on May 3, 2014.
- ^ Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A religious history of the American people (1976) pp 121-59 .
- ^ Alexei D. Krindatch, ed., Atlas of American Orthodox Christian Churches (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2011) online.
- ^ Heinrich; Heinrich (2007). Why Humans Cooperate: A Cultural and Evolutionary Explanation. Oxford University Press. pp. 81–82.
- ^ "How many Jews are there in the United States?". Pew Research Center.
- ^ a b "A PORTRAIT OF JEWISH AMERICANS: Chapter 1: Population Estimates". Pew Research Center. October 2013.
- ^ Maltz, Judy (September 30, 2013). "American-Jewish Population Rises to 6.8 Million". haaretz.
- ^ "Why Are Millions of Muslims Becoming Christian?".
- ^ A. Kayyali, Randa (2006). The Arab Americans. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 9780313332197.
Many of the Druze have chosen to deemphasize their ethnic identity, and some have officially converted to Christianity.
- ^ Hobby, Jeneen (2011). Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. University of Philadelphia Press. p. 232. ISBN 9781414448916.
US Druze settled in small towns and kept a low profile, joining Protestant churches (usually Presbyterian or Methodist) and often Americanizing their names..
- ^ Yoo, David; Ruth H. Chung (2008). Religion and spirituality in Korean America. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07474-5.
- ^ "Leave China, Study in America, Find Jesus".
- ^ Brian Niiya (1993). Japanese American History: An A-To-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. VNR AG. p. 28. ISBN 9780816026807.
- ^ "Pew Forum - Korean Americans' Religions". Projects.pewforum.org. July 18, 2012. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- ^ Pew Forum - Chinese Americans' Religions Archived August 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Japanese Americans - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- ^ Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism". Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000 (Google Books). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-8078-4880-7. OCLC 43708450. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- ^ Posner, Sarah (November 29, 2012). "Kosher Jesus: Messianic Jews in the Holy Land". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- ^ "National survey shows Jews leaving Judaism, assimilating, becoming Christians or "Nones"". A Journey through NYC religions. October 1, 2013.
- ^ How many Jews are there in the United States? Pew Research Center
- ^ "Jewish Americans in 2020". Pew Research Center. May 11, 2021.
That means that one-third of those raised Jewish or by Jewish parent(s) are not Jewish today, either because they identify with a religion other than Judaism (including 19% who consider themselves Christian) or because they do not currently identify as Jewish either by religion or aside from religion.
- ^ "The top 10 most Catholic countries in the world". Aleteia. January 18, 2019.
- ^ Guillermo, Emill. "Burmese-American Catholics Broaden U.S. Catholic Church". CBS News.
- ^ "CENTER FOR APPLIED RESEARCH IN THE APOSTOLATE (CARA), Georgetown University > Frequently Requested Church Statistics > Parishes". cara.georgetown.edu/frequently-requested-church-statistics/.
- ^ "Fast Facts" (PDF). Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
- ^ "Fast Facts" (PDF). Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
- ^ a b "Baptist World Alliance Member Bodies". www.baptistworld.org. Retrieved November 21, 2021.
- ^ "Latter-day Saint membership increased this much in 2021, according to new church statistical report". April 2, 2022.
- ^ a b "UMData". Retrieved January 13, 2022.
- ^ "National Council of Churches' 2012 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches". ncccusa.org/news/120209yearbook2012.html.
- ^ "Church of God in Christ Official Website/web/20130312130022/http://www.cogic.org/our-foundation/". Archived from the original on March 12, 2013.
- ^ "Church of God in Christ Statistics". churchfinder.com/denominations/church-god-christ.
- ^ a b "ELCA Facts". elca.org. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- ^ "BWA Statistics". www.baptistworld.org.
- ^ "Assemblies of God (USA) - Official Website, 2021 Summary Statistical Report" (PDF).
- ^ "Assemblies of God (USA) - Official Website, 2021 Summary Statistical Report" (PDF).
- ^ "African Methodist Episcopal Church Statistics". www.oikoumene.org/en/member-churches/african-methodist-episcopal-church.
- ^ "The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod Facts". Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- ^ 2019 Texas baptists annual meeting
- ^ Parochial Report Data 2020, The Episcopal Church
- ^ "Progressive National Baptist Convention History". www.pnbc.org.
- ^ "About the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America - Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America".
- ^ "African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church Statistics". www.oikoumene.org/en/member-churches/african-methodist-episcopal-zion-church.
- ^ "Pentecostal Assemblies of the World Officers". pawinc.org/tag/officers/. Archived from the original on April 24, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- ^ "Pentecostal Assemblies of the World Statistics". www.churchfinder.com/denominations/pentecostal-assemblies-world.
- ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses Around the World - United States of America". www.jw.org. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
- ^ "Baptist Bible Fellowship International Statistics". www.churchfinder.com/denominations/baptist-bible-fellowship-international.
- ^ a b Church (U.S.A.). "Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) - PC(USA) comparative statistics" (PDF). www.pcusa.org.
- ^ "BWA Statistics". www.baptistworld.org.
- ^ "North American Division (1913-Present)access-date=February 7, 2018". adventiststatistics.org.
- ^ Royster, Carl H. (June 2020). "Churches of Christ in the United States" (PDF). 21st Century Christian. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- ^ "Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) Statistics". www.churchfinder.com/denominations/church-god-cleveland-tn.
- FitzGerald, Thomas (2007). "Eastern Christianity in the United States". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 269–279. ISBN 9780470766392.
- Mauss, Armand (1994). The Angel and the Beehive: The Mormon Struggle with Assimilation. Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02071-1.
- Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People (1972, 2004) the standard history excerpt and text search
- Askew, Thomas A., and Peter W. Spellman. The Churches and the American Experiment: Ideals and Institutions (1984).
- Balmer, Randall. Protestantism in America (2005)
- Balmer, Randall. The Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism (2002) excerpt and text search
- Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America Oxford University Press, 1988 online edition
- Butler, Jon, et al. Religion in American Life: A Short History (2011)
- Dolan, Jay P. The American Catholic Experience (1992)
- Johnson, Paul, ed. African-American Christianity: Essays in History, (1994) complete text online free
- Keller, Rosemary Skinner, and Rosemary Radford Ruether, eds. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America (3 vol 2006)
- Noll, Mark A. American Evangelical Christianity: An Introduction (2000) excerpt and text search
- Wigger, John H.. and Nathan O. Hatch. Methodism and the Shaping of American Culture. (2001) excerpt and text search