Battle of Okinawa
The Battle of Okinawa (Japanese: 沖縄戦 Hepburn: Okinawa-sen) (Okinawan: 沖縄戦, translit. Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. The initial invasion of Okinawa on April 1, 1945, was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific Theater of World War II. The 82-day battle lasted from April 1 until June 22, 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were planning to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations for the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands.
|Battle of Okinawa|
|Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II|
US Marine from the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines on Wana Ridge provides covering fire with his Thompson submachine gun, May 18, 1945.
|Commanders and leaders|
| Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. †
Claudius Miller Easley †
Chester W. Nimitz
Raymond A. Spruance
William Halsey, Jr.
| Mitsuru Ushijima †
Isamu Chō †
Minoru Ōta †
Seiichi Itō †
Hiromichi Yahara (POW)
|541,000 in Tenth Army
183,000 combat troops rising to c. 250,000
|76,000 Japanese soldiers,
20,000 Okinawan conscripts
|Casualties and losses|
12 destroyers sunk
15 amphibious ships sunk
9 other ships sunk
386 ships damaged
From 77,166 killed to 110,000 killed (US estimate)
More than 7,000 captured
1 battleship sunk
1 light cruiser sunk
5 destroyers sunk
9 other warships sunk
1,430 aircraft lost
27 tanks destroyed
743 artillery pieces, anti-tank guns, and anti-aircraft guns
|40,000–150,000 civilians killed out of some est.300,000|
The United States created the Tenth Army, a cross-branch force consisting of the 7th, 27th, 77th, and 96th infantry divisions of the US Army with the 1st, 2nd, and 6th divisions of the Marine Corps, to fight on the island. The Tenth was unique in that it had its own tactical air force (joint Army-Marine command), and was also supported by combined naval and amphibious forces.
The battle has been referred to as the "typhoon of steel" in English, and tetsu no ame ("rain of steel") or tetsu no bōfū ("violent wind of steel") in Japanese. The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of Japanese kamikaze attacks, and the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific, with approximately 160,000+ casualties on both sides: 75,682 Allied and 84,166-117,000+ Japanese, including drafted Okinawans wearing Japanese uniforms. 149,425 Okinawans were killed, committed suicide or went missing, a significant proportion of the estimated pre-war 300,000 local population.
In the naval operations surrounding the battle, both sides lost considerable numbers of ships and aircraft, including the Japanese battleship Yamato. After the battle, Okinawa provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, and airfields in proximity to Japan in preparation for the planned invasion.
Order of battleEdit
- Covering Forces and Special Groups (Task Force 50) directly under Spruance:
- Fast Carrier Force (TF 58) under Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher with 88 ships (including 11 fleet carriers, 6 light carriers, 7 battleships and 18 cruisers);
- British Carrier Force (TF 57) under Vice Admiral Sir Bernard Rawlings with 4 carriers, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 14 destroyers and fleet train;
- Joint Expeditionary Force (TF 51) under Vice Admiral Richmond K. Turner (who was holding position of Commander, Amphibious Forces, Pacific):
- Amphibious Support Force (TF 52) under Rear Admiral William H. P. Blandy:
- TG 52.1: 18 escort carriers with 450 aircraft;
- Sl Escort Carrier Group: 4 escort carriers with Marine Aircraft Group 31 and 33;
- Mine Flotilla (TG 52.2)
- Underwater Demolition Flotilla (TG 52.11): 10 100-strong UDT aboard destroyer escorts
- 170 fire support landing craft
- Western Islands Attack Group (TG 51.1) under Rear Admiral Ingolf N. Kiland with 77th Infantry Division, 17 attack and attack cargo transporters, 56 LSTs and support vessels;
- Northern Attack Force (TF 53) under Rear Admiral Lawrence F. Reifsnider, Commander Amphibious Group 4, aboard USS Panamint (AGC-13) with III Amphibious Corps (Major General Roy Geiger) on 40+ attack and attack cargo transporters, 67 LSTs and support vessels;
- Southern Attack Force (TF 55) under Rear Admiral John L. Hall with XXIV Corps (Major General John R. Hodge);
- Demonstration Group (TG 51.2) with 2nd Marine Division (Major General Thomas E. Watson);
- Gunfire and Covering Support Group (TF 54) under Rear Admiral Morton L. Deyo with 10 old battleships, 11 cruisers and 30 destroyers.
- Expeditionary Troops (TF 56) under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. with 10th Army.
- Amphibious Support Force (TF 52) under Rear Admiral William H. P. Blandy:
TF 56 was the largest force within TF 50 and was built around the 10th Army. The army had two corps under its command: the III Amphibious Corps, consisting of 1st and 6th Marine Divisions, and the XXIV Corps, consisting of the 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions. The 2nd Marine Division was an afloat reserve, and the 10th Army also controlled the 27th Infantry Division, earmarked as a garrison, and the 77th Infantry Divisions.
In all, the Army had over 102,000 soldiers (of these, 38,000+ were non-divisional artillery, combat support and HQ troops, with another 9,000 service troops), over 88,000 Marines and 18,000 Navy personnel (mostly Seabees and medical personnel). At the start of the Battle of Okinawa, the 10th Army had 182,821 personnel under its command. It was planned that General Buckner would report to Turner until the amphibious phase was completed, after which he would report directly to Spruance.
Although Allied land forces were entirely composed of American units, the British Pacific Fleet (BPF; known to the US Navy as Task Force 57) provided about ¼ of Allied naval air power (450 planes). It comprised a force which included 50 warships, of which 17 were aircraft carriers; while the British armored flight decks meant that fewer planes could be carried in a single aircraft carrier, they were more resistant to kamikaze strikes.
Although all the aircraft carriers were provided by Britain, the carrier group was a combined British Commonwealth fleet with British, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian ships and personnel. Their mission was to neutralize Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands and provide air cover against Japanese kamikaze attacks. Most of the air-to-air fighters and the small dive bombers and strike aircraft were US Navy carrier-based airplanes.
The Japanese land campaign (mainly defensive) was conducted by the 67,000-strong (77,000 according to some sources) regular 32nd Army and some 9,000 Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) troops at Oroku naval base (only a few hundred of whom had been trained and equipped for ground combat), supported by 39,000 drafted local Ryukyuan people (including 24,000 hastily drafted rear militia called Boeitai and 15,000 non-uniformed laborers). The Japanese had used kamikaze tactics since the Battle of Leyte Gulf, but for the first time, they became a major part of the defense. Between the American landing on April 1 and May 25, seven major kamikaze attacks were attempted, involving more than 1,500 planes.
The 32nd Army initially consisted of the 9th, 24th, and 62nd Divisions, and the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade. The 9th Division was moved to Taiwan before the invasion, resulting in shuffling of Japanese defensive plans. Primary resistance was to be led in the south by Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Isamu Chō and his chief of operations, Colonel Hiromichi Yahara. Yahara advocated a defensive strategy, whilst Chō advocated an offensive one.
In the north, Colonel Takehido Udo was in command. The IJN troops were led by Rear Admiral Minoru Ōta. They expected the Americans to land 6–10 divisions against the Japanese garrison of two and a half divisions. The staff calculated that superior quality and numbers of weapons gave each US division five or six times the firepower of a Japanese division. To this, would be added the Americans' abundant naval and air firepower.
Military use of childrenEdit
The Japanese Imperial Army mobilized 1,780 middle school boys aged 14–17 years into front-line-service. They were named "Tekketsu Kinnōtai" (ja:鉄血勤皇隊, Iron and Blood Imperial Corps). This mobilization was conducted by the ordinance of the Ministry of Army, not by law.
The ordinances mobilized the student as a volunteer soldier for form's sake. In reality, the military authorities ordered schools to force almost all students to "volunteer" as soldiers. Sometimes they counterfeited the necessary documents. About half of Tekketsu Kinnōtai were killed, including in suicide bomb attacks against tanks, and in guerrilla operations.
After losing the Battle of Okinawa, the Japanese government enacted new laws in preparation for the decisive battles in the main islands. These laws made it possible for boys aged 15 or older and girls aged 17 or older to be drafted into front-line-service.
The United States Navy's Task Force 58, deployed to the east of Okinawa with a picket group of from 6 to 8 destroyers, kept 13 carriers (7 CVs and 6 CVLs) on duty from March 23 to April 27 and a smaller number thereafter. Until April 27, a minimum of 14 and up to 18 escort carriers (CVEs) were in the area at all times, and until April 20 British Task Force 57, with 4 large and 6 escort carriers, remained off the Sakishima Islands to protect the southern flank.
The protracted length of the campaign under stressful conditions forced Admiral Chester W. Nimitz to take the unprecedented step of relieving the principal naval commanders to rest and recuperate. Following the practice of changing the fleet designation with the change of commanders, US naval forces began the campaign as the US 5th Fleet under Admiral Raymond Spruance, but ended it as the 3rd Fleet under Admiral William Halsey.
Japanese air opposition had been relatively light during the first few days after the landings. However, on April 6, the expected air reaction began with an attack by 400 planes from Kyushu. Periodic heavy air attacks continued through April. During the period March 26 – April 30, twenty American ships were sunk and 157 damaged by enemy action. For their part, by April 30, the Japanese had lost more than 1,100 planes to Allied naval forces alone.
Between April 6 and June 22, the Japanese flew 1,465 kamikaze aircraft in large-scale attacks from Kyushu, 185 individual kamikaze sorties from Kyushu, and 250 individual kamikaze sorties from Formosa. While US intelligence estimated there were 89 planes on Formosa, the Japanese actually had about 700, dismantled or well camouflaged and dispersed into scattered villages and towns; the US Fifth Air Force disputed Navy claims of kamikaze coming from Formosa.[clarification needed]
The ships lost were smaller vessels, particularly the destroyers of the radar pickets, as well as destroyer escorts and landing ships. While no major Allied warships were lost, several fleet carriers were severely damaged. Land-based Shin'yō-class suicide motorboats were also used in the Japanese suicide attacks, although Ushijima had disbanded the majority of the suicide boat battalions prior to the battle due to expected low effectiveness against a superior enemy. The boat crews were re-formed into three additional infantry battalions.
Operation Ten-Go (Ten-gō sakusen) was the attempted attack by a strike force of 10 Japanese surface vessels, led by the super battleship Yamato and commanded by Admiral Seiichi Itō. This small task force had been ordered to fight through enemy naval forces, then beach Yamato and fight from shore using her guns as coastal artillery and crew as naval infantry. The Ten-Go force was spotted by submarines shortly after it left the Japanese home waters, and was intercepted by US carrier aircraft.
Under attack from more than 300 aircraft over a two-hour span, the world's largest battleship sank on April 7, 1945, after a one-sided battle, long before she could reach Okinawa. US torpedo bombers were instructed to aim for only one side to prevent effective counter flooding by the battleship's crew, and hitting preferably the bow or stern, where armor was believed to be the thinnest. Of Yamato's screening force, the light cruiser Yahagi and 4 of the 8 destroyers were also sunk. The Imperial Japanese Navy lost some 3,700 sailors, including Admiral Itō, at the cost of 10 US aircraft and 12 airmen.
British Pacific FleetEdit
The British Pacific Fleet, taking part as Task Force 57, was assigned the task of neutralizing the Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands, which it did successfully from March 26 to April 10. On April 10, its attention was shifted to airfields on northern Formosa. The force withdrew to San Pedro Bay on April 23.
On May 1, the British Pacific Fleet returned to action, subduing the airfields as before, this time with naval bombardment as well as aircraft. Several kamikaze attacks caused significant damage, but since the British had armored flight decks on their aircraft carriers, they experienced only a brief interruption to their force's operations.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The land battle took place over about 81 days beginning on April 1, 1945. The first Americans ashore were soldiers of the 77th Infantry Division, who landed in the Kerama Islands, 15 mi (24 km) west of Okinawa on March 26. Subsidiary landings followed, and the Kerama group was secured over the next five days. In these preliminary operations, the 77th Infantry Division suffered 27 dead and 81 wounded, while Japanese dead and captured numbered over 650. The operation provided a protected anchorage for the fleet and eliminated the threat from suicide boats.
On March 31, Marines of the Fleet Marine Force Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion landed without opposition on Keise Shima, four islets just 8 mi (13 km) west of the Okinawan capital of Naha. A group of 155 mm (6.1 in) "Long Tom" artillery pieces went ashore on the islets to cover operations on Okinawa.
The main landing was made by the XXIV Corps and the III Amphibious Corps on the Hagushi beaches on the western coast of Okinawa on L-Day, April 1, which was both Easter Sunday and April Fools' Day in 1945. The 2nd Marine Division conducted a demonstration off the Minatoga beaches on the southeastern coast to deceive the Japanese about American intentions and delay movement of reserves from there.
The 10th Army swept across the south-central part of the island with relative ease by World War II standards, capturing the Kadena and the Yomitan airbases within hours of the landing. In light of the weak opposition, General Buckner decided to proceed immediately with Phase II of his plan—the seizure of northern Okinawa. The 6th Marine Division headed up the Ishikawa Isthmus and by April 7, had sealed off the Motobu Peninsula.
Six days later on April 13, the 2nd Battalion, 22nd Marine Regiment, reached Hedo Point (Hedo-misaki) at the northernmost tip of the island. By this point, the bulk of the Japanese forces in the north (codenamed Udo Force) was cornered on the Motobu Peninsula. Here, the terrain was mountainous and wooded, with the Japanese defenses concentrated on Yae-Dake, a twisted mass of rocky ridges and ravines on the center of the peninsula. There was heavy fighting before the Marines finally cleared Yae-Dake on April 18.
Meanwhile, the 77th Infantry Division assaulted Ie Island (Ie Shima)—a small island off the western end of the peninsula—on April 16. In addition to conventional hazards, the 77th Infantry Division encountered kamikaze attacks, and even local women armed with spears. There was heavy fighting before the area was declared secured on April 21, and became another air base for operations against Japan.
While the 6th Marine Division cleared northern Okinawa, the US Army 96th and 7th Infantry Divisions wheeled south across the narrow waist of Okinawa. The 96th Infantry Division began to encounter fierce resistance in west-central Okinawa from Japanese troops holding fortified positions east of Highway No. 1 and about 5 mi (8 km) northwest of Shuri, from what came to be known as Cactus Ridge. The 7th Infantry Division encountered similarly fierce Japanese opposition from a rocky pinnacle located about 1,000 yd (910 m) southwest of Arakachi (later dubbed "The Pinnacle"). By the night of April 8, American troops had cleared these and several other strongly fortified positions. They suffered over 1,500 battle casualties in the process, while killing or capturing about 4,500 Japanese, yet the battle had only begun, for it was now realized they were merely outposts guarding the Shuri Line.
The next American objective was Kakazu Ridge, two hills with a connecting saddle that formed part of Shuri's outer defenses. The Japanese had prepared their positions well and fought tenaciously. The Japanese soldiers hid in fortified caves. American forces often lost personnel before clearing the Japanese out from each cave or other hiding place. The Japanese sent Okinawans at gunpoint out to obtain water and supplies for them, which led to civilian casualties. The American advance was inexorable, but resulted in a high number of casualties on both sides.
As the American assault against Kakazu Ridge stalled, Lieutenant General Ushijima — influenced by General Chō — decided to take the offensive. On the evening of April 12, the 32nd Army attacked American positions across the entire front. The Japanese attack was heavy, sustained, and well organized. After fierce close combat, the attackers retreated, only to repeat their offensive the following night. A final assault on April 14 was again repulsed. The effort led the 32nd Army's staff to conclude that the Americans were vulnerable to night infiltration tactics, but that their superior firepower made any offensive Japanese troop concentrations extremely dangerous, and they reverted to their defensive strategy.
The 27th Infantry Division—which had landed on April 9—took over on the right, along the west coast of Okinawa. General John R. Hodge now had three divisions in the line, with the 96th in the middle, and the 7th to the east, with each division holding a front of only about 1.5 mi (2.4 km). Hodge launched a new offensive of April 19 with a barrage of 324 guns, the largest ever in the Pacific Ocean Theater. Battleships, cruisers, and destroyers joined the bombardment, which was followed by 650 Navy and Marine planes attacking the enemy positions with napalm, rockets, bombs, and machine guns. The Japanese defenses were sited on reverse slopes, where the defenders waited out the artillery barrage and aerial attack in relative safety, emerging from the caves to rain mortar rounds and grenades upon the Americans advancing up the forward slope.
A tank assault to achieve breakthrough by outflanking Kakazu Ridge failed to link up with its infantry support attempting to cross the ridge and failed with the loss of 22 tanks. Although flame tanks cleared many cave defenses, there was no breakthrough, and the XXIV Corps suffered 720 casualties. The losses might have been greater, except for the fact that the Japanese had practically all of their infantry reserves tied up farther south, held there by another feint off the Minatoga beaches by the 2nd Marine Division that coincided with the attack.
At the end of April, after Army forces had pushed through the Machinato defensive line, the 1st Marine Division relieved the 27th Infantry Division, and the 77th Infantry Division relieved the 96th. When the 6th Marine Division arrived, the III Amphibious Corps took over the right flank and the 10th Army assumed control of the battle.
On May 4, the 32nd Army launched another counteroffensive. This time, Ushijima attempted to make amphibious assaults on the coasts behind American lines. To support his offensive, the Japanese artillery moved into the open. By doing so, they were able to fire 13,000 rounds in support, but effective American counter-battery fire destroyed dozens of Japanese artillery pieces. The attack failed.
Buckner launched another American attack on May 11. Ten days of fierce fighting followed. On May 13, troops of the 96th Infantry Division and 763rd Tank Battalion captured Conical Hill. Rising 476 ft (145 m) above the Yonabaru coastal plain, this feature was the eastern anchor of the main Japanese defenses and was defended by about 1,000 Japanese. Meanwhile, on the opposite coast, the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions fought for "Sugar Loaf Hill". The capture of these two key positions exposed the Japanese around Shuri on both sides. Buckner hoped to envelop Shuri and trap the main Japanese defending force.
By the end of May, monsoon rains which had turned contested hills and roads into a morass exacerbated both the tactical and medical situations. The ground advance began to resemble a World War I battlefield, as troops became mired in mud, and flooded roads greatly inhibited evacuation of wounded to the rear. Troops lived on a field sodden by rain, part garbage dump and part graveyard. Unburied Japanese and American bodies decayed, sank in the mud, and became part of a noxious stew. Anyone sliding down the greasy slopes could easily find their pockets full of maggots at the end of the journey.
On May 29, Major General Pedro del Valle, commander of the 1st Marine Division, ordered Captain Julian D. Dusenbury of Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, to capture Shuri Castle. Seizure of the castle represented both strategic and psychological blows for the Japanese and was a milestone in the campaign. Del Valle was awarded a Distinguished Service Medal for his leadership in the fight and the subsequent occupation and reorganization of Okinawa. Captain Dusenbury would later receive the Navy Cross for his actions.
Shuri Castle had been shelled by the battleship USS Mississippi for three days before this advance. Due to this, the 32nd Army withdrew to the south and thus the Marines had an easy task of securing Shuri Castle. The castle, however, was outside the 1st Marine Division's assigned zone and only frantic efforts by the commander and staff of the 77th Infantry Division prevented an American air strike and artillery bombardment which would have resulted in many casualties due to friendly fire.
The Japanese retreat, although harassed by artillery fire, was conducted with great skill at night and aided by the monsoon storms. The 32nd Army was able to move nearly 30,000 personnel into its last defense line on the Kiyan Peninsula, which ultimately led to the greatest slaughter on Okinawa in the latter stages of the battle, including the deaths of thousands of civilians. In addition, there were 9,000 IJN troops supported by 1,100 militia, with approximately 4,000 holed up at the underground headquarters on the hillside overlooking the Okinawa Naval Base in the Oroku Peninsula, east of the airfield.
On June 4, elements of the 6th Marine Division launched an amphibious assault on the peninsula. The 4,000 Japanese sailors, including Admiral Minoru Ōta, all committed suicide within the hand-built tunnels of the underground naval headquarters on June 13. By June 17, the remnants of Ushijima's shattered 32nd Army were pushed into a small pocket in the far south of the island to the southeast of Itoman.
On June 18, General Buckner was killed by enemy artillery fire while monitoring the forward progress of his troops. Buckner was replaced by Roy Geiger. Upon assuming command, Geiger became the only US Marine to command a numbered army of the US Army in combat; he was relieved five days later by Joseph Stilwell.
The last remnants of Japanese resistance ended on June 21, although some Japanese continued hiding, including the future governor of Okinawa Prefecture, Masahide Ōta. Ushijima and Chō committed suicide by seppuku in their command headquarters on Hill 89 in the closing hours of the battle. Colonel Yahara had asked Ushijima for permission to commit suicide, but the general refused his request, saying: "If you die there will be no one left who knows the truth about the battle of Okinawa. Bear the temporary shame but endure it. This is an order from your army Commander." Yahara was the most senior officer to have survived the battle on the island, and he later authored a book titled The Battle for Okinawa. On August 15, 1945, Admiral Matome Ugaki was killed while part of a kamikaze raid on Iheyajima island. The official surrender ceremony was held on September 7, near Kadena airfield.
Okinawa was the bloodiest battle of the Pacific War. The most complete tally of deaths during the battle is at the Cornerstone of Peace monument at the Okinawa Prefecture Peace Park, which identifies the names of each individual who died at Okinawa in World War II. As of 2010, the monument lists 240,931 names, including 149,193 Okinawan civilians, 77,166 Imperial Japanese soldiers, 14,009 American soldiers, and smaller numbers of people from South Korea (365), the United Kingdom (82), North Korea (82) and Taiwan (34).
The numbers correspond to recorded deaths during the Battle of Okinawa from the time of the American landings in the Kerama Islands on March 26, 1945, to the signing of the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, in addition to all Okinawan casualties in the Pacific War in the fifteen years from the Manchurian Incident, along with those who died in Okinawa from war-related events in the year before the battle and the year after the surrender. 234,183 names were inscribed by the time of unveiling and new names are added each year. Forty thousand of the Okinawan civilians killed had been drafted or impressed by the Japanese army and are often counted as combat deaths.
The Americans suffered over 82,000 casualties, including non-battle casualties (psychiatric, injuries, illnesses), of whom over 12,500 were killed or missing. Battle deaths were 4,907 Navy, 4,675 Army, and 2,938 Marine Corps personnel. Several thousand personnel who died indirectly (from wounds and other causes) at a later date are not included in the total.
The most famous American casualty was Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., whose decision to attack the Japanese defenses head-on, although extremely costly in American lives, was ultimately successful. Four days from the closing of the campaign, Buckner was killed by Japanese artillery fire, which blew lethal slivers of coral into his body, while inspecting his troops at the front line. He was the highest-ranking US officer to be killed by enemy fire during the Second World War. The day after Buckner was killed, Brigadier General Claudius Miller Easley was killed by machine gun fire. The famous war correspondent Ernie Pyle, was killed by Japanese sniper fire on Ie Island (Ie Shima, a small island just off of northwestern Okinawa).
Aircraft losses over the three-month period were 768 US planes, including those bombing the Kyushu airfields launching kamikazes. Combat losses were 458, and the other 310 were operational accidents. On land, at least 225 tanks and many LVTs were lost. At sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another 36—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa campaign. The US Navy's dead exceeded its wounded, with 4,907 killed and 4,874 wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks.
American personnel casualties included thousands of cases of mental breakdown. According to the account of the battle presented in Marine Corps Gazette:
More mental health issues arose from the Battle of Okinawa than any other battle in the Pacific during World War II. The constant bombardment from artillery and mortars coupled with the high casualty rates led to a great deal of personnel coming down with combat fatigue. Additionally the rains caused mud that prevented tanks from moving and tracks from pulling out the dead, forcing Marines (who pride themselves on burying their dead in a proper and honorable manner) to leave their comrades where they lay. This, coupled with thousands of bodies both friend and foe littering the entire island, created a scent you could nearly taste. Morale was dangerously low by the month of May and the state of discipline on a moral basis had a new low barometer for acceptable behavior. The ruthless atrocities by the Japanese throughout the war had already brought on an altered behavior (deemed so by traditional standards) by many Americans resulting in the desecration of Japanese remains, but the Japanese tactic of using the Okinawan people as human shields brought about a new aspect of terror and torment to the psychological capacity of the Americans.
Medal of Honor recipients from Okinawa are:
- Beauford T. Anderson – April 13
- Richard E. Bush – April 16
- Robert Eugene Bush – May 2
- Henry A. Courtney Jr. – May 14–15
- Clarence B. Craft – May 31
- James L. Day – May 14–17
- Desmond Doss – April 29–May 21
The US military estimates that 110,071 Japanese soldiers were killed during the battle. This total includes conscripted Okinawan civilians.
A total of 7,401 Japanese regulars and 3,400 Okinawan conscripts surrendered or were captured during the battle. Additional Japanese and renegade Okinawans were captured or surrendered over the next few months, bringing the total to 16,346. This was the first battle in the Pacific War in which thousands of Japanese soldiers surrendered or were captured. Many of the prisoners were native Okinawans who had been pressed into service shortly before the battle, and were less imbued with the Imperial Japanese Army's no-surrender doctrine. When the American forces occupied the island, many Japanese soldiers put on Okinawan clothing to avoid capture, and some Okinawans would come to the Americans' aid by offering to identify these mainland Japanese.
The Japanese lost 16 combat vessels, including the super battleship Yamato. Postwar examination of Japanese records revealed that Japanese aircraft losses at Okinawa were far below often-repeated US estimates for the campaign. The number of conventional and kamikaze aircraft actually lost or expended by the 3rd, 5th, and 10th Air Fleets, combined with about 500 lost or expended by the Imperial Army at Okinawa, was roughly 1,430. The Allies destroyed 27 Japanese tanks and 743 artillery pieces (including mortars, anti-tank and anti-aircraft guns), some of them eliminated by the naval and air bombardments but most knocked out by American counter-battery fire.
Civilian losses, suicides, and atrocitiesEdit
Some of the other islands that saw major battles in World War II, such as Iwo Jima, were uninhabited or had been evacuated. Okinawa, by contrast, had a large indigenous civilian population; US Army records from the planning phase of the operation make the assumption that Okinawa was home to about 300,000 civilians. According to various estimates, between a tenth and a third of them died during the battle, between 30,000 and 100,000. Okinawa Prefecture's estimate is over 100,000 losses, while the official US Army count for the 82-day campaign is a total of 142,058 civilian casualties, including those killed by artillery fire, air attacks, and those pressed into service by the Imperial Japanese Army.
During the battle, American soldiers found it difficult to distinguish civilians from soldiers. It became common for them to shoot at Okinawan houses, as one infantryman wrote:
There was some return fire from a few of the houses, but the others were probably occupied by civilians – and we didn't care. It was a terrible thing not to distinguish between the enemy and women and children. Americans always had great compassion, especially for children. Now we fired indiscriminately.
In its history of the war, the Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum presents Okinawa as being caught between the United States and the Empire of Japan. During the 1945 battle, the Japanese Army showed indifference to Okinawans' safety, and its soldiers even used civilians as human shields or just outright murdered them. The Japanese military confiscated food from the Okinawans and executed those who hid it, leading to mass starvation, and forced civilians out of their shelters. Japanese soldiers also killed about 1,000 people who spoke in the Okinawan language to suppress spying. The museum writes that "some were blown apart by [artillery] shells, some finding themselves in a hopeless situation were driven to suicide, some died of starvation, some succumbed to malaria, while others fell victim to the retreating Japanese troops."
With the impending Japanese defeat, civilians often committed mass suicide, urged on by the Japanese soldiers who told locals that victorious American soldiers would go on a rampage of killing and raping. Ryūkyū Shimpō, one of the two major Okinawan newspapers, wrote in 2007: "There are many Okinawans who have testified that the Japanese Army directed them to commit suicide. There are also people who have testified that they were handed grenades by Japanese soldiers" to blow themselves up. Thousands of civilians, having been induced by Japanese propaganda to believe that American soldiers were barbarians who committed horrible atrocities, killed their families and themselves to avoid capture. Some of them threw themselves and their family members from the southern cliffs where the Peace Museum now resides. Okinawans "were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy". Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power by Mark Selden notes that the Americans "did not pursue a policy of torture, rape, and murder of civilians as Japanese military officials had warned". American Military Intelligence Corps combat translators such as Teruto Tsubota managed to convince many civilians not to kill themselves. Survivors of the mass suicides blamed also the indoctrination of their education system of the time, in which the Okinawans were taught to become "more Japanese than the Japanese", and were expected to prove it.
Witnesses and historians reported that soldiers, mainly Japanese troops, raped Okinawan women during the battle. Rape by Japanese troops "became common"[attribution needed] in June, after it became clear that the Japanese Army had been defeated. Marine Corps officials in Okinawa and Washington have said that they knew of no rapes by American personnel in Okinawa at the end of the war. There are, however, numerous credible testimony accounts which allege that a large number of rapes were committed by American forces during the battle. This includes claimed rape after trading sexual favors or even marrying Americans, such as the alleged incident in the village of Katsuyama, where civilians said they had formed a vigilante group to ambush and kill three black American soldiers whom they claimed would frequently rape the local girls there.
There is ongoing disagreement between Okinawa's local government and Japan's national government over the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides during the battle. In March 2007, the national Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) advised textbook publishers to reword descriptions that the embattled Imperial Japanese Army forced civilians to kill themselves in the war to avoid being taken prisoner. MEXT preferred descriptions that just say that civilians received hand grenades from the Japanese military. This move sparked widespread protests among Okinawans. In June 2007, the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly adopted a resolution stating, "We strongly call on the (national) government to retract the instruction and to immediately restore the description in the textbooks so the truth of the Battle of Okinawa will be handed down correctly and a tragic war will never happen again."
On September 29, 2007, about 110,000 people held the biggest political rally in the history of Okinawa to demand that MEXT retract its order to textbook publishers regarding revising the account of the civilian suicides. The resolution stated, "It is an undeniable fact that the 'multiple suicides' would not have occurred without the involvement of the Japanese military and any deletion of or revision to (the descriptions) is a denial and distortion of the many testimonies by those people who survived the incidents." In December 2007, MEXT partially admitted the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides. The ministry's Textbook Authorization Council allowed the publishers to reinstate the reference that civilians "were forced into mass suicides by the Japanese military", on condition it is placed in sufficient context. The council report stated, "It can be said that from the viewpoint of the Okinawa residents, they were forced into the mass suicides." That was not enough for the survivors who said it is important for children today to know what really happened.
The Nobel Prize-winning author Kenzaburō Ōe wrote a booklet which states that the mass suicide order was given by the military during the battle. He was sued by revisionists, including a wartime commander during the battle, who disputed this and wanted to stop publication of the booklet. At a court hearing, Ōe testified "Mass suicides were forced on Okinawa islanders under Japan's hierarchical social structure that ran through the state of Japan, the Japanese armed forces and local garrisons." In March 2008, the Osaka Prefecture Court ruled in favor of Ōe, stating, "It can be said the military was deeply involved in the mass suicides." The court recognized the military's involvement in the mass suicides and murder–suicides, citing the testimony about the distribution of grenades for suicide by soldiers and the fact that mass suicides were not recorded on islands where the military was not stationed.
In 2012, Korean-Japanese director Pak Su-nam announced her work on the documentary Nuchigafu (Okinawan for "only if one is alive") collecting living survivors' accounts to show "the truth of history to many people", alleging that "there were two types of orders for 'honorable deaths'—one for residents to kill each other and the other for the military to kill all residents". In March 2013, Japanese textbook publisher Shimizu Shoin was permitted by MEXT to publish the statements that "Orders from Japanese soldiers led to Okinawans committing group suicide" and "The [Japanese] army caused many tragedies in Okinawa, killing local civilians and forcing them to commit mass suicide."
Ninety percent of the buildings on the island were destroyed, along with countless historical documents, artifacts, and cultural treasures, and the tropical landscape was turned into "a vast field of mud, lead, decay and maggots". The military value of Okinawa "exceeded all hope". Okinawa provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, and airfields in proximity to Japan. The US cleared the surrounding waters of mines in Operation Zebra, occupied Okinawa, and set up the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, a form of military government, after the battle. In 2011, one official of the prefectural government told David Hearst of The Guardian:
You have the Battle of Britain, in which your airmen protected the British people. We had the Battle of Okinawa, in which the exact opposite happened. The Japanese army not only starved the Okinawans but used them as human shields. That dark history is still present today – and Japan and the US should study it before they decide what to do with next.
Effect on the wider warEdit
Mainline military historians believe that the Okinawa campaign led directly to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as a means of avoiding the planned ground invasion of the Japanese mainland. This view is explained by Victor Davis Hanson in his book Ripples of Battle:
... because the Japanese on Okinawa ... were so fierce in their defense (even when cut off, and without supplies), and because casualties were so appalling, many American strategists looked for an alternative means to subdue mainland Japan, other than a direct invasion. This means presented itself, with the advent of atomic bombs, which worked admirably in convincing the Japanese to sue for peace [unconditionally], without American casualties.
More recent scholars debate why Japan surrendered, attributing the surrender to reasons including the atomic bombings, the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, and Japan's depleted resources.[page needed]
In 1995, the Okinawa government erected a memorial monument named the Cornerstone of Peace in Mabuni, the site of the last fighting in southeastern Okinawa. The memorial lists all the known names of those who died in the battle, civilian and military, Japanese and foreign. As of June 2008, it contains 240,734 names.
Modern US baseEdit
Significant US forces remain garrisoned on Okinawa as the United States Forces Japan, which the Japanese government sees as an important guarantee of regional stability, and Kadena remains the largest US air base in Asia. Local residents have protested against the size and/or presence of the base.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- "Chapter XVIII: The Battle Ends". army.mil. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- Bill Sloan: The Ultimate Battle pg. 18
- Keegan: The Second World War pg. 567
- Hastings: Retribution pg. 370
- Keegan: The Times Atlas of the Second World War pg. 169
- The National Archives: Heroes and Villains. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- William T. Garner: Unwavering Valor ch. 12.
- Frank 1999, p. 71.
- The National Archives: Heroes and Villains. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Garner: Unwavering Valor ch. 12.
- Keegan: The Second World War pg. 573
- "The Battle of Okinawa", Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- "The Cornerstone of Peace." Kyushu-Okinawa Summit 2000: Okinawa G8 Summit Host Preparation Council, 2000. Retrieved December 9, 2012. "The Cornerstone of Peace - number of names inscribed". Okinawa Prefecture. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- SSgt Rudy R. Frame, Jr. "Okinawa: The Final Great Battle of World War II | Marine Corps Gazette". Mca-marines.org. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Giangreco Hell to Pay (2009) pg. 91
- "Planning Iceberg, Chp 2 of Okinawa: Victory in the Pacific by Major Chas. S. Nichols, Jr., USMC and Henry I. Shaw, Jr". Historical Section, Division of Public Information, US Marine Corps. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- Feifer 2001 pages 99-106
- "The United States Navy assembled an unprecedented armada in March and April 1945". Militaryhistoryonline.com. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- "The American invasion of Okinawa was the largest amphibious invasion of all time". Historynet.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- "Okinawa: The Typhoon of Steel". American Veterans Center. April 1, 1945. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- At 60th anniversary, Battle of Okinawa survivors recall 'Typhoon of Steel' - News - Stripes, Allen, David; Stars and Stripes; April 1, 2005.
- John Pike. "Battle of Okinawa". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "The Cornerstone of Peace: Number of Names Inscribed". Okinawa Prefecture. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- Rottman, Gordon (2002). Okinawa 1945: The Last Battle. Osprey Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 1-84176-546-5.
- Rottman, Gordon (2002). Okinawa 1945: The Last Battle. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 1-84176-546-5.
- "Task Force 54". Pacific.valka.cz. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Rottman, Gordon (2002). Okinawa 1945: The Last Battle. Osprey Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 1-84176-546-5.
- Huber, Thomas M."Japan's Battle of Okinawa, March–June 1945". Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2014., Command and General Staff College
- John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945, Random House, 1970, p. 711.
- "OKINAWA: THE LAST BATTLE, Chapter 4, Page 97". Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "OKINAWA: THE LAST BATTLE, Chapter 4, Page 102". Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Baldwin, Hanson W. Sea Fights and Shipwrecks Hanover House 1956 page 309
- Christopher Chant, "The Encyclopedia of Codenames of World War II (Routledge Revivals)", p. 87
- Hastings 2007, p. 401
- Hobbs 2011, pp. 175–76
- "Action in the North, Chp 6 of Okinawa: Victory in the Pacific by Major Chas. S. Nichols, Jr., USMC and Henry I. Shaw, Jr". Historical Section, Division of Public Information, US Marine Corps. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- West Point Atlas of American Wars
- Battle of Okinawa, GlobalSecurity.org.
- "Valor awards for Julian D. Dusenbury". valor.militarytimes.com. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
- "The Ordeals of Shuri Castle". Wonder-okinawa.jp. August 15, 1945. Archived from the original on July 4, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- "The Final Campaign: Marines in the Victory on Okinawa (Assault on Shuri)". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- ""The World is beginning to know Okinawa": Ota Masahide reflects on his life from the Battle of Okinawa to the Struggle for Okinawa". Japanfocus.org. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945, p. 723.
- "Battle of Okinawa: The Bloodiest Battle of the Pacific War". HistoryNet. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- Manchester, William (June 14, 1987). "The Bloodiest Battle Of All". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- John Pike. "Battle of Okinawa". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- "The Cornerstone of Peace - names to be inscribed". Okinawa Prefecture. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Weiner, Michael (ed.) (1997). Japan's minorities: the illusion of homogeneity (pp.169f.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13008-5.
- "Recollecting the War in Okinawa". Japan Policy Research Institute. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- "Okinawa marks 62nd anniversary of WWII battle". The Japan Times. June 24, 2007. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
- Reid, Chip. "Ernie Pyle, trail-blazing war correspondent—Brought home the tragedy of D-Day and the rest of WWII", NBC News, June 7, 2004. Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- "The Amphibians Came to Conquer". Ibiblio.org. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Appleman, Roy E.; James M. Burns; Russell A. Gugeler; John Stevens (2000). Okinawa: the last battle. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. p. 489.
- Huber, Thomas M. (May 1990). "Japan's Battle of Okinawa, April–June 1945". Leavenworth Papers. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "The Basic Concept of the Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum". Peace-museum.pref.okinawa.jp. April 1, 2000. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Feifer, George, The Battle of Okinawa, The Lyons Press (2001), p. 374.
- James Brooke. "1945 suicide order still a trauma on Okinawa". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on January 14, 2006. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (April 1, 2007). "Japan's Textbooks Reflect Revised History". New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "EDITORIAL - Cornerstone of Peace: A Legacy of Bloodshed". SFGate. June 24, 1995. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- Molasky, Michael S. (1999). The American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and Memory. Routledge. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-415-19194-4.
- Molasky, Michael S.; Rabson, Steve (2000). Southern Exposure: Modern Japanese Literature from Okinawa. University of Hawaii Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8248-2300-9.
- Sheehan, Susan D; Elizabeth, Laura; Selden, Hein Mark. "Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power": 18.
- "Military Intelligence Service Research Center: Okinawa". Njahs.org. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Defiant soldier saved lives of hundreds of civilians during Okinawa battle, Stars and Stripes, April 1, 2005.
- Toru Saito. "Pressure to prove loyalty paved way for mass suicides in Battle of Okinawa - AJW by The Asahi Shimbun". Ajw.asahi.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Appleman, Roy E. (1948). Okinawa: The Last Battle. United States Army in World War II. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History. p. 462.
- Sims, Calvin (June 1, 2000). "3 Dead Marines and a Secret of Wartime Okinawa". The New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- Tanaka, Yuki (2003). Japan's Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-30275-3.
- Lisa Takeuchi Cullen (August 13, 2001). "Okinawa Nights". TIME. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- Okinawa slams history text rewrite, Japan Times, June 23, 2007.
- Gheddo, Piero. "JAPAN Okinawa against Tokyo's attempts to rewrite history - Asia News". Asianews.it. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- "110,000 protest history text revision order". Search.japantimes.co.jp. September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Japan to amend textbook accounts of Okinawa suicides Herald Tribune, December 26, 2007.
- Texts reinstate army's role in mass suicides: Okinawa prevails in history row Japan Times, December 27, 2007.
- Okinawa's war time wounds reopened BBC News, November 17, 2007.
- Witness: Military ordered mass suicides, Japan Times, September 12, 2007.
- Oe testifies military behind Okinawa mass suicides Archived November 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Japan Times, November 10, 2007.
- Court sides with Oe over mass suicides, Japan Times, March 29, 2008.
- Nayoki Himeno, Director humanizes tragedy of Okinawan mass suicides Archived May 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., The Asashi Shimbun, May 24, 2012.
- New high school texts say Japanese Imperial Army ordered WWII Okinawa suicides, The Mainichi, March 29, 2013.
- Okinawan History and Karate-do Archived August 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Military Government In The Ryukyu Islands, 1945–1950". Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- David Hearst in Okinawa. "Second battle of Okinawa looms as China's naval ambition grows | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved December 4, 2013.
- Maddox, Robert James (2004). Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision. University of Missouri Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-826-21562-8.
- Frank 1999, p. 331.
- Gaddis, John Lewis (2005). The Cold War. Allen Lane. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-713-99912-9.
[Hiroshima and Nagasaki] brought about the Japanese surrender.
- "Soviets declare war on Japan; invade Manchuria." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. July 6, 2014.
- "Did Nuclear Weapons Cause Japan to Surrender?." Wilson, Ward. YouTube. Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, January 16, 2013. Web. July 6, 2014.
- Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674022416.
- "Why did Japan surrender?". Boston.com. August 7, 2011.
- "The Cornerstone of Peace" (in Japanese). Pref.okinawa.jp. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Okinawa is promised reduced base burden, The Japan Times, June 24, 2008
- "Press rewind: Trump, Tokyo and a welcome back to the 1980s". BBC News. February 9, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- "Okinawa marks 68th anniversary of bloody WWII battle". Fox News. June 23, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
- Fackler, Martin (July 5, 2013). "In Okinawa, Talk of Break From Japan Turns Serious". The New York Times.
- Appleman, Roy Edgar; Burns, James M.; Gugeler, Russel A.; Stevens, John (1948). Okinawa: The Last Battle. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 1-4102-2206-3. full text online
- Astor, Gerald (1996). Operation Iceberg: The Invasion and Conquest of Okinawa in World War II. Dell. ISBN 0-440-22178-1.
- Frank, Richard B. (1999). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-41424-7.
- Feifer, George (2001). The Battle of Okinawa: The Blood and the Bomb. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-215-5.
- Fisch Jr., Arnold G. Ryukyus. World War II Campaign Brochures. Washington D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 0-16-048032-9. CMH Pub 72-35.
- Gandt, Robert (2010). The Twilight Warriors. Broadway Books. ISBN 978-0-7679-3241-7.
- Hallas, James H. (2006). Killing Ground on Okinawa: The Battle for Sugar Loaf Hill. Potomac Books. ISBN 1-59797-063-8.
- Hastings, Max (2007). Retribution – The Battle for Japan, 1944–45. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26351-3.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (2002). Victory in the Pacific, 1945, vol. 14 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Champaign, Illinois, USA: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07065-8.
- Nichols, Charles Sidney; Henry I. Shaw Jr. (1989). Okinawa: Victory in the Pacific. Battery Press. ASIN B00071UAT8.
- Rottman, Gordon (2002). Okinawa 1945: The last Battle. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-546-5.
- Sloan, Bill (2007). The Ultimate Battle: Okinawa 1945—The Last Epic Struggle of World War II. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-9246-4.
- Zaloga, Steven J. Japanese Tanks 1939–45. Osprey, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-091-8.
- Buckner, Simon Bolivar, Jr. and Joseph Stilwell. Seven Stars: The Okinawa Battle Diaries of Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. and Joseph Stilwell ed. by Nicholas Evan Sarantakes (2004) excerpt and text search
- Lacey, Laura Homan (2005). Stay Off The Skyline: The Sixth Marine Division on Okinawa—An Oral History. Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-952-4.
- Manchester, William (1980). Goodbye, Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 0-316-54501-5.
- Sledge, E. B.; Fussell, Paul (1990). With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506714-2., famous Marine memoir
- Yahara, Hiromichi (2001). The Battle for Okinawa. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-18080-7.-Firsthand account of the battle by a surviving Japanese officer.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Okinawa.|
- Dyer, George Carroll (1956). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner". United States Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Huber, Thomas M. (May 1990). "Japan's Battle of Okinawa, April–June 1945". Leavenworth Papers. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
- A film clip "footage from the National Archives.By Sgt. Rhodes" is available at the Internet Archive
- A film clip "Landings On Okinawa, 1945/04/09 (1945)" is available at the Internet Archive
- A film clip "Argentine Admitted To World Parley, 1945/05/03 (1945)" is available at the Internet Archive
- A film clip "Final Days of Struggle in Okinawa, 1945/07/05 (1945)" is available at the Internet Archive
- US military on the Battle of Okinawa
- New Zealand account with reference to Operation Iceberg
- Cornerstone of Peace
- Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum
- The Peace Learning Archive in OKINAWA
- A photographic record of aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable, 1944–45, including Operation Iceberg, the attack on the Sakashimas
- WWII: Battle of Okinawa – slideshow by Life magazine
- Operation Iceberg Operational Documents Combined Arms Research Library, Fort Leavenworth, KS
- Oral history interview with Mike Busha, a member of the 6th Marine Division during the Battle of Okinawa from the Veterans History Project at Central Connecticut State University
- Oral history interview with Albert D'Amico, a Navy Veteran who was aboard LST 278 during the landing at Okinawa from the Veterans History Project at Central Connecticut State University
- Booknotes interview with Robert Leckie on Okinawa: The Last Battle of World War II, September 3, 1995.