Port Arthur, Texas
Port Arthur is a city in Jefferson County within the Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan area of the U.S. state of Texas. A small, uninhabited portion extends into Orange County. It is 90 mi (140 km) east of Houston. The largest oil refinery in the United States, the Motiva Refinery, is located in Port Arthur.
Port Arthur, Texas
|• City Council||Mayor Thurman "Bill" Bartie |
District 1: Ingrid West Holmes
District 2: Cal J. Jones
District 3: Thomas Kinlaw III
District 4: Kenneth W. Marks
At-Large: Charlotte Moses
At-Large: Donald Frank
|• City Manager||Ronald Burton|
|• Total||144.17 sq mi (373.41 km2)|
|• Land||77.15 sq mi (199.82 km2)|
|• Water||67.02 sq mi (173.58 km2)|
|Elevation||7 ft (2 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||703.55/sq mi (271.64/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1384151|
The population of Port Arthur was 53,818 at the 2010 census, down from 57,755 at the 2000 census. Early attempts at settlements in the area had all failed. However, in 1895, Arthur Stilwell founded Port Arthur, and the town quickly grew. Port Arthur was incorporated as a city in 1898 and soon developed into a seaport. It eventually became the center of a large oil refinery network. The Rainbow Bridge across the Neches River connects Port Arthur to Bridge City.
Port Arthur is vulnerable to hurricanes and extensive damage to the city has been caused several times.
Aurora was an early settlement attempt near the mouth of Taylor Bayou on Sabine Lake, about 14 miles (23 km) long and 7 miles (11 km) wide. It is a saltwater estuary formed by the confluence of the Neches and Sabine Rivers. Through its tidal outlet, 5-mile-long (8 km) Sabine Pass, Sabine Lake drains some 50,000 sq mi (100,000 km2) of Texas and Louisiana into the Gulf of Mexico.
The town was conceived in 1837, and in 1840 promoters led by Almanzon Huston were offering town lots for sale. Some were sold, but Huston's project failed to attract many settlers. The area next was known as "Sparks", after John Sparks, who moved his family to the shores of Sabine Lake near the site of Aurora. The Eastern Texas Railroad, completed between Sabine Pass and Beaumont, Texas, passed 4 miles (6 km) west of Sparks. However, the American Civil War soon began, and rail lines were removed. In 1886, a destructive hurricane hit the coast, causing the remaining residents to dismantle their homes and move to Beaumont. By 1895, Aurora had become a ghost town.
Arthur Stilwell led the resettling of the area as part of his planned city as the southern terminus of his Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad, predecessor to the Kansas City Southern Railway. Stilwell named the city Port Arthur after himself, not the British Royal Navy Lieutenant who gave his name to Port Arthur, China.
Pleasure Island now separates the city from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. The 18.5-mile (29.8 km) man-made island was created between 1899 and 1908 by the Corps of Engineers to support development of the port.
Arthur Stilwell founded the Port Arthur Channel and Dock Company to manage the port facilities. The port officially opened with the arrival of the British steamer Saint Oswald in 1899.
When oil was discovered at Spindletop, the J.M. Guffey Petroleum Company, later Gulf Oil, had run pipelines to Port Arthur as a shipping point and a location for an oil refinery. In November 1901, the first tanker, the Cardium, departed with Spindletop oil. The refinery was enlarged in 1902, and a pipeline connected to the Glenn Pool Oil Reserve in Oklahoma. The Texas Company, later Texaco, also started building a refinery in 1902. By 1916, the Port Arthur refinery was one of the three largest in the United States.
Port Arthur is located on the eastern edge of Jefferson County at  It is bordered to the northeast by Orange County, Texas, and to the southeast, across Sabine Lake, by Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The Port Arthur city limits extend south along the west side of Sabine Pass, the outlet of Sabine Lake, as far as the Gulf of Mexico on the city's southern border. To the north, the city limits extend across the Neches River into Orange County. Port Arthur is bordered to the northwest by the cities of Nederland, Groves, and Port Neches, and to the northeast by Bridge City in Orange County.(29.884864, −93.939902), on the west side of Sabine Lake.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 144.1 square miles (373.1 km2), of which 76.9 square miles (199.2 km2) are land and 67.1 square miles (173.9 km2), or 46.61%, are covered by water.
Communities in Port Arthur include:
Port Arthur is tied with Lake Charles, Louisiana, and Astoria, Oregon, as the most humid city in the contiguous United States. The average relative humidity is 90% in the morning, and 72% in the afternoon.
|Climate data for Port Arthur, Texas (Jack Brooks Airport) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1901–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||86
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||77
|Average high °F (°C)||63.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||53.7
|Average low °F (°C)||43.8
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||28
|Record low °F (°C)||11
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||5.32
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.6||8.6||7.6||7.2||7.2||10.7||11.8||11.3||8.9||7.5||7.6||9.7||107.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79.0||76.6||76.2||77.1||78.7||79.0||80.7||80.3||79.3||76.9||78.0||79.6||78.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||135.5||168.5||188.1||203.2||262.9||284.6||281.7||258.6||231.9||241.3||184.8||148.9||2,590|
|Percent possible sunshine||42||54||51||53||62||68||66||63||63||68||58||47||58|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
2010 census dataEdit
As of the 2010 census, 53,818 people, 20,183 households, and 13,191 families resided in the city. The population density was 654.6 people per square mile (250.5/km2). The 23,577 housing units averaged 284.4 per square mile (109.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 41.7% African American, 37.9% White, 1.2% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, and 15.3% from other races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 29.6% of the population.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
Of the 20,183 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were not families; 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.31.
In the city, the population was distributed as 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males.
2000 census dataEdit
As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $26,455, and for a family was $32,143. Males had a median income of $30,915 versus $21,063 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,183. About 22.9% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the total people living in poverty, 35.2% were under age 18 and 14.4% were age 65 or over.
Home to a large portion of United States oil refining capacity, Port Arthur is now seeing renewed investment in several key installations. Motiva Enterprises is undertaking a major addition to its western Port Arthur refinery, expanding capacity to 600,000 barrels per day (95,000 m3/d). This $10.0 billion project is the largest US refinery expansion to occur in 30 years. Premcor Refining (now Valero) completed a $775 million expansion of its petrochemical plant, and BASF/Fina commenced operations of a new $1.75 billion gasification and cogeneration unit on premises of its current installation, which had just completed its own $1 billion upgrade. These operations are supported by the Port of Port Arthur, one of Texas' leading seaports. Port Arthur still suffers, though, from one of the highest unemployment rates in the state.
Central business district disintegrationEdit
The commercial center of Port Arthur was at its peak in the early 1900s. Together with the effects of suburbanization, which drew off wealthier residents to new housing away from town, gradually taking businesses with them, from 1960 until 1974, successive waves of economic recession caused much distress in the town. The central business district has many boarded up and vacant locations.
The Hotel Sabine opened at 600 Proctor Street in 1929 and operated as the Vaughn Hotel until the mid-1930s. At 118 feet, 10 stories, and the tallest building in Port Arthur, the building is of Beaux-Arts architecture style, built with steel-reinforced concrete and brick on 640 steel-laced wooden cypress pilings driven 60 ft into the ground. It was designed to withstand the most severe coastal storms. The hotel closed down in the mid-1980s.
The Port Arthur News reported August 28, 2010, that "DWA (Digital Workforce Academy) Buys Sabine Hotel", By November 2011, the hotel was reported to be slated for demolition. The cost of renovations were estimated at $10– 12,000,000 dollars and demolition estimates as $500,000 to 1.2 million.
Hurricane Rita struck a direct hit on the Proctor Street Seawall, and damaged many downtown businesses and homes. As economic activity picked up in the region, calls for downtown revitalization have been advanced. The true center of commercial activity has gravitated from downtown to other areas. The main shopping center is Central Mall, opened outside the downtown in 1982.
Arts and cultureEdit
Port Arthur's Museum of the Gulf Coast is recognized as the area's definitive collection of items and displays for figures from Port Arthur and the surrounding communities.
The mayor of Port Arthur is Thurman "Bill" Bartie.
The county operates the Jefferson County Sub-Courthouse in Port Arthur.
Lamar State College-Port ArthurEdit
Located in downtown Port Arthur, celebrated its 100th birthday in 2009. Offering a full variety of basic core curriculum classes in which credits are transferable throughout Texas public universities, Lamar State College is recognized for associate programs in commercial music, nursing, legal assistant, and process technology. The college also fields competitive teams in men's basketball and women's softball.
Galveston College (for Sabine Pass)Edit
Career and Technical Education CenterEdit
It was formerly named Stilwell Technical Center and is the second college in Port Arthur. The Port Arthur Independent School District is now headquartered at its former location on 9th Avenue. In 2012 the school was relocated to a new building built on the same property of Memorial High School at 3501 Sgt Lucian Adams Dr.
Primary and secondary schoolsEdit
Most of the city is served by the Port Arthur Independent School District. It operates a single high school, Memorial High School, formed in 2002 by the consolidation of three high schools: Stephen F. Austin, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson.
The portion around Southeast Texas Regional Airport is served by the Nederland Independent School District. Some parts are served by Port Neches-Groves Independent School District. The Sabine Pass community is served by the Sabine Pass Independent School District.
The Port Arthur News is the only daily newspaper serving Port Arthur. Operating since 1897 The News is one of the oldest continually operated businesses in Port Arthur. It is currently owned and operated by Boone Newspapers. From 1932–1941 Port Arthur had a second newspaper called The Peoples Press.
|Frequency||Call letters / licensed to (if not Beaumont)||Format||Owner||Notes|
|560||KLVI||News, Talk radio||iHeartMedia|
|1250||KDEI (Port Arthur)||Catholic radio||Radio Maria|
|1340||KOLE (Port Arthur)||Various||Birach Broadcasting|
|92.5||KCOL (Groves)||Oldies "Cool 92.5"||iHeartMedia|
|93.3 (Port Arthur)||KQBU||Regional Mexican "Que Buena 93.3"||Univision|
|94.1||KQXY||CHR "Q94"||Cumulus Broadcasting|
|95.1||KYKR||Country "Kicker 95.1"||iHeartMedia|
|98.5||KTJM (Port Arthur)||Regional Mexican "La Raza 98.5/103.3"||Liberman Broadcasting-Houston|
|102.5||KTCX (Beaumont)||Urban contemporary "Magic 102.5"||Cumulus Broadcasting|
|103.3||K277AG (Beaumont)||Hip-Hop, R&B "The Beat 103.3"||iHeartMedia||Simulcast of KKMY-HD2|
|104.5 (Orange)||KKMY||Rhythmic CHR "104.5 Kiss FM"||iHeartMedia|
|105.3||KXXF (Winnie)||Classic country (with Walton and Johnson mornings)||Excel Media|
|106.1||KIOC (Orange)||Rock "Big Dog 106"||iHeartMedia|
|107.9||KQQK||Regional Mexican "107.9 El Norte"||Liberman Broadcasting-Houston|
Local bus service is provided by Port Arthur Transit.
The nearest inter-city rail station to Port Arthur is Beaumont station in nearby Beaumont, which serves the greater area. The station is served by Amtrak’s Sunset Limited line, with a train arriving thrice weekly in each direction.
Hurricane of September 12, 1897Edit
Celebrations in Port Arthur on completion of the Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad between Kansas City and Port Arthur occurred Saturday, September 11, 1897. The celebrations brought additional people into town. The next day, a major hurricane hit Port Arthur. Water flowed five feet deep in the streets. People loaded into the unfinished railroad roundhouse seeking shelter; the building promptly collapsed, killing four. In the end, 13 people died, homes were destroyed, and a pleasure pier was severely damaged.
In June 1957, Hurricane Audrey made landfall just east of Port Arthur in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, as a category 3 hurricane. The storm caused extensive wind damage around the city and significant storm surge flooding just east in Southwest Louisiana.
On September 24, 2005, Hurricane Rita made landfall between Sabine Pass, Texas, and Johnson Bayou, Louisiana, as a category 3 hurricane. A wind gust of 116 mph (187 km/h) was recorded in Port Arthur. The storm caused widespread significant wind damage throughout the city, with power outages lasting several weeks in some locations. Some areas of the city also received flooding due to Rita.
On September 13, 2007, Hurricane Humberto made landfall west of Port Arthur as a category 1 hurricane. The storm moved northeast across the Golden Triangle, causing widespread wind damage; however, most of the damage was relatively minor. An 84 mph (135 km/h) wind gust was recorded at the Southeast Texas Regional Airport just northwest of the city.
Tropical Storm EdouardEdit
On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Island as a category 2 hurricane. Due to the storm's unusually large size, effects were widespread and were felt across much of Southeast Texas. Port Arthur sustained significant wind damage and many of the city's residents lost power. The Port Arthur seawall protected the city from the major flooding that surrounding cities experienced.
On August 29, 2017, after Harvey made a second landfall at tropical storm status, 26 inches of rain fell in a single day at the airport near Port Arthur, triggering widespread flash flooding in the city. According to the Port Arthur mayor Derrick Freeman, 20,000 homes were flooded with up to 6 ft of water. On August 30, Freeman posted on Facebook, "Our whole city is underwater right now."
Hurricane Laura was expected to make landfall as a major hurricane with Port Arthur in its direct path. Port Arthur was evacuated. However, turning almost due north, Laura ended up making its final landfall near Cameron, Louisiana.
- Lucian Adams, recipient of Medal of Honor, Bronze Star, and Purple Heart
- Jonathan Babineaux, professional football player
- Jordan Babineaux, professional football player
- G.W. Bailey, actor
- Zachary Breaux, jazz musician
- Aaron Brown, professional football player
- J'Covan Brown (born 1990), basketball player in the Israel Basketball Premier League
- Jamaal Charles, professional football player
- C. J. Chenier, musician
- Todd Dodge, American football coach
- Ted Dunbar, jazz musician
- Kevin Everett, professional football player
- Mitch Gaspard, college baseball coach
- John Warne Gates, Wire & Steel magnate, railroad and oil financier
- Danny Gorrer, professional football player
- Jason Halbert, musical director for Kelly Clarkson
- Kree Harrison, runner-up on American Idol, 12th season
- Lee Hazlewood, musician, was raised in Port Arthur.
- Tom Hicks, former owner of Texas Rangers, Dallas Stars, Liverpool FC, and Dr Pepper/7-UP
- Jim Hurtubise, race car driver, moved to Port Arthur as an adult.
- Stephen Jackson, former professional basketball player, who played in the NBA for 14 seasons
- Jimmy Johnson, football broadcaster, player, coach, and executive
- Janis Joplin, singer/songwriter
- Bobby Leopold, professional football player
- Kenneth Lofton Jr., college and FIBA U-19 Team USA player
- Inika McPherson, track and field athlete
- Donald Narcisse, player in Canadian Football League
- Pimp C & Bun B of UGK, rappers
- Johnny Preston, pop singer
- Robert Rauschenberg, painter and graphic artist
- Leah Rhodes, Hollywood costume designer
- J.P. Richardson aka "The Big Bopper", singer and songwriter born in the Port Arthur neighborhood of Sabine Pass[circular reference]
- Elandon Roberts, professional football player
- Raymond Strother, political consultant
- Tad Tadlock, Choreographer
- Joe Washington, college and professional football player
- Ken Webster, actor and director
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Tropical Storm Harvey Closes America's Biggest Refinery". Maritime Executive. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Port Arthur city, Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- Port Arthur incorporates- Retrieved 2013-09-10
- Wooster, Robert. "AURORA, TX (JEFFERSON COUNTY)," Handbook of Texas Online". Retrieved February 21, 2011.
- "The Completion of the KCP&G – A Centennial History". Lowell G. McManus, The Meridian Speedway. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- "The Name Port Arthur, History and Origin of How It Was Applied". Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXI, Number 300, 25 July 1904 (accessed at UCR Center for Bibliographical Studies and Research). Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Linsley, Judith; Rienstrad, Ellen; Stiles, Jo (2002). Giant Under the Hill, A History of the Spindletop Oil Discovery at Beaumont, Texas in 1901. Austin: Texas State Historical Association. pp. 186–187, 199, 209–210. ISBN 9780876112366.
- Hunt, Herschiel. The History of Port Arthur. Southern Publishing Concern, 1926.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Average Relative Humidity - Morning (M), Afternoon (A)" (PDF). Comparative Climatic Data for the United States Through 2012. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-18.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
- "Station: Port Arthur SE TX AP, TX". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
- "WMO Climate Normals for Port Arthur, TX 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "The Economy of Southeast Texas Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
- Gonzalez, Angel (24 January 2010). "Oil Spill Hits Texas Port". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
- "Retirement and Looking Back to "the Way it Was" (economic tailspin)- Retrieved 2013-09-10
- Sabine Hotel- Retrieved 2013-09-10
- The Port Arthur News; Hotel Sabine foundation
- "DWA buys Sabine Hotel", Port Arthur News, 28 August 2010, Retrieved 2013-09-10
- "Port Arthur hotel could meet its doom" Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine, My Fox Houston, 11 November 2011, Retrieved 2013-09-10
- Sanders, Ashley. "Plant expansions to create a housing boon", The News. August 21, 2006. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
- Rappleye, Christine. "The Beaumont Enterprise - Those who recall bustling downtown Port Arthur are still around; old way of life isn't Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine." The Beaumont Enterprise. September 23, 2007. Posted June 11, 2008. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
- "Port Arthur" Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities, Retrieved 2013-09-10
- "Jefferson County, Texas Phone Director." County of Jefferson. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
- https://newspaperarchive.com/port-arthur-news-may-28-1998-p-42/. Missing or empty
- https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/61553556/james-pinckney-logan. Missing or empty
- https://newspaperarchive.com/port-arthur-news-mar-27-1934-p-1/. Missing or empty
- https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/flo59. Missing or empty
- http://politicalgraveyard.com/geo/TX/ofc/portarthur.html. Missing or empty
- https://www.kplctv.com/story/6838630/port-arthurs-first-african-american-mayor/.php. Missing or empty
- https://www.beaumontenterprise.com/news/article/Freeman-sworn-in-as-Port-Arthur-mayor-8343514.php. Missing or empty
- https://www.beaumontenterprise.com/news/article/Early-voting-results-logged-in-Port-Arthur-mayor-14030861.php. Missing or empty
- "Post Office Location - PORT ARTHUR Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location - PORT ACRES Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location - SABINE PASS Archived 2012-05-13 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
- Texas Education Code Sec. 130.179. GALVESTON COLLEGE DISTRICT SERVICE AREA.
- Faye, Matt (2018-03-17). "State Champion Memorial Titans get star treatment at parade". Beaumont Enterprise. Retrieved 2019-02-16.
Memorial High School was established in 2002 after the Port Arthur school district consolidated Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson and Stephen F. Austin high schools.
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Jefferson County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
- Pastorella, Cody. "New PA Charter School provides Hope to area students." The Port Arthur News. September 20, 2010. Retrieved on September 23, 2010.
- Meaux, Mary (2017-02-03). "Bishop Byrne alumni planning for reunion". The News Port Arthur. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
- Hurricane Rita Analysis Archived 2017-05-04 at the Wayback Machine
- Hurricane Humberto Analysis
- Port Arthur, Texas Hurricanes
- Harrington, Rebecca. "Flash floods send Texans into 'survival mode' as Harvey hits Port Arthur with 26 inches of rain in one day". BusinessInsider.com. Business Insider. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Evacuations ordered as Hurricane Laura aims at U.S. coast". CNBC. 2020-08-25. Retrieved 2020-08-27.
- "Hurricane LAURA". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- Goldstein, Richard (April 4, 2003). "Lucian Adams, 80, Is Dead; Army Hero in World War II". New York Times.
- "Jonathan Babineaux". NFL Enterprises. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Jordan Babineaux". NFL Enterprises. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "G. W. Bailey". Museum or the Gulf Coast. Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Jasinski, Laurie E. (2012). Handbook of Texas Music. Texas State Historical Association. ISBN 9780876112977.
- "Jamal Charles". NFL Enterprises. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "C.J. Chenier". Cumberland Valley School of Music. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "North Texas fires Port Arthur native Todd Dodge". My San Antonio. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- Brown, Cody. "DUNBAR, THEODORE [TED]". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Kevin Everett". NFL Enterprises. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Halliburton, Tom (May 26, 2006). "2006 Southland Conference Baseball Tournament". PAnews.com.
- "Danny Gorrer". NFL Enterprises. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Stevenson, Jane (May 14, 2013). "'American Idol':Who Should Win". Toronto Sun.
- Keller, R. "Lee Hazlewood". Americana and Roots Music. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Kupper, Mike (Jan 10, 1989). "Flamboyant Figure: Auto Racing World Will Miss Fun-Loving Driver Jim Hurtubise". Los Angeles Times.
- "Jimmy Johnson". National Football Foundation. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Hughes, Richard B. "JOPLIN, JANIS LYN". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Bobby Leopold". databaseSports.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Soeterik, Dick. "Narcisse: CFLAA Former CFL Player of the Week". Canadian Football League Association. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Cooper, Roman. "UGK Inducted Into Museum Of The Gulf Coast Music Hall Of Fame". article. hiphopdx.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Robert Rauschenberg". Museum or the Gulf Coast. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "The Big Bopper".
- "About Ray Strother" (PDF). Dole Institute of Politics. Fall 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-04.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Port Arthur, Texas.|