Rutherford County, Tennessee

Rutherford County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. It is located in Middle Tennessee. As of the 2020 census, the population was 341,486,[2] making it the fifth-most populous county in Tennessee. A study conducted by the University of Tennessee projects Rutherford County to become the third largest county in Tennessee by population by 2050.[3] Its county seat is Murfreesboro,[4] which is also the geographic center of Tennessee. As of 2010, it is the center of population of Tennessee.[5][6] Rutherford County is included in the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Rutherford County
County of Rutherford
Rutherford County Courthouse, Murfreesboro
Official seal of Rutherford County
Map of Tennessee highlighting Rutherford County
Location within the U.S. state of Tennessee
Map of the United States highlighting Tennessee
Tennessee's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: Coordinates: 35°50′N 86°25′W / 35.84°N 86.42°W / 35.84; -86.42
Country United States
State Tennessee
FoundedOctober 25, 1803
Named forGriffith Rutherford[1]
SeatMurfreesboro
Largest cityMurfreesboro
Government
 • MayorBill Ketron
Area
 • Total624 sq mi (1,620 km2)
 • Land619 sq mi (1,600 km2)
 • Water4.7 sq mi (12 km2)  0.8%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total341,486 Increase
 • Density551.67/sq mi (213.00/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
37037, 37060, 37063, 37085, 37086, 37089, 37118, 37127, 37128, 37129, 37130, 37131, 37132, 37133, 37153, 37167
Area code615, 629
Congressional district4th
Websiterutherfordcountytn.gov

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

Rutherford County was formed in 1803 from parts of Davidson, Williamson and Wilson counties,[1] and named in honor of Griffith Rutherford (1721–1805).[7] Rutherford was a North Carolina colonial legislator and an American Revolutionary War general, who settled in Middle Tennessee after the Revolution. He was appointed President of the Council of the Southwest Territory (the upper chamber of the territorial legislature) in 1794.[8]

Civil WarEdit

Rutherford County strongly supported the Confederacy during the Civil War, having voted 2,392 to 73 in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861.[9]

Rutherford County's central location and proximity to Nashville during the Civil War made it a contested area.[10] The county was home to one of the bloodiest battles of the war, the Battle of Stones River, which was fought between December 31, 1862, and January 2, 1863.

On July 13, 1862, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest conducted a series of cavalry operations known locally as Forrest's Raid. The raid successfully led to the surrender of all Union forces occupying the area.[11] Soon after his departure, Union troops returned to the area and held it until the end of the war.

Reconstruction and latter 19th centuryEdit

 
Opened in 1884, Bradley Academy was Rutherford County's first high school for African Americans

In August 1869, rampaging white men drove close to 100 African American farmers from their homes, and out of the county, to Nashville.[12]

In 1884, Bradley Academy in Murfreesboro became Rutherford County's first accredited high school for African Americans. The co-educational school was operated by the Murfreesboro City Schools system. Bradley Academy was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.[13]

Modern historyEdit

In the early 2000s, Muslim immigrants settled in the county, particularly in and around Murfreesboro. Their efforts to develop a mosque, the Islamic Center of Murfreesboro (and its subsequent replacement) became the focus of intense local controversy and opposition from non-Muslims,[14][15][16][17] and were stymied by political and legal battles,[15][16][18][19] arson, bomb threats and vandalism.[17][20][21][19][22] A federal court forced the local authorities to allow the mosque,[14][18][22] and opposition subsided, but sporadic incidents continued.[17]

GeographyEdit

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 624 square miles (1,620 km2), of which 619 square miles (1,600 km2) is land and 4.7 square miles (12 km2) (0.8%) is water.[23]

Adjacent countiesEdit

National protected areaEdit

State protected areasEdit

  • Flat Rock Cedar Glades and Barrens State Natural Area
  • Gattinger's Cedar Glade and Barrens State Natural Area (part)
  • Long Hunter State Park (part)
  • Manus Road Cedar Glade State Natural Area
  • Overbridge State Natural Area
  • Percy Priest Wildlife Management Area (part)
  • Elsie Quarterman Cedar Glade State Natural Area
  • Fate Sanders Barrens State Natural Area
  • Sunnybell Cedar Glade State Natural Area
  • Stones River Cedar Glade and Barrens State Natural Area
  • Walterhill Floodplain State Natural Area

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
181010,265
182019,55290.5%
183026,13433.7%
184024,280−7.1%
185029,12219.9%
186027,918−4.1%
187033,28919.2%
188036,74110.4%
189035,097−4.5%
190033,543−4.4%
191033,199−1.0%
192033,059−0.4%
193032,286−2.3%
194033,6044.1%
195040,69621.1%
196052,36828.7%
197059,42813.5%
198084,05841.4%
1990118,57041.1%
2000182,02353.5%
2010262,60444.3%
2020341,48630.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[24]
1790-1960[25] 1900-1990[26]
1990-2000[27] 2010-2020[2]
USA Rutherford County, Tennessee.csv age pyramid.svg

2020 censusEdit

Rutherford County racial composition[28]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 219,194 64.19%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 53,270 15.6%
Native American 789 0.23%
Asian 12,394 3.63%
Pacific Islander 219 0.06%
Other/Mixed 17,303 5.07%
Hispanic or Latino 38,317 11.22%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 341,486 people, 113,797 households, and 78,348 families residing in the county.

2010 censusEdit

As of the census of 2010,[29] there were 262,604 people, 96,232 households, and 66,810 families living in the county. The population density was 424 people per square mile (114/km2), and the housing unit density was 156 units per square mile (44/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 80.67% White, 12.65% Black or African American, 3.08% Asian, 0.36% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, and 2.04% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origins were 6.67% of the population.

Of the 96,232 households, 35.19% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 51.61% were married couples living together, 5.04% had a male householder with no wife present, 12.77% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.59% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.38% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.14.

Of the 262,604 residents, 26.17% were under the age of 18, 65.62% were between the ages of 18 and 64, and 8.21% were 65 years of age and older. The median age was 33.1 years. 50.60% of all residents were female and 49.40% were male.

The median household income in the county was $53,770 and the median family income was $63,483. Males had a median income of $43,306 versus $35,437 for females. The per capita income was $24,390. About 8.8% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under the age of 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 and over.

2000 censusEdit

As of the 2000 census, there were 182,023 people, 66,443 households, and 47,440 families living in the county. The population density was 294 people per square mile (114/km2), and there were 70,616 housing units. The racial makeup of the county was 85.73% White, 9.51% Black or African American, 1.90% Asian, 0.29% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.32% from other races, and 1.20% from two or more races. 2.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 66,443 households, out of which 37.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female head of household with no husband present, and 28.60% were non-families. 20.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.40% under the age of 18, 13.20% from 18 to 24, 33.50% from 25 to 44, 19.40% from 45 to 64, and 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $46,312, and the median income for a family was $53,553. Males had a median income of $36,788 versus $26,555 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,938. About 5.80% of families and 9.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.50% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over.

The 2010 census put the population of Rutherford County at 262,604. This represents a greater than 40% population growth since the 2000 U.S. Census. As of 2009, it was estimated that the total minority fraction of the population had grown to almost 20% of the total, with Hispanic population at 5.58%, African-American population at 12.09%, and Asian population at 2.66% of the total.[30]


Government and politicsEdit

County CommissionEdit

The Board of County Commissioners, the county legislative body, consists of 21 members elected for four-year terms from single-member districts based on roughly equal populations. The county mayor is the chief executive officer and is elected from the county at-large.

Presidential politicsEdit

United States presidential election results for Rutherford County, Tennessee[31]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 81,480 56.63% 59,341 41.24% 3,057 2.12%
2016 64,515 60.05% 36,706 34.17% 6,215 5.78%
2012 60,846 61.56% 36,414 36.84% 1,588 1.61%
2008 59,892 58.78% 40,460 39.71% 1,547 1.52%
2004 52,200 61.84% 31,647 37.49% 562 0.67%
2000 33,445 53.79% 27,360 44.00% 1,377 2.21%
1996 24,565 47.61% 22,815 44.22% 4,214 8.17%
1992 18,877 40.04% 21,084 44.73% 7,179 15.23%
1988 20,397 62.18% 12,245 37.33% 159 0.48%
1984 19,503 61.98% 11,618 36.92% 348 1.11%
1980 11,208 40.98% 15,213 55.62% 929 3.40%
1976 7,921 34.32% 14,854 64.35% 307 1.33%
1972 11,256 64.12% 5,811 33.10% 487 2.77%
1968 4,168 24.72% 4,921 29.18% 7,773 46.10%
1964 4,088 29.91% 9,580 70.09% 0 0.00%
1960 4,526 40.95% 6,410 58.00% 116 1.05%
1956 2,713 29.15% 6,494 69.78% 99 1.06%
1952 3,196 31.77% 6,793 67.52% 72 0.72%
1948 854 14.05% 4,151 68.30% 1,073 17.65%
1944 879 15.59% 4,730 83.89% 29 0.51%
1940 782 15.61% 4,207 83.99% 20 0.40%
1936 580 12.31% 4,101 87.07% 29 0.62%
1932 606 13.32% 3,924 86.24% 20 0.44%
1928 1,429 40.32% 2,115 59.68% 0 0.00%
1924 680 23.87% 2,137 75.01% 32 1.12%
1920 1,881 35.58% 3,406 64.42% 0 0.00%
1916 1,116 27.51% 2,941 72.49% 0 0.00%
1912 1,217 24.50% 3,406 68.57% 344 6.93%
1908 1,226 30.73% 2,764 69.27% 0 0.00%
1904 1,348 34.66% 2,504 64.39% 37 0.95%
1900 1,429 35.36% 2,517 62.29% 95 2.35%
1896 2,203 39.08% 3,352 59.46% 82 1.45%
1892 1,210 29.83% 2,211 54.51% 635 15.66%
1888 2,479 41.34% 3,302 55.07% 215 3.59%
1884 2,040 41.60% 2,828 57.67% 36 0.73%
1880 2,482 38.70% 3,855 60.10% 77 1.20%


Political historyEdit

This area of the state was predominately Democratic following the American Civil War, but the significant minority of African Americans joined the Republican Party. The white-dominated state legislature in the 1880s passed four laws that effectively disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites, particularly due to the requirement of payment of a poll tax in order to register to vote, which reduced the competitiveness of the Republican Party in this part of the state.[31]

Since the late 20th century, the majority of white conservatives in Rutherford County shifted toward the Republican Party. Since this time, the changing demographics of the county has shown a significant increase in minorities; however, this change has resulted in no significant impact to party alignment. In recent years the county has favored Republican candidates for local, state, and national elections, although Democrats have improved their performance in elections.[32][33]

Sheriff and jailEdit

In 2008, the county built a $23,300,000 expansion to the county jail.[34][35] It is alleged that some county officials viewed the jail as a for-profit business.[36][35]

In May 2016, Rutherford County Sheriff Robert Arnold, his Chief Administrative Deputy Joe L. Russell, and the sheriff's uncle were named in a 14-count federal indictment charging fraud, bribery, extortion, obstruction of justice and conspiracy for operating an e-cigarette business, for personal gain, in the jail. State officials reported that the JailCigs business gained over $110,000 in revenues pocketed by Arnold and Russell. All pleaded guilty. Arnold was sentenced to 50 months in federal prison, his deputy to 15 months.[37][38][39] Sheriff Mike Fitzhugh replaced Arnold.[40] Sheriff's Major Terry McBurney pleaded guilty to unrelated charges, losing his citizenship.[41][42]

In December 2016, following multiple deaths in the jail that year, including two suicides[43][40][44] (one resulting in a $260,000 lawsuit settlement against the County),[45] state inspectors decertified the jail, citing faults in the jail's policies, programs, staffing and the physical plant.[40][44][46] Following numerous changes to policies and facilities -- particularly inmate supervision and monitoring, and converting 400 beds to bunk beds, to allow the jail to hold 950 people -- the jail was recertified in 2017.[40][46]

Juvenile justice and jailEdit

In 2000, Rutherford County created the post of Juvenile Court Judge to oversee the county's juvenile justice procedures.[34][47]

As part of the $23 million development of the county jail, in 2008, a juvenile detention center was added.[34][35] Some county officials allegedly viewed the juvenile jail as a for-profit business.[36][35] The county then solicited other counties in Tennessee and surrounding states to send detained youth to the Rutherford County juvenile jail for incarceration, at $175 per day per child, and said that over 20 Tennessee counties had contracted with Rutherford's juvenile jail.[36]

It is alleged that in subsequent years, a Rutherford County judge and local authorities colluded in the arrest and incarceration of hundreds of children, some as young as seven years old, on various misdemeanor charges, including schoolyard fights, truancy and cursing. All arrested children were jailed in the detention center, pending adjudication and assessment.[47][48][49]

In 2021, journalists reported that children were being incarcerated in the county's juvenile jail at a rate ten times higher than the state's average,[50][34][47][51][49] and that some children were arrested and jailed for alleged violations of non-existent laws.[34][49][52] Class action federal lawsuits resulted in the county ending solitary confinement of children in custody.[34] In May 2017, a federal court said that children were being illegally detained in Rutherford County, and ordered the county to stop using its "filter" system because it "departs drastically" from ordinary juvenile detention standards.[34][49]

In June 2021, Rutherford County settled with plaintiffs in a class action lawsuit, agreeing to payments of up to $11 million, to up to 1,450 potential claimants for wrongful arrest or incarceration, but denying any wrongdoing.[34][53]

Privatized correctionsEdit

Rutherford County outsourced some of its probation administration to Providence Community Corrections, and, in 2015, the arrangement was alleged in court to have violated racketeering laws—jailing impoverished people who did not pay court fines for misdemeanor offenses and traffic violations, and refusing to waive fees for indigent convicts. Seven probationers, many sick or disabled, living on food stamps, charged in court that they lost housing, jobs, cars—after multiple threats from Providence that they would be jailed for failing to pay.[54][55] In 2017, Rutherford County consented to end the use of for-profit, private probation companies, and PCC agreed to pay $14 million, spread among up to 25,000 court-identified victims, to settle the class action lawsuit.[56][57]

EconomyEdit

The top employers in the county are listed below. Rutherford County government including Rutherford County Schools also employ 6,028 individuals.[58]

MurfreesboroEdit

Smyrna and La VergneEdit

The county is also home to Barrett Firearms Manufacturing and a General Mills production facility.

CommunitiesEdit

CitiesEdit

TownEdit

Census-designated placesEdit

Unincorporated communitiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hankins, Caneta Skelley (December 25, 2009). "Rutherford County". Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  3. ^ Hineman, Brinley (December 12, 2019). "Rutherford's explosive growth set to push county's population to Tennessee's third-largest, study says". Murfreesboro Daily News Journal. Retrieved August 15, 2020. Currently ranking fifth-largest county statewide, researchers from the Boyd Center for Business and Economic Research at the University of Tennessee project that by 2026, Rutherford County's growth will outpace Hamilton County, and by 2050, it will have more residents than Knox County.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. ^ "Centers of Population by State: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  6. ^ "Geographic Center of Tennessee". The Historical Marker Database. December 31, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  7. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Geological Survey Bulletin, no. 258 (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 268. OCLC 1156805.
  8. ^ Garrett, William Robertson; Goodpasture, Albert Virgil (1900). History of Tennessee: Its People and Its Institutions. Nashville, TN: Brandon Printing. p. 339. OCLC 1986075.
  9. ^ Jones, Shirley Ferris (May 29, 2012). "Merry Month of May". The Murfreesboro Post via Rutherford County Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  10. ^ "A History of Rutherford County, Tennessee". Rutherford County Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  11. ^ "CWSAC Battle Summaries: Murfreesboro". National Park Service. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  12. ^ "TENNESSEE.; Lawless Proceedings in Rutherford County--Negroes Driven from their Homes--Proclamation by Governor Senter," August 31, 1869, New York Times archive, retrieved October 15, 2021
  13. ^ West, Mike (October 26, 2017). "Bradley Academy Dates Back to 1811". Murfreesboro Post.
  14. ^ a b "Tennessee mosque gets go-ahead after legal fight," July 19, 2012, BBC, United Kingdom, retrieved October 15, 2021
  15. ^ a b Hall, Kristin M. (Associated Press): "Feds file legal brief in support of Tenn. mosque," October 19, 2010, Taiwan News, retrieved October 15, 2021
  16. ^ a b Reuters News Service: "US judge halts construction of Tennessee mosque: Judge ruled that local government had failed to follow proper procedures before granting building permit," May 30, 2012, The Express Tribune, Pakistan, retrieved October 16, 2021
  17. ^ a b c Associated Press: "Tennessee mosque vandals apologize for ‘dumb, foolish’ actions," March 10, 2018, Global News, Canada, retrieved October 15, 2021
  18. ^ a b Associated Press: "Embattled Tennessee mosque opens," August 10, 2012, updated December 1, 2015, Fox News, retrieved October 16, 2021
  19. ^ a b Ohlheiser, Abby: "A Fight Over a Tennessee Mosque Has Cost One County $343,276 (so Far)," February 13, 2014, The Atlantic, retrieved October 15, 2021
  20. ^ Markoe, Lauren: "Faith leaders urge Americans to combat attacks on religious minorities," August 10, 2012, Washington Post, retrieved October 15, 2021
  21. ^ Associated Press: "Arson Caused Fire at Tennessee Mosque Site, Police Say," September 4, 2012, updated November 30, 2015, Fox News, retrieved October 22, 2021
  22. ^ a b Severson, Kim: "Judge Allows Muslims to Use Tennessee Mosque," July 18, 2012, New York Times, retrieved October 15, 2021
  23. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  24. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  25. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  26. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  27. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  28. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  29. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  30. ^ Rutherford County Pop-Facts: Demographic Snapshot Report Archived 2007-11-07 at the Wayback Machine from the Rutherford Chamber of Commerce
  31. ^ a b Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  32. ^ Broden, Scott (November 12, 2018). "Democrats in Rutherford County promise to raise their voices after GOP dominates elections". The Daily News Journal. Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
  33. ^ Broden, Scott (August 9, 2014). "Republican Party controls Rutherford County offices". The Tennessean. Nashville. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Knight, Meribah; Armstrong, Ken (October 8, 2021). "Black Children Were Jailed for a Crime That Doesn't Exist. Almost Nothing Happened to the Adults in Charge". ProPublica. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  35. ^ a b c d Marchesoni, Lisa (February 16, 2007). "Work begins on $25 million juvenile, adult facilities". Murfreesboro Post. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  36. ^ a b c "What Can the Rutherford County Juvenile Detention Center Do For You?" (video, with text annotations), government of Rutherfound County, Tennessee, obtained by ProPublica and posted October 7, 2021, retrieved October 12, 2021[better source needed]
  37. ^ "Rutherford County sheriff pleads guilty to fraud, extortion," January 18, 2017, Murfreesboro Daily News Journal retrieved October 27, 2021
  38. ^ "Former Rutherford County Sheriff Chief Administrative Deputy Headed to Federal Prison," WMSR (AM), retrieved October 27, 2021
  39. ^ "Former Tennessee Sheriff Sentenced on Federal Corruption Charges," May 4, 2017, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of Justice, retrieved October 27, 2021
  40. ^ a b c d Stockard, Sam: "TBI assisting investigation into inmate’s attempted suicide," November 17, 2017, Murfreesboro Post, retrieved October 27, 2021
  41. ^ Barchenger, Stacey: USA Today Network - Tennessee: "Rutherford sheriff's major expected to plead guilty," January 26, 2017, Nashville Tennessean, retrieved October 27, 2021
  42. ^ Stockard, Sam: "McBurney pleads guilty," February 2, 2017, Murfreesboro Post, retrieved October 27, 2021
  43. ^ Stockard, Sam: " Third inmate death this year ," April 15, 2016, Murfreesboro Post, retrieved October 27, 2021
  44. ^ a b Broden, Scott: "State decertifies Rutherford County jail," December 7, 2016 Nashville Tennessean, retrieved October 27, 2021
  45. ^ "Settlement reached in jail suicide lawsuit," Dec 9, 2016, updated Oct 26, 2017, Murfreesboro Post, retrieved October 27, 2021
  46. ^ a b Ragland-Hudgins, Mealand: "Rutherford County jail recertified by state," January 18, 2017, Murfreesboro Daily News Journal retrieved October 27, 2021
  47. ^ a b c "Tennessee judge jailed minors on bogus charges following playground fights, cursing". PBS Newshour. October 12, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  48. ^ Harris, Gerald (October 11, 2021). "Rutherford Co. judge, who illegally jailed Black children using fake law, faces renewed criticism". WKRN-TV. Nashville. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  49. ^ a b c d "Judge faces criticism following report that Black children were illegally jailed in Tennessee county," October 14, 2021, ABC News, retrieved October 15, 2021
  50. ^ "Sickening: Systemic abuse in Rutherford County calls for action". Tennessee Lookout. October 12, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  51. ^ "New report shows Rutherford County, Tennessee's juvenile justice system has a staggering history of jailing children". MSNBC. October 9, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  52. ^ "Tennessee County Reportedly Illegally Jailed Hundreds of Children Charging Some-with Crimes that Don't Exist". Forbes. October 8, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.
  53. ^ "Illegally jailed as minors, 1,450 eligible in $11M settlement from Rutherford County," September 29, 2021 updated October 18, 2021, Murfreesboro Daily News Journal, retrieved October 27, 2021
  54. ^ "Private Probation Company Accused of Abuses in Tennessee". The New York Times. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  55. ^ Willard, Michelle: "Probation violations help fill county jail," October 18, 2014 Murfreesboro Daily News Journal in Memphis Commercial Appeal, retrieved October 22, 2021
  56. ^ "Thousands receive settlement checks in for-profit probation case". WTVF-TV. Nashville. January 8, 2019. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  57. ^ "14.3 Million Settlement for Probationers Subject to Extortion by Private Company". Prison Legal News. May 7, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  58. ^ "Comprehensive Annual Financial Report: Rutherford County, Tennessee, For the Year Ended June 30, 2016" (PDF). Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury. 2016. p. 301. Retrieved June 9, 2017.

External linksEdit