Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States, located in the Ark-La-Tex region. It is a twin city with neighboring Texarkana, Arkansas. The population of the Texas city was 37,280 at the 2015 census estimate. The city and its Arkansas counterpart form the core of the Texarkana Metropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing all of Bowie County, Texas, and Miller County, Arkansas. The two cities had a combined population of 66,330 at the 2010 census, and the metropolitan area had a total population of 136,027.
Texarkana Municipal Building
|Nickname(s): The Texas Side, T-Town, TK, TXK, Twin City, Little Chicago|
|Motto(s): Twice as Nice|
Location of Texarkana, Texas
|• City Council||Mayor Bob Bruggeman
Jean H. Matlock
Brian L. Matthews
|• City Manager||John Whitson|
|• Total||29.5 sq mi (76.3 km2)|
|• Land||29.0 sq mi (75.2 km2)|
|• Water||0.4 sq mi (1.1 km2)|
|Elevation||299 ft (91 m)|
|• Density||1,254/sq mi (484.1/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||903, 430|
|GNIS feature ID||1369752|
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Railroads were quick to see the possibilities of this vast area, and in the late 1850s, the builders of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad were pushing their line steadily across Arkansas. By 1874, they had crossed the Red River and had reached the Texas state line. Between February 16 and March 19, 1874, trains ran between the Texas border and the Red River, whence passengers and freight were ferried to Fulton to continue by rail. The Red River Bridge opened on March 20, 1874, and since then, trains have run directly from Texarkana to St. Louis.
Keen rivalry existed between the 1870s railroad builders. The Texas and Pacific Railroad reached across Texas to the Arkansas state line. The border was the logical place for the different railways to connect. On December 8, 1873, the Texas and Pacific sold the first town lots for the future city. First to buy was J.W. Davis, who purchased the land where today's Hotel McCartney now stands, opposite Union Station.
Who gave Texarkana its name is not known. A popular story credits Colonel Gus Knobel, who surveyed the Iron Mountain Railroad right-of-way from Little Rock to this section to the state line. He allegedly painted "TEX-ARK-ANA" on a plank and nailed it to a tree, saying, "This is the name of a town which is to be built here."
Miller County, on the Arkansas side of the metropolitan area, is probably the only county in the United States that was abolished, only to be re-established later. Miller County was formed in 1820 to honor James Miller, who was Arkansas' first governor. Miller County was formed with a large degree of uncertainty as to the location of the line dividing the county and the Mexican boundary. Consequently, settlers felt that Arkansas levied and collected taxes on land that eventually might be held by Mexico. Moreover, many who resented the oppression of Texans by the Mexicans were openly declaring allegiance to the Texans. This led to general unrest, and after the Texas Republic was created, it grew worse. So, in 1838, Governor James Conway proposed that the "easiest and most effective remedy is the abolition of Miller County to an area which is more patriotic." From that year until 1874, it was a part of Lafayette County, Arkansas. Its re-establishment sprung only from the sale of town lots in Texarkana in 1873. Efforts of the young town to be incorporated were not realized until October 17, 1880, nearly seven years after Texarkana, Texas (June 12, 1874), was formed. December 8, 1873, is generally recognized by both cities as the date of organization.
Texarkana is located at the junction of Interstate 30 and US highways 59, 67, 71, and 82 in extreme northeast Texas on the Texas-Arkansas border, at (33.437170, -94.067394). It is bordered by the city of Texarkana, Arkansas, to the east, and by the smaller cities of Nash and Wake Village, Texas, to the west. It is in the Central Time Zone.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Texas city has a total area of 29.5 square miles (76.3 km2), of which 29.0 square miles (75.2 km2) is land and 0.42 square miles (1.1 km2), or 1.39%, is covered by water. The city is roughly 180 miles northeast of Dallas.
- The warmest month is July.
- The highest recorded temperature was 117 °F (47 °C) in 1936.
- On average, the coolest month is January.
- The lowest recorded temperature was -6 °F (-21 °C) in 1989.
- The most precipitation on average occurs in November.
|Climate data for Texarkana, Texas|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||52.5
|Average low °F (°C)||30.7
|Record low °F (°C)||−7
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.91
On the evening of May 22, 2008, a microburst producing winds up to 100 mph occurred over Stateline Avenue and surrounding communities. An analysis of radar data leading up to the damage showed that two severe thunderstorms came together on the south side of the city. One severe storm was moving northeastward from southern Bowie County, while the other was moving northwestward through Miller County. Both storms collided in an area just south of downtown Texarkana.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, 37,679 people, 13,569 households, and 8,941 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,357.3 people per square mile (524.0/km²). The 16,280 housing units averaged 589.4 per square mile (227.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.18% White, 37.05% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, and 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.91% of the population.
Of the 16,280 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% have a female householder with no husband present. and 34.1% were not families; 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the city, the age distribution of the population was 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,727, and for a family was $39,119. Males had a median income of $34,155 versus $21,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,815. About 19.4% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. The most affluent area of Texarkana is Pleasant Grove, where the median income is $49,562 for each household and the median for a family is $57,219 in 2013.
According to the city's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Red River Army Depot and tenants||7,200|
|2||Christus St. Michael Health Care||1,883|
|3||Cooper Tire & Rubber Company||1,700|
|7||Wadley Regional Medical Center||850|
|8||Texarkana Independent School District||795|
|9||Texarkana Arkansas School District||785|
|10||Southern Refrigerated Transport||750|
According to the city's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fund Financial Statements, the city's various funds had $36.0 million in revenues, $37.0 million in expenditures, $18.9 million in total assets, $3.5 million in total liabilities, and $7.2 million in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|City Manager||Shirley Jaster|
|Assistant City Manager||Kyle Dooley|
|City Secretary||Jennifer Evans|
|Assistant City Secretary||Vicky Coopwood|
|Municipal Court Judge||Sherry Jackson|
|Police Chief||Daniel Shiner|
|Director of Human Resources||Jim Powell|
|Director of Community Planning and Development||David Orr|
|Finance Director||Kristen Peeples|
|Director of Inspections||Michelle Daniels|
|Public Information Officer||Lisa Thompson|
|Director of Public Works||Dustin Henslee|
|Director of Parks||Robby Robertson|
Public school districtsEdit
Schools in Texarkana, Texas, are under the jurisdiction of the Texarkana Independent School District, the Liberty-Eylau Independent, Pleasant Grove Independent School District, and Red Lick Independent School District.
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Texarkana is the headquarters of the theologically conservative American Baptist Association, whose Missionary Baptist churches are most numerous in Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Mississippi.
Though the city was historically Democratic, Texarkana is currently represented by Republicans in both houses of the Texas State Legislature. The state senator is Bryan Hughes from District 1. State Representative Gary VanDeaver represents Texas House District 1.
At the federal level, the two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Texarkana is part of Texas's 4th congressional district, which is currently represented by Republican John Ratcliffe.
The Federal Courthouse (which also holds the downtown post office) is located directly on the Arkansas-Texas state line and is the only federal office building to straddle a state line. During his campaign for the presidency in 1960, John F. Kennedy spoke on the steps of the courthouse.
Texarkana Union Station is located in downtown Texarkana along the state line, with daily Amtrak service west to Los Angeles via Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and El Paso, and east to Chicago via Little Rock and St. Louis.
The Texarkana Urban Transit District provides bus transportation to major areas of town along nine different routes. Service runs from 5:30 am to 6:20 pm Monday - Saturday.
Interstate 30 passes through Texarkana on the north. Loop 151 on the west of the city forms part of the Texarkana Loop, a three-quarter loop around the west, south, and east of the twin cities with I-30 completing the loop on the north. Interstate 369 shares the western portion of Loop 151. Interstate 49 is a newly constructed interstate corridor on the Arkansas side of the city which connects Texarkana to Shreveport, Louisiana.
- Joe Anderson, NFL wide receiver
- Miller Barber, golfer
- Jesse Belvin, singer, pianist, and songwriter
- J.B. Bobo, magician
- Ben M. Bogard, clergyman, founder of American Baptist Association in Texarkana in 1924
- Willie Buchanon, football player
- Melvin Bunch, baseball player
- David Crowder, musician
- Robert Ealey, electric blues singer
- Carl Finch, musician, founder of Brave Combo
- Ocielia Gibson, Miss Black USA 2011 winner
- Corinne Griffith, silent-film actress
- Harmonica Slim, blues harmonicist, singer, and songwriter
- Rich Houston, football player
- V. E. Howard, clergyman who founded the International Gospel Hour and was the pastor of the Walnut Street Church of Christ in Texarkana
- LaMichael James, football player for the San Francisco 49ers and Miami Dolphins
- Brandon Jones, NFL wide receiver
- Parnelli Jones, race car driver in International Motorsports Hall of Fame
- Scott Joplin, ragtime music composer and pianist
- Jeff Keith, lead singer of rock band Tesla
- Jarrion Lawson, American sprinter and long jumper
- Joshua Logan, film and stage director, Tony Award and Pulitzer Prize winner
- Ryan Mallett, NFL quarterback for Baltimore Ravens
- Eddie Mathews, baseball player in Hall of Fame
- Julie Meadows, pornographic actress
- Will Middlebrooks, baseball player for the Milwaukee Brewers
- Craig Monroe, baseball player
- Mac Morgan, opera singer
- Dustin Moseley, baseball player
- Brittany Pate, author
- Ross Perot, businessman and politician
- Charles B. Pierce, movie producer
- Molly Quinn, actress
- James Theodore Richmond, writer, conservationist
- Bill Rogers, golfer
- Dame Marjorie Morris Scardino, Pulitzer Prize-winning publisher and CEO of Pearson PLC
- Michael Jarboe Sheehan, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Santa Fe
- Rod Smith, NFL player for Denver Broncos
- Gunnar Stansson, YouTube celebrity, the star of videos such as "Unforgivable"
- Drew Stubbs, baseball player for the Colorado Rockies
- Marshall Terrill, author
- Aysel Teymurzadeh, singer, performer
- Michael Trimble, opera singer, voice teacher
- Nathan Vasher, football player
- Michael Wacha, baseball player for the St. Louis Cardinals
- Frank D. White, governor of Arkansas from 1981 to 1983
- Otis Williams, musician, founding member of The Temptations
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- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
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-  Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
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