Gettysburg National Military Park
The Gettysburg National Military Park protects and interprets the landscape of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. Located in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the park is managed by the National Park Service. The GNMP properties include most of the Gettysburg Battlefield, many of the battle's support areas during the battle (e.g., reserve, supply, and hospital locations), and several other non-battle areas associated with the battle's "aftermath and commemoration", including the Gettysburg National Cemetery. Many of the park's 43,000 American Civil War artifacts are displayed in the Gettysburg Museum and Visitor Center.
|Gettysburg National Military Park|
Gettysburg National Park (1893)
|Nearest city||Gettysburg, Pennsylvania|
|Area||3,965 acres (16.05 km2) (as of 2009)|
1963: 2,871 acres
1932: 2,530 acres
1916: ~2,302 acres
1900: 1,221 acres
1888: 540 acres
|Established||1966: added to NRHP|
1895: national park designation
1893: federal protection
1864: GBMA protection
1863: initial protection
|Visitors||1,031,554 (in 2010)|
|Governing body||1933: National Park Service|
1896: War Department
1864: Gettysburg Battlefield
|Website||Gettysburg National Military Park|
Gettysburg National Military Park
|Architect||Emmor Bradley Cope; William Saunders|
|NRHP reference No.||66000642|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
The park has more wooded land than in 1863, and the National Park Service has an ongoing program to restore portions of the battlefield to their historical non-wooded conditions, as well as to replant historic orchards and woodlots that are now missing. In addition, the NPS is restoring native plants to meadows and edges of roads, to encourage habitat as well as provide for historic landscape. There are also considerably more roads and facilities for the benefit of tourists visiting the battlefield park.
Attendance in 2018 was 950,000 a decline of 86% since 1970. The five major Civil War battlefield parks operated by the National Park Service (Gettysburg, Antietam, Shiloh, Chickamauga/Chattanooga and Vicksburg) had a combined 3.1 million visitors in 2018, down 70% from 10.2 million in 1970.
Federal land acquisitionEdit
The 1864 Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association and later veteran's associations acquired land for memorials and preservation (e.g., the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument tract with the statuary memorial depicted on the 2011 America the Beautiful Quarter dollar). Federal acquisition of land that would become the 1895 national park began on June 7, 1893, with nine monument tracts of 625 sq ft (58.1 m2) each and a larger 10th lot of 1.2 acres (4,900 m2) from the Association, as well as 0.275 acres (1,110 m2) from Samuel M Bushman. In addition to land purchases, federal eminent domain takings include the Gettysburg Electric Railway right-of-ways in 1917 (cf. 1896 United States v. Gettysburg Electric Ry. Co.) Donated land included 160 acres from the 1959 Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Association and 264 acres (107 ha) from the W. Alton Jones Foundation.:42 The Gettysburg Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit philanthropic, educational organization that operates in partnership with the National Park Service to preserve Gettysburg National Military Park and the Eisenhower National Historic Site, and to educate the public about their significance. (e.g., the Foundation raised funds for and built the new Museum and Visitor Center, opened in 2008, and secured funds for the creation of a new cannon shop that daily preserves the nearly 400 cannons representing actual artillery lines on the battlefield. In addition, the Gettysburg Foundation has provided approximately $20 million in direct support of the National Park Service just since 2009. The Visitor Center houses the Gettysburg Museum of the American Civil War and the 19th century, painting in the round, the Gettysburg Cyclorama)
The park officially came under federal control on February 11, 1895 with a piece of legislation titled, “An Act To establish a national military park at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.” This piece of legislation officially allowed the transfer of the deed for the park to go from the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial National Park Association, to the Secretary of War.
In February 2009, The David Wills House where Lincoln completed his Gettysburg Address was added to the national park by Public Law 106-290 and is operated by Gettysburg Foundation. In 2010, an effort to expand the amount of the federally-owned GNMP land failed in Congress.
Memorials and remembranceEdit
The Park has been a highly symbolic venue for memorials and remembrance. On November 19, 1963 a parade and ceremony was held in Gettysburg commemorating the centennial of President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, given less than five months after the Battle of Gettysburg. The actor, Raymond H. Massey, playing the role of President Lincoln arrived by 1860s period steam train at the Gettysburg station. He rode, in the parade as did Lincoln, on horseback to the National cemetery where actor Massey gave the President's famous address (this time for brevity, Edward Everett's preceding two hour speech was not read). The parade followed the same route that President Lincoln and Gov. Andrew G. Curtin took 100 years before. Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower—who lived nearby—was there, accompanied by Gov. William W. Scranton. The attendance at the 1963 commemoration was lower than the 20,000 to 30,000 persons who attended the original address by President Lincoln in 1863. Thousands of photographers attended the 1963 event while U.S. Air Force aircraft passed overhead. Also attending the event were the 28th Division of the Pennsylvania National Guard headed by Maj. Gen. Henry F. Fluck, the U.S. Marine Band, and the 3rd Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard) of the U.S. Army. The parade ended at the rear entrance into the Gettysburg National Cemetery.
The Gettysburg National Military Park is administered in the North Atlantic - Appalachian region, also known as the Northeast region.
Former and current Superintendents of the Gettysburg National Military Park.
- John P. Nicholson: February 11, 1895 - March 8, 1922
- Colonel Emmor B. Cope: March 8, 1922: - May 27, 1927
- James B. Aumen: May 27, 1927 - June 27, 1927
- Colonel E. E. Davis: June 27, 1927- August 24, 1932
- J. Frank Barber: August 24, 1932 - February 7, 1933
- James R. McConaghie: February 7, 1933 - February 1, 1941
- J. Walter Coleman: February 1, 1941 - July 1, 1958
- James B. Myers: July 1, 1958 - March 2, 1963
- Kittridge A. Wing: March 2, 1963 - January 16, 1966
- George F. Emery: January 16, 1966 - November 28, 1970
- Jerry L. Schober: December 13, 1970 - August 1974
- John R. Earnst: August 1974 - 1994
- John Latschar: 1994 - October 26, 2009
- Brion Fitzgerald: October 26, 2009 - March 1, 2010
- Robert Kirby: March 1, 2010 - January 1, 2014
- Ed Clark: January 1, 2014 - October 13, 2017
- Charles E. "Chuck" Hunt: October 13, 2017 - March 19, 2018
- Chris Stein: March 19, 2018 - July 24, 2018
- Lewis H. Rogers Jr: July 24, 2018 - December 10, 2018
- Ed Wenschhof Jr: December 10, 2018 - April 5, 2019
- Kristina Heister: April 16, 2019 - August 10, 2019
- Steven D. Sims: August 10, 2019 - Present
As the Gettysburg National Military Park increases in popularity it has run into ecological changes caused by this popularity and also natural causes.
There are an estimated annual 2 million people visiting the park a year, and with this large influx of visitors concerns have arisen on its effects on the environment. Natural areas like wooded areas, thickets and wetlands, have been stressed by pollution caused by traffic, and the issue of invasive species threatening the ecology of the park.
- Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Professional Procedures Guide (PDF) (Report). NPS.gov. January 2009. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
The approximately 11,000-acre Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District embraces the land area associated with the battle of Gettysburg. ... In a more complex park, such as Gettysburg National Military Park, the CLI could identify the 3,965 acre park as the landscape
- "Gettysburg National Park". United States military reservations, National cemeteries, and military parks. 1916. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013.
- E011715 (undated document--June 29, 2009 embedded in file). "The New Visitor Experience at Gettysburg National Military Park, Facts at a Glance" (PDF). NPS.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-11. Check date values in:
- Harrison, Kathleen Georg (November 4, 2003). "NRHP Registration Form: Gettysburg National Military Park/Soldiers' National Cemetery, update approved January 23, 2004". National Park Service – via National Archives Catalog for Pennsylvania. Downloading may be slow.
- Cameron McWhirter, "Civil War Battlefields Lose Ground as Tourist Draws" "The Wall Street Journal May 25, 2019
- "Historic Resource Information: Gettysburg National Military Park". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission – via CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System for Pennsylvania.
- Davis, William C. (1995--Fifth Printing) . Gettysburg: The Story Behind the Scenery. pp. 17, 42. ISBN 0-916122-89-1. LCCN 83-80606. Check date values in:
- "Gettysburg Foundation". FriendsOfGettysburg.org. Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
In 2006, [the Gettysburg National Battlefield Museum Foundation] merged with the  Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg, forming the Gettysburg Foundation.
- "Preservation". Gettysburg Foundation. GettysburgFoundation.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
- "An Act To establish a national military park at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania" (PDF). February 11, 1895.
- Senate Report 111-330 - BOUNDARY REVISION OF THE GETTYSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK. Gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- Kanagy, Beth (March 2, 2001). "Preservation and progress a delicate balancing act along 'endangered' Pike". Retrieved 2011-02-19.
Historic easements are very stringent, … they only occur inside the Park boundary. … In essence a conservation easement preserves a residential property … but limit changes to the exterior of properties.kanagy
- NOTE: As opposed to the actual ownership boundary of federal land administered by the Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP), the quoted "Park boundary" refers to the land acquisition limits imposed by Congress on the Secretary of the Interior. Initially 3,874 acres in 1895, the limits were expanded in 1990[specify] but a 2010 bill by Representative Platt failed in the US Senate regarding expanding them to allow acquisition of the Gettysburg Railroad Station and the 45-acre (18 ha) Wayne and Susan Hill tract south of Big Round Top.
- The Gettysburg Times (Wednesday, November 20, 1963), Procession To Cemetery Was Similar To '63 Event, pp. 1, 10
- "Maps - GIS, Cartography & Mapping (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Unrau, Harlan D. (1991). "Administrative History: Gettysburg National Military Park and National Cemetery, Pennsylvania" (PDF). National Park Service.
- "Investigation Of Gettysburg National Military Park Superintendent Finds Cybertracks to Pornographic Images | National Parks Traveler". www.nationalparkstraveler.org. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- "National Park Service Announces Superintendent Vacancy At Gettysburg National Military Park | National Parks Traveler". www.nationalparkstraveler.org. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Shoaf, Dana B. (2017-12-26). "Interview: Bob Kirby Takes the Reins at Gettysburg National Military Park". HistoryNet. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Ed W. Clark Selected Park Superintendent for Gettysburg and Eisenhower - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Charles E. "Chuck" Hunt Selected as Acting Superintendent at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Chris Stein Arrives as Acting Superintendent at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Lewis H. Rogers Jr. arrives as acting superintendent at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Ed Wenschhof Jr. arrives as acting superintendent at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Kristina Heister arrives as acting superintendent at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Gettysburg, Mailing Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike; Us, PA 17325 Phone:334-1124 Contact. "Steven Sims Named Permanent Superintendent of Gettysburg NMP, Eisenhower NHS - Gettysburg National Military Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
- Dumitrascu, Monica (2013-06-20). "Assessing Invasive Terrestrial Plan Species Amorpha Fruticosa in Three Wetland Areas in Romania: Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Comana Natural Park and Mures Floodplain Natural Park". 13th SGEM GeoConference on ECOLOGY, ECONOMICS, EDUCATION AND LEGISLATION. Stef92 Technology. 1. doi:10.5593/sgem2013/be5.v1/s20.016. ISBN 978-619-7105-04-9.
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