Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army)

The Military Intelligence Corps is the intelligence branch of the United States Army. The primary mission of military intelligence in the U.S. Army is to provide timely, relevant, accurate, and synchronized intelligence and electronic warfare support to tactical, operational and strategic-level commanders. The Army's intelligence components produce intelligence both for Army use and for sharing across the national intelligence community.[1]

Military Intelligence Corps
Seal of the U.S. Army Military Intelligence Corps
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeMilitary intelligence
Garrison/HQFort Belvoir, VA
Motto(s)Always Out Front
March"MI Corps March"
EngagementsAmerican Civil War
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Just Cause
Operation Desert Storm
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Commanders
Chief (USAICoE)MG Richard T. Appelhans
Command Sergeant Major (USAICoE)CSM Jesse M. Townsend
Chief Warrant Officer (USAICoE)CW5 Aaron H. Anderson
Insignia
Branch insignia
Regimental insignia
Branch plaque
Regimental coat of arms
Former branch insignia (1923–1962)
Former Army Security Branch Insignia (Army Reserve) (1954–1967)

History edit

Intelligence personnel were a part of the Continental Army since its initial founding in 1776.

In 1776, General George Washington commissioned the first intelligence unit. Knowlton's Rangers, named after its leader Colonel Thomas Knowlton, became the first organized elite force, a predecessor to modern special operations forces units such as the Army Rangers, Delta Force, and others. The "1776" on the United States Army Intelligence Service seal refers to the formation of Knowlton's Rangers.

In January 1863, Major General Joseph Hooker established the Bureau of Military Information for the Union Army during the Civil War, headed by George H. Sharpe. Allan Pinkerton and Lafayette C. Baker handled similar operations for their respective regional commanders. All of those operations were shut down at the end of the Civil War in 1865.[2]

In 1885, the Army established the Military Intelligence Division. In 1903, it was placed under the new general staff in an elevated position.[3]

In March 1942, the Military Intelligence Division was reorganized as the Military Intelligence Service. Originally consisting of just 26 people, 16 of them officers, it was quickly expanded to include 342 officers and 1,000 enlisted personnel and civilians. It was tasked with collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence. Initially it included:

  • an Administrative Group
  • an Intelligence Group
  • a Counter-intelligence Group
  • an Operations Group
  • a Language School

In May 1942, Alfred McCormack established the Special Branch of the Military Intelligence Service, which specialized in communications intelligence.

On 1 January 1942, the U.S. Army Corps of Intelligence Police, founded in World War I, was re-designated as the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps. In 1945, the Special Branch became the Army Security Agency.

On June 19, 1942, the Military Intelligence Training Center at Camp Ritchie, Maryland, was formed. This group is now widely known as the Ritchie Boys and are credited with gathering over half of the actionable intelligence in the European Theatre. Most Ritchie Boys were fluent in European languages and could easily interrogate prisoners of war and civilians who knew vital information.

At its peak in early 1946, the MIS Language School had 160 instructors and 3,000 students studying in more than 125 classrooms, graduating more than 6,000 students by the end of the war. What began as an experimental military intelligence language-training program launched on a budget of $2,000 eventually became the forerunner of today's Defense Language Institute for the tens of thousands of linguists who serve American interests throughout the world.[4]

The school moved to the Presidio of Monterey in 1946. Renamed the Army Language School, it expanded rapidly in 1947–48 during the Cold War. Instructors, including native speakers of more than thirty languages and dialects, were recruited from all over the world. Russian became the largest language program, followed by Chinese, Korean, and German.[5]

 
The sphinx stands guard in front of the former headquarters of the Counter Intelligence Corps at Fort Holabird

On 1 September 1954, the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) officially redesignated the CIC Center, Fort Holabird, Maryland, as the United States Army Intelligence Center, and the Chief of the Counter Intelligence Corps became its Commanding General. The following year, the Intelligence Center expanded further with the addition of the Photo Interpretation Center. Additionally, combat intelligence training (including order of battle techniques, photo interpretation, prisoner of war interrogation, and censorship) was transferred from the Army General School at Fort Riley, Kansas, to Fort Holabird, giving the commanding general the additional title of commandant, U.S. Army Intelligence School. This arrangement centralized nearly all intelligence training at the U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School, Fort Holabird.

The Intelligence Center and School remained at Fort Holabird until overcrowding during the Vietnam War forced its relocation to Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Fort Huachuca became the "Home of Military Intelligence" on 23 March 1971, and the last class graduated from Fort Holabird on 2 September 1971, almost 17 years to the day after the Army Intelligence Center was established there. USAINTCS Established at Fort. Holabird, MD

On 1 July 1962, the Army Intelligence and Security Branch was established as a basic Army branch to meet the increased need for national and tactical intelligence.[6] The redesignated branch came with the creation of a new dagger and sun branch insignia, replacing the sphinx insignia that had been in place since 1923.[7]

A number of intelligence and security organizations were combined in July 1967 to form the military intelligence branch.[8][9][10] In 1977, they recombined with the Army Intelligence Agency and Army Security Agency to become the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command.

On 1 July 1987, the Military Intelligence Corps was activated as a regiment under the U.S. Army Regimental System.[11] All United States Army Military Intelligence personnel are members of the Military Intelligence Corps.

Structure edit

Approximately 28,000 military personnel and 3,800 civilian personnel are assigned to intelligence duties, comprising the Military Intelligence Corps. Some of the key components include:

Name Insignia Function Garrison
Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence (G-2)   As the Army's Chief Intelligence Officer, the responsibilities of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence include policy formulation, planning, programming, budgeting, management, staff supervision, evaluation, and oversight for intelligence activities, as well as overall coordination of the major intelligence disciplines. Fort Belvoir
  U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)   INSCOM is the U.S. Army's major intelligence command. Fort Belvoir
  U.S. Army Military Intelligence Readiness Command (MIRC)   MIRC is the U.S. Army Reserve's intelligence command. Fort Belvoir
  U.S. Army Intelligence Center of Excellence (USAICoE)   USAICoE is the U.S. Army's school for professional training of military intelligence personnel. Fort Huachuca

Major military intelligence units edit

Name Insignia Supports Garrison
1st Information Operations Command (Land)
  •   Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment
  • 1st Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion
  • Army Reserve Element (ARE)
  United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) Fort Belvoir
58th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade (Army National Guard)   Maryland Army National Guard Maryland
66th Military Intelligence Brigade   United States Army Europe Lucius D. Clay Kaserne (Wiesbaden, Germany)
71st Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade (Army National Guard)   Texas Army National Guard Texas
111th Military Intelligence Brigade   USAICoE Fort Huachuca
116th Military Intelligence Brigade (Aerial Intelligence)   INSCOM Fort Eisenhower
201st Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade   I Corps Joint Base Lewis-McChord
207th Military Intelligence Brigade (Theater)   United States Army Africa Vicenza, Italy
259th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade (Army Reserve)   MIRC Joint Base Lewis–McChord
300th Military Intelligence Brigade (Linguist) (Army National Guard)   INSCOM Draper, Utah
336th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade (Army Reserve)   MIRC New Jersey
470th Military Intelligence Brigade   United States Army South Fort Sam Houston
500th Military Intelligence Brigade   United States Army Pacific Schofield Barracks
501st Military Intelligence Brigade   Eighth United States Army Camp Humphreys, (South Korea)
504th Military Intelligence Brigade   III Corps Fort Cavazos
505th Military Intelligence Brigade (Army Reserve)[12]   United States Army North San Antonio, Texas
513th Military Intelligence Brigade   United States Army Central Fort Eisenhower
525th Expeditionary Military Intelligence Brigade   XVIII Airborne Corps Fort Liberty
650th Military Intelligence Group[13][14]   Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Mons, Belgium
704th Military Intelligence Brigade   National Security Agency Fort George G. Meade
706th Military Intelligence Group   Central Security Service Fort Eisenhower
780th Military Intelligence Brigade   ARCYBER Fort George G. Meade
902nd Military Intelligence Group   INSCOM Fort George G. Meade
Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center   United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Presidio of Monterey, California
National Ground Intelligence Center  
They wear the INSCOM SSI
INSCOM Charlottesville, Virginia
U.S. Army Reserve Interrogation Group   MIRC

Museum edit

The United States Army Intelligence Museum is located at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. It features the history of American military intelligence from the Revolutionary War to present. In the Army Military Intelligence Museum there is a painting of "The MI Blue Rose". The back of this painting indicates Sgt. Ralph R Abel, Jr. created it. The painting was photographed and distributed worldwide. Sgt. Abel also painted a replica of the corps flag.

Military Intelligence Hall of Fame edit

List of Deputy Chiefs of Staff for Intelligence, G-2 edit

The title of Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, G-2 appeared in 1985. Prior to 1985, this office was known as Chief, Military Intelligence Division (1917–1920), Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2 (1920–1945, 1948–1985), and Director of Intelligence (1946–1948).

No. Deputy Chief of Staff Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
1Colonel
Ralph H. Van Deman
June 1918August 1920~2 years, 61 days
2Brigadier General
Marlborough Churchill
June 1918August 1920~2 years, 61 days
3Brigadier General
Dennis E. Nolan
September 1920September 1921~1 year, 0 days
4Brigadier General
Stuart Heintzelman
September 1921November 1922~1 year, 61 days
5Colonel
William K. Naylor
November 1922June 1924~1 year, 213 days
6Colonel
James H. Reeves
July 1924April 1927~2 years, 274 days
7Colonel
Stanley H. Ford
May 1927September 1930~3 years, 123 days
8Brigadier General
Alfred T. Smith
January 1931January 1935~4 years, 0 days
9Brigadier General
Harry E. Knight
February 1935November 1935~273 days
10Colonel
Frances H. Lincoln
November 1935June 1937~1 year, 212 days
11Colonel
R. Warner McCabe
July 1937February 1940~2 years, 215 days
12Brigadier General
Sherman Miles
April 1940December 1941~1 year, 244 days
13Brigadier General
Raymond E. Lee
December 1941March 1942~90 days
14Major General
George V. Strong
May 1942February 1944~1 year, 276 days
15Major General
Clayton Bissell
February 1944January 1946~1 year, 334 days
16Lieutenant General
Hoyt Vandenberg
January 1946June 1946~151 days
17Lieutenant General
Stephen J. Chamberlin
June 1946October 1948~2 years, 122 days
18Major General
S. Leroy Irwin
November 1948August 1950~1 year, 273 days
19Major General
A. R. Bolling
August 1950August 1952~2 years, 0 days
20Major General
R. C. Partridge
August 1952November 1953~3 years, 92 days
21Major General
Arthur G. Trudeau
November 1953August 1955~1 year, 273 days
22Major General
Ridgely Gaither
August 1955July 1956~335 days
23Major General
Robert A. Schow
August 1956October 1958~2 years, 61 days
24Major General
John M. Willems
November 1958October 1961~2 years, 334 days
25Major General
Alva R. Fitch
October 1961January 1964~2 years, 92 days
26Major General
Edgar C. Doleman
January 1964February 1965~1 year, 31 days
27Major General
John J. Davis
September 1965October 1966~1 year, 30 days
28Major General
William P. Yarborough
December 1966July 1968~1 year, 213 days
29Major General
Joseph A. McChristian
August 1968April 1971~2 years, 243 days
30Major General
Philip B. Davidson, Jr.
May 1971September 1972~1 year, 123 days
31Major General
William E. Potts
September 1972July 1973~303 days
32Major General
Harold R. Aaron
November 1973August 1977~3 years, 273 days
33Major General
Edmund R. Thompson
August 1977November 1981~4 years, 92 days
34Major General
William E. Odom
November 1981May 1985~3 years, 181 days
35Lieutenant General
Sidney T. Weinstein
August 1985September 1989~4 years, 31 days
36Lieutenant General
Charles B. Eichelberger
November 1989September 1991~1 year, 304 days
37Lieutenant General
Ira C. Owens
October 1991February 1995~3 years, 123 days
38Lieutenant General
Paul E. Menoher
February 1995February 1997~2 years, 0 days
39Lieutenant General
Claudia J. Kennedy
May 1997July 2000~3 years, 61 days
40Lieutenant General
Robert W. Noonan
July 2000July 2003~3 years, 0 days
41Lieutenant General
Keith B. Alexander
(born 1951)
July 2003July 2005~2 years, 0 days
42Lieutenant General
John Kimmons
August 2005February 2009~3 years, 184 days
43Lieutenant General
Richard P. Zahner
February 200912 April 2012~3 years, 71 days
44Lieutenant General
Mary A. Legere
12 April 20122016~3 years, 264 days
45Lieutenant General
Robert P. Ashley Jr.
2016~3 October 2017~1 year, 275 days
46Lieutenant General
Scott D. Berrier
30 January 201814 September 20202 years, 228 days
47Lieutenant General
Laura A. Potter
14 September 20205 January 20243 years, 113 days
48Lieutenant General
Anthony R. Hale
5 January 2024Incumbent49 days

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ United States Intelligence Community Official Website Archived 21 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Intelligence in the Civil War" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
  3. ^ Theoharis, Athan G., ed. (1999). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Phoenix, OR: The Oryx Press. p. 160. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  4. ^ Hammons, Steve (22 April 2015). "The Japanese-American U.S. Army Intelligence Unit that helped win WWII". Defense Language and National Security Education Office. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  5. ^ "History of the Presidio of Monterey - Army Language School". Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center.
  6. ^ "Army Birthdays". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Department of the Army. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Military Intelligence, USAR (Obsolete)". The Institute of Heraldry. Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
  8. ^ "Publications 101" (PDF). usapa.army.mil. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2004.
  9. ^ "index2". Hrc.army.mil. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  10. ^ John Patrick Finnegan, Center of Military History, United States Army, Washington, D. C. (1998). "Military Intelligence". Archived from the original on 22 January 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Welcome To the Intelligence Center Online Network Archived 17 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ MIRC Family Programs Newsletter; Volume 1, Issue 4 Archived 18 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine dated October 2014, last accessed 18 April 2015
  13. ^ AR 381–10, U.S. Army Intelligence Activities, Department of the Army, dated 3 May 2007, last accessed 7 July 2012
  14. ^ FM 34-37; Strategic, Departmental, and Operational IEW Operations; Chapter 9, 650TH Military Intelligence Group, last accessed 7 July 2012

Further reading edit

External links edit