Marshall is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.[5] It is the county seat of Harrison County and a cultural and educational center of the Ark-La-Tex region. At the 2020 U.S. census, the population of Marshall was 23,392;[6] The population of the Greater Marshall area, comprising all of Harrison County, was 65,631 in 2010,[7] and 66,726 in 2018.[8]

Clockwise: Old Courthouse, Starr Home, Hotel Marshall, ETBU, Depot, Wiley, Ginnocho, First United Methodist
Clockwise: Old Courthouse, Starr Home, Hotel Marshall, ETBU, Depot, Wiley, Ginnocho, First United Methodist
Location in the state of Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°33′N 94°22′W / 32.550°N 94.367°W / 32.550; -94.367
CountryUnited States
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorAmy Ware[1]
 • City ManagerTerrell Smith
 • City29.66 sq mi (76.81 km2)
 • Land29.59 sq mi (76.65 km2)
 • Water0.06 sq mi (0.17 km2)
413 ft (126 m)
 • City23,392
 • Density771.47/sq mi (297.86/km2)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
Area code903
FIPS code48-46776[3]
GNIS feature ID1340990[4]

Marshall and Harrison County were important political and production areas of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. This area of Texas was developed for cotton plantations. Planters brought slaves with them from other regions or bought them in the domestic slave trade. The county had the highest number of slaves in the state, and East Texas had a higher proportion of slaves than other regions of the state. The wealth of the county and city depended on slave labor and the cotton market.[9]

The late 19th century until the mid-20th century, Marshall developed as a large railroad center of the Texas and Pacific Railway. Following World War II, activists in the city's substantial African-American population worked to create social change through the Civil Rights Movement, with considerable support from the historically black colleges and universities in the area.

The city is known for holding one of the largest light festivals in the United States, the "Wonderland of Lights".[10][11][12] It identifies as the self-proclaimed "Pottery Capital of the World", for its sizable pottery industry.[13][14] Marshall is referred to by various nicknames: the "Cultural Capital of East Texas",[15] the "Gateway of Texas", the "Athens of Texas",[16] the "City of Seven Flags",[17][18] and "Center Stage", a branding slogan adopted by the Marshall Convention and Visitors Bureau.

History edit

Republic of Texas and Civil War (1841–1860) edit

The Wyalucing plantation was the childhood home of Lucy Holcombe Pickens, the only woman whose image was used on Confederate currency. It housed the office of the Trans-Mississippi Postal Department of the Confederacy. In 1880, freedmen bought the plantation and used it for the campus of Bishop College, founded for black students. The main house was used as the president's house.

The city was founded in 1841 as the seat of Harrison County after failed attempts to establish a county seat on the Sabine River. It was incorporated in 1843.[16] The Republic of Texas decided to choose the land donated for the seat by Peter Whetstone and Isaac Van Zandt after Whetstone had proven that the hilly location had a good water source.

The city quickly became a major city in the state because of its position as a gateway to Texas; it was on the route of several major stagecoach lines. Later, one of the first railroad lines constructed into Texas ran through it.

The founding of several colleges, including a number of seminaries, teaching colleges, and incipient universities, earned Marshall the nickname "the Athens of Texas", in reference to the ancient Greek city-state. The city's growing importance was confirmed when Marshall was linked by a telegraph line to New Orleans; it was the first city in Texas to have a telegraph service.[19]

By 1860, Marshall was the fourth-largest city in Texas and the seat of its richest county. Developing the land for cotton plantations, county planters held more slaves here than in any other county in the state. Many planters and other whites were strongly against the Union because of their investment in slavery.

When Governor Sam Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederate States of America, Marshall's Edward Clark was sworn in as governor.[20] Pendleton Murrah, Texas's third Confederate governor, was also from Marshall.

The city became a major Confederate supply depot and manufacturer of gunpowder for the Confederate Army.[21] It hosted three conferences of Trans-Mississippi and Indian Territory leaders.

The exiled Confederate government of Missouri established Marshall as its temporary capital.[19] The city took the nickname of the "City of Seven Flags".[18] This was a nod to the flag of Missouri, in addition to the six flags of the varying nations and republics that have flown over the city.

Also during the Civil War, after the fall of Vicksburg, Marshall became the seat of Confederate civil authority and headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Postal Department. The city may have been the intended target of a failed Union advance that was rebuffed at Mansfield, Louisiana.

Toward the end of the American Civil War, the Confederate government had $9.0 million in treasury notes and $3.0 million in postage stamps shipped to Marshall.[22] They may have intended Marshall as the destination of a government preparing to flee from advancing armies.

Reconstruction and the Railroad Era (1865–1895) edit

A former slave displays a horn in 1939 that was formerly used by planters to call slaves on the outskirts of Marshall. Many freedmen moved to Marshall from rural areas during Reconstruction, creating their own community and seeking the chance to live away from the supervision of whites. After Union troops departed at the end of Reconstruction, Democrats formed the White Citizens Party, establishing an insurgent militia dedicated to white supremacy.

Marshall was occupied by Union forces on June 17, 1865.[23] During Reconstruction, the city was home to an office of the Freedmen's Bureau and was the base for federal troops in the region.[24] In 1873 the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wiley College to educate freedmen. African Americans came to the city seeking opportunities and protection until 1878.

Although freedmen comprised the majority of voters in the county and supported the Republican Party, establishing a bi-racial government, in the post-Reconstruction era, the White Citizens Party, led by former Confederate General Walter P. Lane and his brother George, took control of the city and county governments by fraud and intimidation at elections.[25] Their militia ran Unionists, Republicans and many African Americans out of town. The Lanes ultimately declared Marshall and Harrison County "redeemed" from Union and African-American control.[26]

Despite this, the African-American community continued to progress. The historically black Bishop College was founded in 1881, and Wiley College was certified by the Freedman's Aid Society in 1882.

Marshall's "Railroad Era" began in the early 1870s. Harrison County citizens voted to offer a $300,000 bond subsidy,[21] and the City of Marshall offered to donate land north of the downtown to the Texas and Pacific Railway if the company would establish a center in Marshall. T&P President Jay Gould accepted the business incentive, locating the T&P's workshops and general offices for Texas in Marshall. The city immediately had a population explosion from workers attracted to the potential for new jobs there.[19]

By 1880, the city was one of the South's largest cotton markets, with crops and other products shipped by the railroad. The city's prosperity attracted new businesses: J. Weisman and Co. opened here as the first department store in Texas.[27] When one light bulb was installed in the Texas and Pacific Depot, Marshall became the first city in Texas to have electricity. During this period of wealth, many of the city's now historic homes were constructed. The city's most prominent industry, pottery manufacturing, began with the establishment of Marshall Pottery in 1895.

Despite the prosperity of the railroad era, some city residents struggled with poverty. Blacks were severely discriminated against under what was known as Jim Crow laws and customs. At the turn of the 20th century, the Democratic-dominated state legislature passed segregation laws and disenfranchised most blacks and Hispanics, as did all the states of the former Confederacy in this period. These minorities were essentially excluded from the political system for more than 60 years. Unable to vote, they were also excluded from juries and suffered injustices from all-white juries. In addition, from 1877 to 1950, Harrison County had 14 lynchings, most in the early 20th century, and more than any other county in Texas.

In the rural areas of Harrison County, more interaction occurred between whites and African-Americans than in the city, and whites and blacks were often neighbors. However, Jim Crow rules were strongly imposed on African-Americans.

Early and mid- 20th century edit

The community has developed in and around Whetstone Square, shown here in 1939. White guests stayed at the Capitol Hotel, right, and the taller Hotel Marshall directly behind it. In the 1960s, the Harrison County Courthouse, center, was the site of the first sit-ins in Texas by the civil rights movement.

In 1909, a field of natural gas was discovered near Caddo Lake; it was exploited to supply city needs.[28] Under the leadership of John L. Lancaster, the Texas and Pacific Railway enjoyed its height of success during the first half of the 20th century. Marshall's ceramics industry expanded to the point that the city was called by boosters the "Pottery Capital of the World".[13][14]

In 1930, what was then the largest oil field in the world was discovered at nearby Kilgore. The first student at Marshall High School to have a car was Lady Bird Johnson, a kind of progress that excited many students.

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, children of both races were forced into accepting the law of racial segregation in the state. Marshall resident George Dawson became a writer late in life when he learned to read and write at age 98. He described his childhood under segregation in his memoir Life Is So Good(2013), written with Richard Glaubman. He said that in some instances, he and other Blacks resisted the demands of Jim Crow. For instance, he rejected one employer who expected him to eat with her dogs.

As blacks were being excluded from politics and tensions rose, more lynchings of black men took place, a form of extrajudicial punishment and social control. Beginning in the late 19th century, a total of 14 Black men were lynched in the county, the third-highest total in the state.[29] Suspects were often brought to Marshall for the lynchings, or taken from the county jail before trial and hanged in the courthouse square for maximum public effect of terrorizing the black population. Between October 1903 and August 1917, at least 12 black men were lynched in Marshall.[30][31][32][33] Not all instances of lynching were documented, so there may have been others.

In the early and mid-20th century, Marshall's traditionally black colleges, Wiley and Bishop, were thriving intellectual and cultural centers. The writer Melvin B. Tolson, who was part of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City, taught at Wiley College.[34] Painter Samuel Countee, a Texas-born student of Bishop College in the mid-1930s, exhibited at the Harmon Exhibitions in 1935–1937 and won a scholarship to study at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Countee had a successful career as a teacher and artist in the New York City area, where he lived for the rest of his life.

Inspired by the teachings of professors such as Tolson, students and former students of the colleges mobilized to challenge and dismantle Jim Crow laws and institutions in the 1950s and 1960s. Fred Lewis, as the secretary of the Harrison County National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), challenged the White Citizens Party in Harrison County, which had the oldest chapter in Texas, and the laws the party supported. This suit overturned Jim Crow in the county with the Perry v. Cyphers ruling. Heman Sweatt, a Wiley graduate, tried to enroll in the University of Texas at Austin Law School, but was denied entry because of his race. He sued and the United States Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of postgraduate studies in public universities in Texas in its ruling in Sweatt v. Painter (1950). James Farmer, another Wiley graduate, became an organizer of the Freedom Rides and a founder of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), which was active throughout the South.

Late 20th-early 21st centuries edit

Elks Building, Marshall, Texas (postcard, 1909)

The Civil Rights Movement reached into the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. In the 1960s, students organized the first sit-ins in Texas,[35] in the rotunda of the county courthouse on Whetstone Square. They protested continuing segregation of public schools. This governmental practice had been declared unconstitutional in 1954 by the US Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. In 1970, all Marshall public schools were finally integrated.

Also in that year, Carolyn Abney became the first woman to be elected to the Marshall City Commission. In April 1975, nearly a decade after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, local businessman Sam Birmingham became the first African American to be elected to the city commission. In the 1980s, he was elected as the city's first African-American mayor. Birmingham retired in 1989 for health concerns and was succeeded by his wife, Jean Birmingham.

Marshall's railroad industry declined during the restructuring of the industry; most trains were converted to diesel fuel, and many lines merged. Construction of the Interstate Highway System after World War II and expansion of trucking, plus the increase in airline traffic, also led to railway declines. The T&P shops closed in the 1960s, and T&P passenger service ceased in 1970. The Texas oil bust of the 1980s devastated the local economy. The city's population declined by about 1,000 between 1980 and 1990.

During the mid-20th century, the city lost many of its historic landmarks to redevelopment or neglect. For a time people preferred "modern" structures. Other buildings were demolished because tax laws favored new construction.

By 1990, Marshall's opera house, the Missouri Capitol, the Moses Montefiore Synagogue, the original Viaduct, the Capitol Hotel, and the campus of Bishop College (including the Wyalucing plantation house) had been demolished.[36][37] In the 1970s, the city began to study historic preservation efforts of nearby Jefferson. Since then it has emphasized preservation of historic assets.

Due to newly completed construction projects, the city was one of 10 designated in 1976 as an All-America City by the National Civic League. In 1978, Taipei mayor Lee Teng-hui, and Marshall mayor William Q. Burns, signed legislation recognizing Marshall as a sister city to the much larger Taipei. During this period, Bill Moyers won an Emmy for his documentary, Marshall, Texas: Marshall, Texas, chronicling the history of race relations in the city.[38]

In terms of the city's economy, the 1960s through 1980s were a period of decline, largely because of the oil industry and manufacturing changes. Population declined after jobs left the area. Longview surpassed Marshall in population and economy.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the city began to concentrate on diversifying its economy. It has emphasized heritage and other tourism. The city founded two new festivals, the Fire Ant Festival, and the "Wonderland of Lights", which joined the longstanding Stagecoach Days.[10] The Fire Ant Festival gained national attention through being featured on television in programs such as The Oprah Winfrey Show.[39]

Downtown Marshall to the north of the former Harrison County Courthouse, 2009

The "Wonderland of Lights" became the most popular and one of the largest light festivals in the United States. By 2000, the "Wonderland of Lights" had become such a part of the cityscape that the lighted dome of the Old Courthouse was the most recognizable symbol of the city. 2011 marked the 25th anniversary of the "Wonderland of Lights" festival.

During the 2000s, the downtown area experienced moderate economic growth, which supported restoration of significant buildings. By 2005, the Joe Weisman & Company building, the T&P Depot, the former Hotel Marshall (now known as "The Marshall"), and the former Harrison County Courthouse were either restored or under restoration.[40]

Restaurants, boutiques, and loft apartments were developed in downtown, adding to the variety of its daily life and the number of pedestrians on the streets. Some projects adapted historic structures for reuse. Many historic homes outside of downtown continue to deteriorate. Some structures in moderate condition were approved for demolition for replacement by prefabricated or tin structures. Whetstone Square has become quite busy again, with few empty buildings around it. Lack of funding and manpower has slowed movement on demolition and salvage of historic homes.

The Sam B. Hall, Jr. Federal Courthouse has been the venue for several cases challenging state practices under provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. For instance, the Democratic Party challenged the 2003 redistricting by the state legislature, arguing that it diluted minority rights. Combined with two other cases, these issues were heard by the United States Supreme Court in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006). It upheld the state's actions, with the exception of Texas's 23rd congressional district; redistricting was required that affected neighboring districts, as well. This had little effect on the new Republican majority of the Texas Congressional delegation after the 2004 elections.[41]

An unusually high number of patent lawsuits were being filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, which includes Marshall, Tyler, and Texarkana. TiVo sued EchoStar over digital video recorder patent rights. Marshall has a reputation for plaintiff-friendly juries for the 5% of patent lawsuits that reach trial. This has resulted in 78% plaintiff wins. The number of patent suits filed in 2002 was 32, and the number for 2006 was estimated at 234.[42]

The patent suits filed here were second-highest in number, after the United States District Court for the Central District of California in Los Angeles in 2009.[42] The trend continued through 2011 in the Eastern District of Texas, which includes Marshall, with the number of patent lawsuits more than doubling from 2010.[43]

Marshall was profiled on This American Life, as its juries' support of plaintiffs in patent suits has generated controversy.[44]

On January 18, 2010, Dr. John Tennison, a San Antonio physician and musicologist, publicized his research that found that boogie-woogie music was first developed in the Marshall area in the early 1870s. It originated among African Americans working with the T&P Railroad and the logging industry.[45] On May 13, 2010, the Marshall City Commission unanimously passed an ordinance declaring Marshall to be "the Birthplace of Boogie Woogie".[46] On September 2, 2018, the Harrison County Historic Commission unveiled a state Texas Historic Marker that declares Marshall as the birthplace of Boogie Woogie.[47][48]

Geography edit

Maplecroft is the centerpiece of the Starr Family Home State Historic Site.
In the 2000s, the Sam B. Hall Jr. U.S. Court House became one of the busiest federal courts because of a high number of patent suits, the second-highest total in the nation.

The city of Marshall is roughly 150 miles (240 km) east of Dallas, and 40 miles (64 km) west of Shreveport, Louisiana. Marshall is closer to the capitals of Arkansas (Little Rock, 217 miles (349 km)) and Mississippi (Jackson, 256 miles (412 km)) than it is to the capital of Texas (Austin, 275 miles (443 km)). The intersection of U.S. routes 59 and 59 and the intersection of U.S. 59 and Interstate 20 are located within the city limits of Marshall.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.7 square miles (76.8 km2), of which 29.6 square miles (76.6 km2) are land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km2), or 0.22%, is covered by water.[6]

The city is bisected along a north–south axis by East End Boulevard (US 59). The eastern half of the city is bisected along an east–west axis by US 80, which east of its intersection with U.S. 59 is called Victory Drive and west of US 59 is named Grand Avenue. The Harrison County Airport and Airport Baseball Park are located to the south of Victory Drive off of Warren Drive.[49]

East Texas Baptist University

To the west of U.S. Route 59, south of Pinecrest Drive, are older suburbs; north of Pinecrest Drive, the oldest portion of the city stretches northward over seven hills. This portion of the city radiates out from downtown, which is centered on the Old Harrison County Courthouse in Peter Whetstone Square. Immediately to the north of the square is the Ginocchio National Historic District, where the city's Amtrak station is located. This region of the city is bisected along an east–west axis by Grand Avenue (U.S. Route 80). Spreading out from downtown is a belt of antebellum and Victorian homes centered on Rusk and Houston streets.

To the west of downtown are some of the oldest African American neighborhoods in Texas, centered on Wiley College. To the north of Grand Avenue (US 80) are neighborhoods that were built largely by employees of the Texas and Pacific Railway. In addition to the Ginocchio National Historic District, this part of the city is home to East Texas Baptist University, and four historic cemeteries: Marshall Cemetery, Powder Mill Cemetery, Greenwood Cemetery, and Marshall Hebrew Cemetery.[50]

Climate edit

Marshall has a humid subtropical climate, characterized by hot summers and fairly mild winters. On average, Marshall receives 51.34 in (1,304 mm) of precipitation per year.[51] The precipitation is relatively evenly spread throughout the year, with only July receiving less than 3.5 in (89 mm) on average.[51]

In the spring, severe weather is not uncommon, and tornadoes have hit the city in the past, including an F2 that struck the south side of town in 2000, wiping out a Domino's Pizza on US Highway 59.

Summers in Marshall are hot and humid, with average high temperatures higher than 86 °F (30 °C) from June through September. Temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) are not uncommon, with a highest recorded temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) on August 18, 1909.[52]

In 2008, Hurricane Ike struck Marshall hard, with winds over 60 miles per hour (100 km/h). About 82% of the population in Marshall was without power for at least 24 hours.[citation needed]

Climate data for Marshall, Texas (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1893–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 87
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 57.1
Daily mean °F (°C) 45.1
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 33.1
Record low °F (°C) −5
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.20
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.0 9.1 9.3 7.4 8.7 7.8 6.7 5.9 6.2 7.0 7.8 9.3 94.2
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7
Source: NOAA[52][51]

Demographics edit

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[53]
Texas Almanac: 1850–2000[54]

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 23,392 people, 8,229 households, and 5,269 families residing in the city. In 2019, the American Community Survey estimated 22,831 people inhabited Marshall.[55] About 26% of the city's population were under 18 and 16.4% were aged 65 or older.[55] Nearly 52% of the city was female.[55] At the census of 2000, 23,935 people, 8,730 households, and 6,032 families resided in the city.[3] The population density was 809.5 inhabitants per square mile (312.5/km2). The 9,923 housing units averaged 335.6 per square mile (129.6/km2). Of the 8,730 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were not families. About 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the city, the population was distributed as 26.1% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.2 males.

The median income for a household was $43,783 and 20.2% of the city lived below the poverty line. Per the U.S. Census Bureau's 2018 estimates, the city had an owner-occupied housing rate of 60.9% and there were 7,882 households. An average of 2.78 people resided within Marshall's households from 2014 to 2018. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $30,335, and for a family was $37,438. Males had a median income of $30,146 versus $21,027 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,491. About 17.8% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 15.1% of those age 65 or over.

Race and ethnicity edit

Marshall racial composition as of 2020[56]
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 9,032 38.61%
Black or African American (NH) 8,368 35.77%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 81 0.35%
Asian (NH) 197 0.84%
Pacific Islander (NH) 5 0.02%
Some Other Race (NH) 115 0.49%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 600 2.56%
Hispanic or Latino 4,994 21.35%
Total 23,392

The racial makeup of the city as of 2018 was 40.2% non-Hispanic white, 37.7% Black or African American, 0.1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.6% Asian, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 18.8% of the population. In 2019, the racial makeup was 41.5% non-Hispanic white, 36.9% Black or African American, 0.1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 1.6% Asian, 2.1% from two or more races, and 18.2% Hispanics or Latinos of any race.[55] The racial makeup of the city in 2000 was 54.7% White, 38.6% African American, <0.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 4.8% from other races, and 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.6% of the population.

Religion edit

According to Sperling's BestPlaces, a little over 60% of Marshall's population are religious.[59] Baptists and Methodists are the largest Christian groups in Marshall (39.3% and 6.1%). Following, the Roman Catholic Church is the third largest Christian body in the city (5.6%). Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Anglicans/Episcopalians, the Latter-Day Saints, and Lutherans are the remainder. Christians of other faiths accounted for a total of 5.4% of the religious demographic. Less than 1% of Marshall's non-Christian inhabitants were Jewish, Muslim, or followed an eastern faith.[59]

Of the Baptist population in Marshall, the largest denominations as of 2020 are the predominantly African American National Baptist Convention USA and the National Baptist Convention of America, the Southern Baptist Convention, and the Baptist General Convention of Texas.[60][61] The United Methodist Church was the largest Methodist denomination,[62] and Pentecostals were divided between the Assemblies of God USA and Oneness (non-Trinitarian) United Pentecostal Church International.[63][64] The Presbyterian Church USA is the largest Presbyterian denomination, and Anglicans and Episcopalians were affiliated with the Episcopal Church in the United States.[65]

Economy edit

Marshall's economy is diversified and includes services such as insurance claims processing at Health Care Service Corporation, also known as BlueCross BlueShield of Texas, education at several institutes of higher learning, manufacturing such as wood kitchen cabinets at Republic Industries and pottery at several manufacturers. Tourism is also an important industry,[66][67] with about one million tourists visiting the city each year.

Government edit

Local government edit

The City of Marshall has a council–manager form of municipal government, with all governmental powers resting in a legislative body called the City Council.[68] The council passes all city laws and ordinances, adopts budgets, determines city policy, and appoints city officials, including the city manager, who serves as the executive of the city government and is in charge of enforcing city laws and administering the city's various departments.[69]

City council edit

City Hall in Marshall

The city council has seven members, each elected from a single-member district. Districts 1−4 divide the city into four districts, and the districts 5−7 divide the city into three districts that overlay Districts 1−4. So, every location in the city falls in two districts, one from each set. Each council member is elected to a two-year term.[69] Districts 1−4 hold elections in odd-numbered years and districts 5−7 in even years; elections are held in the spring.

After each election, the city council selects a council member to serve as chairman, generically called a mayor, until after the next year's election. If no one files to run against a council member, as happened with District 1 in 2005, the council member is reinstated and an election for that district is not held that year.

The city council meets twice a month on the second and fourth Thursdays. Additional special sessions may be called or regular meetings cancelled. The Council provides a public forum before each regular session providing citizens the opportunity to address the commission for two minutes without forward notice; with notice, additional time may be scheduled. The council meetings are broadcast on radio and on the local government-access television, public-access television cable TV station.

Council/Commission members edit

District 2022 Council 2015 Commission 2012 Commission 2010 Commission 2007 Commission 2002 Commission 1999 Commission
District 1 Marvin Bonner Gloria Moon Gloria Moon Gloria Moon Katie Jones Katie Jones Jean Birmingham
District 2 Leo Morris Michael Mitchell Zephaniah Timmins Zephaniah Timmins Zephaniah Timmins Alonza Williams Alonza Williams
District 3 Jennifer Truelove Eric J. Neal (mayor) John Flowers Buddy Power Ed Carlile Chris Horsley Chris Horsley
District 4 Amy Ware (Mayor) LaDarius Carter Bill Marshall Jack Hester Jack Hester Jack Hester Audrey Kariel (mayor)
District 5 Reba Godfrey Vernia Calhoun Charlie Oliver Charlie Oliver John Wilborn John Wilborn John Wilborn
District 6 Amanda Abraham Larry Hurta Garrett Boersma Chris Paddie Michael McMurry Bryan Partee Michael Smith
District 7 Micah Fenton Doug Lewis Ed Smith (mayor) William Buddy Power (mayor) Ed Smith (mayor) Ed Smith (mayor) Martha Robb

Municipal services edit

Management of the city and coordination of city services are provided by:[70]

Office Officeholder
City manager Terrell Smith
Fire chief Reggie Cooper
Police chief Cliff Carruth

State government edit

Marshall is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Bryan Hughes, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, District 9.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Marshall District Parole Office in Marshall.[71]

Federal government edit

At the federal level, the two current United States senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. Marshall is located in Texas's 1st congressional district currently represented by Republican Nathaniel Moran.

The United States Postal Service operates the Marshall Post Office.[72]

Much of the U.S.'s patent litigation is handled in or around Marshall, Texas.[73]

Education edit

Marshall Independent School District is the sole school district covering the city limits,[74] with approximately 6,000 students at eight campuses.[75][76]

Trinity Episcopal School serves students from preschool through eighth grade at two campuses.[77]

Former public schools:[citation needed]

  • Marshall Christian Academy

Higher education edit

More than 3,500 students annually[citation needed] attend colleges in the city: East Texas Baptist University, Wiley College, Texas State Technical College-Marshall, and Panola College-Marshall.

Panola College is the assigned community college for the majority of Harrison County, Marshall included, according to the Texas Education Code.[78]

Wiley College is one of the oldest historically black institutions in the United States. It was the setting of the film The Great Debaters, which depicted Wiley College's debate team's struggle for racial equality. The team challenged the Harvard University debate team on the national circuit. In reality, Melvin B. Tolson's 1935 debate team, which included civil rights leader James Farmer, debated and defeated that year's Pi Kappa Delta Forensic Society's national champions, the University of Southern California.[79]

Media edit

The city has one newspaper, The Marshall News Messenger, a subsidiary of the nearby Longview newspaper. Marshall is home to three radio stations.

Television edit

Marshall has an ABC news office. The city is within the reception area of broadcasters based in Shreveport, Louisiana: KTBS (ABC), KSLA (CBS), KMSS (FOX), KTAL (NBC), KPXJ (The CW), KSHV-TV (My Network TV), and KLTS (Louisiana Public Broadcasting). Nearby Longview is within the reception of both the Shreveport and Tyler, Texas media markets.

The local cable company, Fidelity Communications (formerly Cobridge Communications), provides public-access television channels that show local football games produced by KMHT radio, and meetings of the city and county commissions (both live and replayed), as well as streaming audio from KMHT. Marshall is also the home of the weekly podcast "Beyond the Pine Curtain".[citation needed]

Radio edit

Marshall are shared the radio market with Longview

Transportation edit

Major highways and interstates in Marshall edit

Marshall is served by two taxicab companies. The Harrison County Airport is located in Marshall. Ongoing expansion of Interstate 69 from Indianapolis, Indiana, to Victoria, Texas, will create Interstate 369 branching off from Tenaha, Texas and go north to Texarkana, Texas, using U.S. Highway 59 via Marshall.

Passenger rail edit

  • Amtrak's daily Texas Eagle train leaves at 7:30 pm for St. Louis and Chicago. The Texas Eagle leaves for Dallas, Austin, and San Antonio at 7:50 am, and continues to Los Angeles three days a week.

Sites of interest edit

Notable landmarks edit

Notable people edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[57][58]

References edit

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  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
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  7. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Marshall, TX Micro Area; Texas". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  8. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Harrison County, Texas". Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  9. ^ Campbell, Randolph. "Slaveholding in Harrison County, 1850-1860, A Statistical Profile".
  10. ^ a b "Wonderland of Lights in Marshall Kicks Off the Christmas Season in Style". Texas Hill Country. November 19, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  11. ^ "City of Marshall Texas Official Site". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  12. ^ "Marshall in East Texas". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  13. ^ a b Popik, Barry. "Barry Popik". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  14. ^ a b Jakle, John A.; Sculle, Keith A. (2009). America's Main Street Hotels: Transiency and Community in the Early Auto Age. Univ. of Tennessee Press. ISBN 978-1-57233-655-1.
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  16. ^ a b Lale, p. 7.
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  18. ^ a b Halliday, Doc (July 29, 2014). "The seventh flag over Marshall". Marshall News Messenger. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  19. ^ a b c Campbell, Randolph B. (July 13, 2001). "Marshall, Texas". The Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved May 25, 2006.
  20. ^ WOOSTER, RALPH A. (June 12, 2010). "CLARK, EDWARD". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  21. ^ a b Lale, p. 12.
  22. ^ Davis, William C. (2002). Look Away!: A History of the Confederate States of America (1st ed.). Free Press. pp. 413. ISBN 0-684-86585-8.
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  24. ^ Campbell (2003), p. 272.
  25. ^ Guzman, Will (January 30, 2015). Civil Rights in the Texas Borderlands: Dr. Lawrence A. Nixon and Black Activism. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09688-4.
  26. ^ Berglund, Ernest (1948). History of Marshall (1st ed.).
  27. ^ Weissbach, Lee Shai (October 1, 2008). Jewish Life in Small-Town America: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12765-2.
  28. ^ Lale, p. 21.
  29. ^ Lynching in America, Third Edition: Supplement by County Archived 2017-10-23 at the Wayback Machine, p. 9, Equal Justice Initiative, Mobile, AL, 2017
  30. ^ The Lynching Calendar: Names A-L.
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  33. ^ Boston Guardian, Boston, Massachusetts; 1914-04-30.
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  35. ^ Campbell (2003), p. 428.
  36. ^ "Marshall – Moses Montefiore Congregation". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
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  44. ^ "441: When Patents Attack!". July 22, 2012. Archived from the original on January 4, 2012.
  45. ^ "Boogie Woogie: Born In The Backwoods Of America". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  46. ^ "About | Marshall, Texas: The Birthplace of Boogie Woogie". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  47. ^ Richardson, Robin Y. (September 10, 2018). "Marker celebrates Marshall as birthplace of boogie-woogie music". Longview News-Journal. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  48. ^ Richardson, Robin Y. (September 4, 2018). "Marker unveiling ceremony celebrates Marshall as birthplace of 'Boogie Woogie'". Marshall News Messenger. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  49. ^ "Airport « Harrison County". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  50. ^ Richardson, Robin Y. (October 28, 2016). "Marshall cemetery tours set Saturday". Marshall News Messenger. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
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  52. ^ a b "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 21, 2021.
  53. ^ Carolyn Stewart, ACSD. "Census of Population and Housing - U.S. Census Bureau".
  54. ^ Texas Almanac: City Population History 1850–2000 Archived 2017-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ a b c d "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Marshall city, Texas". Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  56. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  57. ^ [not specific enough to verify]
  58. ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  59. ^ a b "Religion in Marshall, Texas - Sperling's BestPlaces".
  60. ^ "SBC Churches Directory". Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  61. ^ "Texas Baptists - Churches". Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  62. ^ "Search - Find A Church". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on April 13, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  63. ^ "Find a Church". Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  64. ^ UPCI. "Locate a Church | United Pentecostal Church Int". UPCI. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  65. ^ "Find a Church". Episcopal Church. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  66. ^ "Visit Here". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  67. ^ "East Texas Attractions". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  68. ^ "City of Marshall Texas Official Site". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  69. ^ a b "City of Marshall Texas Official Site". Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  70. ^ City of Marshall. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
  71. ^ "Parole Division Region I Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
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  74. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Harrison County, TX" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 11, 2024.
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External links edit