List of Islamophobic incidents

The following is a list of incidents characterized as inspired by Islamophobia by commentators. Islamophobia became a popular term in ideological debate following the September 11 attacks, the 9/11 attack is a biggest reason of islamophobia and it has also been retrospectively applied to earlier incidents. Islamophobia is the fear, hatred of, or prejudice against the Islamic religion or Muslims generally,[1][2][3] especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.[4][5][6]

Incidents and conditionsEdit


Below is a list of 1 incident(s) in Albania that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 August 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Tirana A Muslim woman wearing a headscarf was beaten on a bus and called a "terrorist."[7] Unnamed woman


Below is a list of 11 incidents in Australia that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
2014 Protests 0 No known injuries Bendigo Bendigo mosque protests Locals, True Blue Crew, Q Society, United Patriots Front
5 April 2015 Rallies and violent confrontations 0 Numerous/Unknown number Sydney
Anti-Islam Rallies have been held across Australia since 2015. Reclaim Australia primarily opposes Islam in Australia and is considered Islamophobic.[8][9][10][11] The group has attracted neo-Nazis and the involvement of neo-Nazis in promoting and attending Reclaim Australia rallies has been well documented.[10][11] Speakers at Reclaim Australia rallies have been known to express extremist views, with one speaker in South Australia warning of the risks of "Islamic barbarity" and encouraging those in attendance to "insult and vilify Islam five times a day if you want to"[9] Reclaim Australia
13 June 2015 vilification (mock public beheading and pig roasting aimed at offending Muslims) 0 0 Perth The United Patriots Front, a far-right Australian nationalist protest group which is associated with nationalist and neo-Nazi hate groups.[12][13] protested Zaky Mallah's appearance on Q&A, a television programme, by roasting a pig outside the Melbourne office of the ABC in an apparent attempt to upset Muslims.[14][15] In October the same year, the group beheaded a dummy outside the Bendigo City Council chambers to protest the 2015 Parramatta shooting and approval to construct a mosque in Bendigo.[16] United Patriots Front
16 December 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Perth A Perth man was found guilty of assaulting a Muslim woman after a confrontation at a shopping centre in which he wished her a merry Christmas, called her a "fucking Muslim" and threw a beer bottle at her.[17][18] Adam David Peters
19 March 2017 Stabbing 0 1 Melbourne Rev. Tomy Kalathoor Mathew, a priest, was stabbed in the neck moments before he was about to say mass at a church because the perpetrator thought he was "Hindu" or "Muslim"[19] Unknown
9 February 2017 Verbal abuse 0 0 Melbourne Islamophobia was documented at the Thursday 9 February Q Society fundraising dinner, with guest speaker Larry Pickering stating that "If they (Muslims) are in the same street as me, I start shaking."[20] and that "They are not all bad, they do chuck pillow-biters off buildings.",[20][21] adding that he "can't stand Muslims".[20] The cartoonist also auctioned a work depicting a man having sex with a niqab-clad person, who apparently is his wife's grandmother, mistaking her for his niqab-clad wife. Another Larry Pickering cartoon auctioned at the fundraiser depicted an Imam as a pig (in Islam the consumption of all pork products is considered haram or forbidden), being spit roasted, with a "halal certified" stamp on its rump. A case of wine called "72 Virgins" was also up for grabs, along with a signed photograph of Dame Joan Sutherland.[20] Kirralie Smith has denied supporting Pickerings statements, however Smith has reiterated parts of the speech stating that "there are Muslims that actually do throw gays off buildings!"[22]

In February 2017, Cory Bernardi and George Christensen attracted criticism for speaking at the Q Society of Australia. The event received protests who called the event racist.[23]

Q Society of Australia
11 May 2017 Melee attack 0 4 Sydney Four Muslim women were assaulted in Sydney in an attack described by New South Wales police as "bias-motivated."[24] Unknown
26 May 2017 Discrimination 0 0 Perth Muslim schoolgirls were told to leave a careers expo at the Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre after attendants stated their "Muslim attire" was threatening.[25] Unknown
16 March 2019 Vehicular attack 0 0 Brisbane A man rammed his car into the gates of a Queensland mosque while shouting offensive words to worshippers inside, a day after the Christchurch mosque shootings.[26] Unnamed man
11 September 2019 Vandalism 0 0 Brisbane The name of the Christchurch shooter and phrase from a Serbian anti-Muslim song were sprayed onto the outer wall of a Brisbane mosque.[27] Unknown
20 November 2019 Melee attack 0 1 Sydney A pregnant Muslim woman wearing a hijab was punched and stomped on by a man yelling "anti-Islamic hate speech at the victim and her friends".[28] Stipe Lozina


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Austria that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
5 February 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Graz Close to sixty tombstones of Muslims were desecrated. The police suspected the perpetrators were right-wing extremists.[29] Right-wing extremists (suspected)


Below is a list of 3 incidents in Belgium that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 May 2002 Home invasion, murder, arson 2 2 Brussels Attacker broke into a family home shooting both parents during their morning prayers and setting the residential building on fire. Their 18 year old daughter escaped with her two younger brothers, both of whom were seriously injured. Hendrik Vylt[30]
7 February 2008 Melee attack 0 2 Liège Two young women of Maghreb origin were attacked by in the city center after being verbally assaulted with ethnic slurs. One of the perpetrators had right-wing extremist affiliations.[31] Three unnamed men
2 July 2018 Melee attack 0 1 Anderlues Two men assaulted a Muslim girl wearing a headscarf. The victim was beaten and slashed on her upper body in the attack.[32] Two unnamed men

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

Mass grave where events of the Srebrenica massacre of Bosnian Muslims unfolded

In the 1990s, the Bosnian Genocide and the Kosovo War, both of which involved the mass murder of innocent Muslims, have been linked to Islamophobia.[33] In Bosnia, Christian Serb and Croat militias carried out genocidal attacks on the Muslim Bosniak community. According to the ICRC data on the Bosnian Genocide, "20,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes."[34] Many attacks on religious buildings and symbols took place in towns such as Foča, where all of the town's mosques were destroyed. On 22 April 1992, Serbs blew up the Aladža Mosque and eight more mosques dating from the 16th and 17th centuries were damaged or completely destroyed.[35]


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Brazil that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
3 August 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Rio de Janeiro A Muslim food-cart owner named Mohamed Ali Abdelmoatty Kenawy was attacked while working by someone who shouted "Get out of my country!"[36] Unnamed men


Below is a list of 2 incidents in Bulgaria that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
Early April 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Sofia Anti-Muslim graffiti was smeared on the walls of the building of the Chief Mufti's Office. Hussein Hafyzov, the Chief Secretary of the Chief Mufti's Office in Bulgaria, stated that your buildings—administrative ones and mosques in all twelve regional Mufti's Offices—have been desecrated over fifty times in the last ten years." Vandalism of mosques and religious buildings in Bulgaria rarely results in arrests or prosecution. Hafyzov reported that vandals were caught in only two or three occasions, and "the very few perpetrators who were caught were not convicted."[29] Unknown
10 April 2010 Arson 0 0 Karlovo A mosque was burned down. Members of the Muslim community in Karlovo and the Chief Mufti's office in Bulgaria believe the incident was a hate crime.[37] Unknown


In recent years, attacks against Muslims increased, mainly in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Until 2016 the attacks were all arson incidents, vandalism and melee attacks. However, since 2017 incidents started to be deadly and carried out with terrorist tactics, resulting in 11 deaths, of whom six in 2017, one in 2020 and four in 2021.[38]

Below is a list of 17 incidents in Canada that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
16 March 2006 Melee attack 0 1 Toronto, Ontario A female student in headscarf was assaulted at Hart House in the University of Toronto in what the Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations called "an Islamophobic incident".[39] Unknown
22 November 2011 Melee attack 0 1 Mississauga, Ontario A Muslim woman was with her children when she was attacked at a mall by someone who yelled "Leave our country. Go back to your country." Authorities stated that it was a hate crime,[40] and was deemed Islamophobic by the Ontario Human Rights Commission.[41] Unnamed man
17 September 2013 Melee attack 0 1 St. Catharines, Ontario A 17-year-old Muslim girl was punched in the nose, that left her bleeding and her headscarf was pulled off.[42] Three unnamed women
19 November 2013 Melee attack 0 1 Montreal, Quebec A Muslim woman was beaten, called "dirty immigrant," and was told "go back to your country," despite the fact that she was born in Canada.[43] Two unnamed men
December 2013 Melee attack 0 1 Montreal, Quebec A woman wearing a hijab was physically assaulted. The perpetrator stated that "her hijab and herself do not belong in Quebec."[44] Unnamed woman
31 December 2013 Bomb threat 0 0 Vancouver, British Columbia A bomb threat was made against a Vancouver mosque and the building was evacuated by the RCMP.[44][45] Unknown
20 May 2014 Attempted arson 0 0 Montreal, Quebec A man tried to throw a Molotov cocktail through the window of a mosque in, but was stopped by the police. The police had been watching the mosque because it had already been the target of multiple attacks.[46][47] Unnamed man
26 September 2014 Melee attack 0 6 Kingston, Ontario Six Muslim students at Queen's University were attacked by four men, one of whom wielded a baseball bat and who yelled various racial epithet. One of the students suffered minor physical injuries. The police arrested two men in connection to the attack and charged them with assault.[47][48] Four unnamed men
26 November 2014 Bomb threat 0 0 Montreal, Quebec A bomb threat was made against a Montreal mosque and the police found a suspicious package. 12 buildings in the area were evacuated until the police neutralized the package.[49] Unknown
4 October 2015 Melee attack 0 1 Montreal, Quebec A pregnant woman wearing the hijab was attacked by teenagers, when they tried to pull off her hearscarf, causing her to fall.[50] Two teenagers
14 November 2015 Arson 0 0 Peterborough, Ontario A day after the Paris attacks, the only mosque in Peterborough was set on fire.[51] Police deemed the arson a hate crime.[52] Unknown
29 May 2016 Melee attack 0 1 London, Ontario An Iranian student at the University of Western Ontario suffered a concussion after being beaten and called an "Arab," despite the fact that he's Iranian. Authorities stated it was a hate crime,[53] and the mayor of London said that "Islamophobia had no place in Canada".[54] Two unnamed men
24 October 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Hamilton, Ontario A Muslim teenager was beaten in a “race related” attack.[55] Two unnamed men
27 November 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Sept-Îles, Quebec The mosque of Sept-Îles was vandalized. The mosque had previously been vandalized in 2014. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[56] Unknown
29 January 2017 Shooting 6 19 Quebec City, Quebec Quebec City mosque shooting: A mass shooting occurred at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Premier Philippe Couillard called the shooting a terrorist attack,[57][58] but the perpetrator was not charged with terrorism.[59] The incident was classified as a hate crime[60] and an Islamophobic attack.[61] Alexandre Bissonnette
12 September 2020 Stabbing 1 0 Toronto, Ontario 58-year-old mosque caretaker Mohamed-Aslim Zafis was stabbed to death while sitting outside an Etobicoke mosque, while controlling the number of people who entered in order to comply with public COVID-19 health regulations. The attacker, 34-year-old Guilherme Von Neutegem, was a neo-Nazi sympathizer and connected to a number of far-right groups.[62] Guilherme Von Neutegem
6 June 2021 Vehicular attack 4 1 London, Ontario London, Ontario truck attack: 20-year-old Nathaniel Veltman drove his pickup truck onto a sidewalk in London, Ontario, hitting a family of five. Four of them (a 46-year-old man, his 44-year-old wife, their 15-year-old daughter and his 74-year-old mother) died; the sole survivor was their 9–year-old son, who was taken to hospital.[63][64] He was arrested in a parking lot seven kilometers away. The victims were all from the same Pakistani family, who had immigrated about fourteen years prior.[65] Nathaniel Veltman


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Chad that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February 1979 Attacks 100–1,000+ Unknown Chad Hundreds or thousands of people were killed in anti-Muslim riots in the southern Chad.[66] Chadian mobs


Below is a list of 4 incidents in China that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February 2003 Attacks 0 100+ Qinghai Tibetans rioted against Hui people, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants. Hundreds of people were injured.[67] Tibetan mobs
10–24 March 2008 Attacks 18 383 Tibet 2008 Tibetan unrest: The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans, and Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters.[68] Tibetan mobs
8 October 2012 Attacks 0 12+ Mulang A mob of about 200 Tibetan monks beat a dozen Dungans (Hui Muslims) in Luqu County, Gansu province, in retaliation for the Chinese Muslim community's application to build a mosque in the county.[69] Tibetan monks
2014–present Arbitrary mass detentions Unknown 1,000,000+ Detained Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Since 2014 the People's Republic of China has committed acts of Genocide on Muslim Ethnic Groups living in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.[70] People's Republic of China

Central African RepublicEdit

Below is a list of 6 incidents in the Central African Republic that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
18 January 2014 Shooting 100+ 0 Bossemptele Bossemptélé massacre Anti-balaka
24 June 2014 Shooting 17 0 Bambari Gunmen killed 17 Muslim Fula people at a camp in the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War. Some of the bodies were mutilated and burnt by the assailants.[71] Anti-balaka
13–15 2017 Shooting 115 0 Bangassou May 2017 Bangassou clashes Anti-balaka
11 October 2017 Shooting 25 0 Kembe Rebels killed at least 25 Muslims inside a mosque in the town of Kembe in south-central Central African Republic.[72] Anti-balaka
6–7 December 2021 Beheading 15+ 0 Boyo, Ouaka 2021 Boyo killings Anti-balaka
11 December 2021 Beheading 10+ 0 Goya, Ouaka


Below is a list of 7 incidents in Denmark that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
2 June 2008 Melee attack 0 1 Copenhagen Kasem Said Ahmed, the former spokesperson of the Islamisk Trossamfund, was punched in the face after being asked if he was an imam.[73] Unknown
16 August 2015 Arson 0 0 Copenhagen A man torched a Copenhagen mosque, causing superficial damage. The fire was denounced by Islamisk Trossamfund as "an act of terror".[74] Unnamed man
2 September 2015 Vandalism 0 0 Odense A Muslim cemetery was vandalised. About 60 tombstones were damaged in the attack.[75] Unknown
2 April 2019 Melee attack 0 1 Copenhagen A girl was assaulted and had her headscarf pulled off by a man who yelled xenophobic slurs at her.[76] Unknown
29 April 2019 Quran burning 0 0 Copenhagen Rasmus Paludan has burned copies of the Quran on several occasions.[77][78] Rasmus Paludan (Stram Kurs)
10 September 2019 Vehicular attack 0 0 Copenhagen A man deliberately drove a bus into a crowd of Muslims during an Ashura parade. No one was injured in the attack and the man was arrested and later charged with violence.[79] Unnamed man
23 January 2020 Vandalism 0 0 Copenhagen An unknown person has vandalized a mosque in Denmark, he/she wrote on the walls "Muslims, Islam = Cancer"[80] Unknown


Two mosques and one Muslim-owned business were attacked in France in January 2015

In 2010 France banned face coverings including women wearing the niqāb. The French Collective against Islamophobia reported "an explosion" in the number of physical attacks on women wearing the niqab. Kenza Drider, a protester against the law, said: "I'm insulted about three to four times a day. Most say, 'Go home'; some say, 'We'll kill you.' One said: 'We'll do to you what we did to the Jews.'... I feel that I now know what Jewish women went through before the Nazi roundups in France. When they went out in the street they were identified, singled out, they were vilified. Now that's happening to us."[81] After the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, there were reports of attacks on mosques and Muslim citizens throughout the country.[82]

Below is a list of 20 incidents in France that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
4 October 1972 – 19 December 1988 Bombing 1 16 Various cities Anti-Muslim bombings in Paris, Cannes and Nice: A series of three bombings killed one and injured 16 others in the French cities of Paris, Cannes, and Nice by neo-Nazi attackers.[83][84][85] Parti nationaliste français et européen
14 December 1973 Bombing 4 20 Marseille Four people killed when terrorists detonated a bomb at the Algerian consulate office in Marseille.[86] Charles Martel Group
21 February 1995 Shooting 1 0 Marseille Murder of Ibrahim Ali: Ibrahim Ali, a seventeen-year-old French-boy of Comorian origin, was shot by three far-right extremists.[87] Robert Lagier and Mario d'Ambrosio, Front National supporters
1 May 1995 Forced drowning 1 0 Paris Murder of Brahim Bouarram: Brahim Bouarram, a Moroccan immigrant, drowned after being pushed into the Seine river by three far-right extremists.[87] Three unnamed men
21 February 2005 Vandalism 0 0 Paris Vandals scrawled swastikas and other Nazi references on the walls of the Grand mosque in south-east Paris. Dalil Boubakeur, the director of the mosque described the vandalism as Islamophobic.[88] Unknown
6 April 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Arras 148 Muslim graves were desecrated at the Notre Dame de Lorette, France's largest WWI cemetery. President Nicolas Sarkozy condemned the attack as a "hateful act" and the "most inadmissible kind of racism"[89] Unknown
20 April 2008 Arson 0 1 Toulouse The Al-Salam Mosque was destroyed after it was set alight. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[29] Eight unnamed men
24 July 2008 Melee attack 0 1 Yvelines Nouredine Rachedi, a 30-year-old French-born statistician, was beaten after being asked if he was Muslim.[31] Two unnamed men
13 December 2009 Vandalism 0 0 Castres The Mosque of Castres in southern France, was vandalized in the night.[90] Swastika in black paint, "Sieg Heil" in German, "France to the French" in French, and "White Power" in English were scrawled on the mosque.[91] Additionally, a pig's feet was hung on the mosque.[92] Unknown
23 September 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Strasbourg More than 30 tombstones were knocked down or broken, and swastikas were drawn on the gravel paths at a Muslim cemetery. The local mayor denounced the vandalism as an "unbearable racist act."[37] Unknown
14 October 2010 Melee attack 0 1 Paris A 26-year old Emirati woman wearing a niqab was attacked by someone who later said, "I find it unacceptable that someone should be wearing a niqab in this country of human rights."[93] Unnamed woman
14 January 2015 Stabbing 1 1 Le Beaucet Mohamed El Makouli was stabbed to death at home by a 28-year-old neighbour shouting "I am your God, I am your Islam." His wife, Nadia, suffered hand injuries while she tried to save him.[94] Thomas Gambet
18 November 2015 Melee attack 0 1 Marseille A man attacked a Muslim woman wearing a headscarf with a box cutter after calling her a terrorist.[95] Unknown
24–28 December 2015 Riots 0 0 Ajaccio 2015 Corsican protests: A Muslim prayer hall was burned down and Qur'ans were set alight following marches by Corsican nationalists.[96] Corsican nationalists
29 June 2017 Vehicular attack 0 0 Paris A man attempted to drive his vehicle through a crowd gathered outside a mosque. He claimed that he wanted to "take revenge for the Bataclan and Champs-Elysees attacks" after being arrested.[97] Unnamed man
23 June 2018 Failed plot involving firearms and improvised grenades and explosives 0 0 Île-de-France and Island of Corsica 10 people from a far-right group including a retired police officer are arrested for suspicion of involvement in a terrorist plot. Several weapons were seized including home-made bombs and explosives.[98] Unnamed far-right group
28 October 2019 Shooting 0 2 Bayonne Bayonne mosque shooting: An 84-year old former candidate for Front National attacked a mosque and seriously injured two people by gunfire.[99] Claude Sinké
21 October 2020 Two women stabbed in Paris 0 2 Paris Two Algerian women were stabbed repeatedly under the Eiffel Tower amid rising tensions in Paris after the beheading of teacher Samuel Paty the week before.The reason of the attack is not yet totally clarify.[100] Unknown
11 April 2021 Vandalism 0 0 Rennes Islamophobic, pro-Catholic, pro-Crusader graffitis were found defaced on a wall in a local mosque two days before the start of Ramadan.[101][102] Unknown
13 April 2022 Melee Attack 0 0 Montpellier A video was circulated on the internet which showed an unnamed man in Montpellier attacking two young women. One of the women was wearing a hijab, which he tried to pull off as he hit them and pulled the other woman's hair. The police opened an investigation.[103] Unnamed man


Below is a list of 16 incidents in Germany that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
23 November 1992 Arson 3 9 Mölln, Schleswig-Holstein Muslim Turks Bahide Arslan and her two granddaughters Yeliz Arslan and Ayse Yılmaz died after firebombs were thrown into their home by neo-Nazis in Mölln. Nine others were injured in the attack, which sparked fears among the Turkish immigrant community.[104][105][106][107] neo-Nazis
28 May 1993 Arson 5 14 Solingen, North Rhine-Westphalia Solingen arson attack of 1993: The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of xenophobic violence in modern Germany. On the night of 28 to 29 May 1993, four young German men (ages 16–23) belonging to the far right skinhead scene, with neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in Solingen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Three girls and two women died; fourteen other family members, including several children, were injured, some of them severely. The attack led to violent protests by Turks in several German cities and to large demonstrations of Germans expressing solidarity with the Turkish victims.[108] Four neo-Nazis
9 September 2000 – 25 April 2007 Shooting 10 1 Various cities Bosphorus serial murders: A neo-Nazi group committed several murders of ethnic Turks and Kurds. The police discovered a hit list of 88 people that included "two prominent members of the Bundestag and representatives of Turkish and Islamic groups".[109] Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund
9 June 2004 Bombing 0 22 Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia 2004 Cologne bombing: 22 people were wounded when a pipe bomb detonated in a business area popular with Turkish immigrants in Cologne. A barber shop was completely destroyed and many other shops and numerous parked cars were seriously damaged by the explosion.[110][111] Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund
10 December 2007 Arson 0 0 Lauingen, Bavaria A mosque was set on fire after someone threw an incendiary device at it.[29] Unknown
11 December 2007 Arson 0 0 Lindau, Bavaria A mosque was defaced with neo-Nazi graffiti and swastikas.[29] Unknown
1 July 2009 Stabbing 1 1 Dresden, Saxony Murder of Marwa El-Sherbini: Marwa El-Sherbini was stabbed to death in a courtroom in Dresden, Germany. She had just given evidence against her attacker who had used insults against her because she wore an Islamic headscarf. El-Sherbini was called "Islamist", "terrorist" and (according to one report) "slut".[note 1] Her husband Elwy Ali Okaz was seriously injured during the incident, he received at least 16 stab wounds to the head, neck, upper body and arm.[113] Alex Wiens
January 2010 – 2011 Arson 0 0   Berlin Three different mosques were set on fire by the same man.[37] Unnamed man
10 May 2016 Stabbing 1 3 Grafing, Bavaria A 28-year-old man killed a 56-year-old man and injured three others. While investigators initially thought the crime had Islamist motivation, they late found no evidence of an Islamic background. Instead, authorities state the perpetrator was haunted by delusions of a world overrun by Islam.[114][115] Paul H.
27 September 2016 Bombing 0 0 Dresden, Saxony Bomb attacks hit a mosque and a convention centre in the eastern German city of Dresden. Police said that the motive appeared to be xenophobia and nationalism.[116][117] Nino K.
17 July 2018 Shooting 0 0 Heilbronn, Baden-Württemberg A man fired six shots at a female employee wearing a headscarf in a Turkish-owned bakery. The owner of the bakery suspected that the attack was racially motivated.[118] Unnamed man
31 December 2018 – 1 January 2019 Vehicular attack 0 10 Bottrop and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia Bottrop and Essen car attack: A car was intentionally driven into crowds of people in the cities of Bottrop and Essen in Germany, injuring ten[119] people.[120][121][122] Upon his arrest, Andreas reportedly expressed xenophobic and racist motives.[123] The attacker is reported to have schizophrenia.[124] Andreas N.
31 May 2019 Stabbing 0 1 Bremen A 27-year-old man stabbed a 16-year old Muslim boy in the neck after making anti-Muslim comments towards him and his friend.[125] Unnamed man
8 June 2019 Arson 0 0 Kamen, North Rhine-Westphalia The outer wall of the Eyüp Sultan Mosque in Kamen, North Rhine-Westphalia, was defaced with Islamophobic graffiti.[126] Unknown
9 June 2019 Vandalism 0 0 Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia Several vandals threw rocks at the Kassel Central Mosque and damaged the mosque.[126] Unknown vandals
19 February 2020 Shooting 10 (+1) 5 Hesse Hanau shootings: 9 people were killed and 5 others wounded in a terrorist shooting spree by a far-right extremist targeting two shisha bars in Hanau. After the attacks, the gunman returned to his apartment, where he killed his mother and then committed suicide.[127][128][129] Tobias Rathjen


Below is a list of 2 incidents in Greece that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
8 October 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Komotini A Muslim cemetery was desecrated with about ten gravestones smashed, spurring a spontaneous demonstration by around 30 members of the Turkish minority living in the city. A government spokesperson had quickly condemned the act, attributing the vandalism to a marginal hate group.[37] Unknown
3 September 2015 Melee attack 0 Several Kos A group of people brandishing bats physically attack Muslim refugees on Kos, while shouting "go back to your countries" and other slurs. They also threatened activists.[130] 15–25 unnamed people


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Iraq that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 April 2007 Melee attack 1 0 Bashiqa Murder of Du'a Khalil Aswad: 17-year-old Du'a Khalil Aswad, an Iraqi Kurdish girl of the Yazidi faith, was stoned to death in front of a mob of about 2,000 men in 2007, because she had a Muslim boyfriend and was planning to convert to Islam.[131][132] Eight or nine unnamed men

Israel and PalestineEdit

Below is a list of 7 incidents in Israel and Palestine that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
25 February 1994 Shooting 29 (+1) 125   Hebron, Palestine Cave of the Patriarchs massacre: A gunman opened fire on a large number of Palestinian Muslims who had gathered to pray inside the Cave of the Patriarchs compound in Hebron. The perpetrator was subsequently overpowered and beaten to death by survivors of the massacre.[133] Baruch Goldstein
3 May 2010 Arson 0 0   Nablus, Palestine A mosque in the West Bank was destroyed in an arson attack. In previous months, other mosques had been attacked; some were vandalised with Hebrew graffiti and other mosques have been destroyed or damaged by arson in the past.[134] Israeli settlers (suspected)
10 June 2010 Vandalism 0 0   Kiryat Tiv'on, Israel In northern Israel the walls of mosques were spray painted with the Star of David as well as messages such as "There will be war over Judea and Samaria" and "This structure is marked for demolition."[135] Four Kfar Hasidim yeshiva students
16–17 August 2012 Melee attack 0 3   West Jerusalem, Israel Zion Square assault: Four Palestinian teenagers were beaten by dozens of Israeli teenagers, who chanted "Death to Arabs."[136] 10–15 Israeli teenagers
2 July 2014 Kidnapping, Melee attack 1 0 Shuafat, East Jerusalem Kidnapping and murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir: 16-year-old Mohammed Abu Khdeir was kidnapped near a mosque, and later found murdered in Givat Shaul.[137] Yosef Ben David and 2 other teenage settlers
31 July 2015 Arson 3 1   Duma, Palestine Duma arson attack: Members of the Dawabsheh family were killed when their house was firebombed by masked attackers.[138] Amiram Ben-Uliel and 3 other Israeli settlers
13 June 2017 Stabbing 1 0   Ramla, Israel Henriette Karra, an Israeli Arab Christian, was killed by her father after he found out she was in a relationship with a Muslim. Her father said this relationship violated the "family's honor."[139] Sami Karra


Under the reign of President Suharto during the New Order (Indonesia), Islamists were suppressed, and religious Muslims were actively persecuted by the Indonesian government. Several Christian Generals who served under Suharto like Leonardus Benjamin Moerdani actively persecuted religious Muslims in the Indonesian military, which was described as being "anti-Islamic", denying religious Muslims promotions, and preventing them from praying in the barracks and banning them from even using the Islamic greeting "Salaam Aleikum", and these anti-Islamic policies were entirely supported by Suharto, despite Suharto being a Muslim himself, since he considered political Islam a threat to his power.[140][141][142][143] The Christian General Theo Syafei, who also served under Suharto, spoke out against political Islam coming to power in Indonesia, and insulted the Qur'an and Islam in remarks which were described as Islamophobic.[144][145][146][147][148][149]


Below is a list of 3 incidents in Italy that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
25 July – 24 October 2007 Arson 0 0 Abbiategrasso The Alif Baa Islamic Centre was firebombed on three different accounts: once in July, once in August, and once in October.[29] Unknown
5 August 2007 Arson 0 0 Segrate A mosque was attacked and an imam's car was destroyed.[29] Unknown
June 2008 Bombing 0 0 Milan Two handmade bombs were thrown at the Islamic Center, destroying the main gate. Another similar attack took place two weeks later.[29] Unknown


Religious clashes have been intermittent in modern India, which saw its own birth being marred by the religious riots that took place during the Direct Action Day and during its partition. Since then, India has seen violent incidents involving both the majority Hindu population and the minority Muslim population in a series of communal riots, one of which was the Bhagalpur riots of 1989, which has led to the death of 900–1,000 Muslims and leaving 50,000 displaced.[150] Recently, India has also seen tensions between Hindus and Muslims in the 2002 Gujarat violence; In response to the Godhra train burning, the nationalist party Vishva Hindu Parishad had organized protests that had immediately turned violent.[151] After days of rioting and violence, it was estimated that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, 2,500 injured and 223 missing.[152] Below is a list of incidents in India that have been considered to be Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February – March 2002 Riots 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus (official) 2,500+ Gujarat The 2002 Gujarat riots was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat. The burning of a train in Godhra on 27 February 2002, which caused the deaths of 58 Hindu pilgrims karsevaks returning from Ayodhya, is cited as having instigated the violence Hindu mobs
8 September 2006 Bombing 37 125+ Malegaon 2006 Malegaon bombings: A series of bombs were detonated in a Muslim cemetery. The attack took place on the holy day of Shab-e-Baraat and most of the victims were Muslim pilgrims.[153] Abhinav Bharat
11 October 2007 Bombing 3 17 Ajmer Ajmer Dargah bombing: Bomb exploded at the Dargah of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti.[154][155] JEM
27 August – 17 September 2013 Attacks 62 93 Muzaffarnagar district 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots: Clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities led to deaths and injuries of many people.[156][157][158][159] Various
1–3 May 2014 Shooting 33 (+3) 2+ Assam May 2014 Assam violence : Suspected NDFB militants kills 33 Bengali Muslim villagers in Assam. The motive of the attack is speculated to be revenge for not voting for Bodos in the Lok Sabha elections.[160] National Democratic Front of Bodoland (suspected)
28 September 2015 Melee attack 1 1 Dadri 2015 Dadri mob lynching: Mohammad Akhlaq, a Muslim resident, was beaten to death by a mob of villagers after a neighbor accused him of stealing and slaughtering a missing cow calf. His 22-year-old son Danish was seriously injured during the incident.[161][162][163][164] Hindu nationalists
26 March 2017 Melee attack 2 10 Patan district 2017 Patan riots: Started as fight between two people of different communities and later turned into Hindu-Muslim riot in the Vadavali village in Gujarat's Patan district.[165] Hindu-Muslim riot
5 April 2017 Melee attack 1 6 Alwar 2017 Alwar mob lynching: A mob of about 200 cow protection vigilantes assaulted a group of Muslims transporting cattle in northern India. Eleven men transporting the cattle were arrested and accused of smuggling the animals. None of the assailants in the cow protection group were arrested, but a criminal case has been opened.[166] 200 cow protection vigilantes
7 April 2017 Melee attack 1 0 Gumla Mohammad Shalik, a 20-year-old Muslim man, was tied to a tree and whipped to death for being in love with a Hindu woman.[167] Three unnamed men
24 June 2017 Melee attack 1 3 Haryana A man named Ramesh was arrested in India for being part of a mob that attacked a group of four Muslim teenagers on a train has said on TV that he was goaded into it by others because Muslims ate beef. One of the boys, 16-year-old Junaid Khan, was killed in the assault.[168] 20 unnamed men
12 July 2017 Melee attack 0 10 Farrukhabad A Muslim family of 10 including women, children, elders and a handicapped teenager were assaulted in a train and robbed by a gang who yelled "Kill them, they are Muslims."[169] 30–35 unnamed men
27 September 2017 Melee attack 1 0 Pokaran Near the India-Pakistan border, a Hindu priest named Ramesh Suthar accused folk singer Ahmad Khan of making mistakes while reciting hymns to evoke a Hindu goddess. Suthar and his friends proceeded to break Khan's musical instruments and kill him. A month later, at least 200 Muslims have fled their village in the western Indian state of Rajasthan fearing communal clashes.[170] Ramesh Suthar and several unnamed men
23–29 February 2020 Riots 53 (including non-Muslim victims) 200 (including non-Muslim victims) Delhi The 2020 Delhi riots, which left 53 dead and more than 200 seriously injured,[171] were triggered by protests against a citizenship law seen by critics as anti-Muslim.[172][173][174][175][176][177] The riots have been referred to by some as a pogrom.[178] Hindu mob


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Mali that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
23 March 2019 Attacks 160+ 55+ Mopti Region Ogossagou massacre: Two villages were attacked and at least 160 Muslim Fulani herdsmen were killed, because of the allegations that the villagers were involved in supporting Islamic terrorism. The violence came in the aftermath of the Malian government cracking down on Islamic terror cells in the country. Dogon millta


Below is a list of 11 incidents in Myanmar that could be considered Islamophobic

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
9 October 2016 – Present Genocide 35,000+ 116,000+ and 700,000+ displaced Rakhine, Myanmar Rohingya Genocide: The persecution against the Rohingya Muslims and non-Muslims has been declared as ethnic cleansing and genocide by various UN agencies, ICC officials, human rights groups, and governments.[179][180][181][182]

Burmese government

26 May 1930 Attacks 120–200+ 900–2,000 Rangoon, British Burma 1930 Rangoon riots: Several anti-Indian and anti-Muslim riots exploded in Rangoon and various Burmese cities and ports following a massive Indian labors' strike which began at Rangoon's harbor.[183] Bamar people
26 July 1938 Attacks 204 1,000 Rangoon, British Burma Multiple anti-Muslim riots again broke out in Burma. The agitation against Muslims and the British was led by Burmese newspapers.[183][184][185] Bamar people
16 March 1997 Attacks 3 Unknown Mandalay, Union of Myanmar 1997 Mandalay riots: A mob of 1,000–1,500 Buddhist monks targeted the mosques, Muslim shop-houses, and transportation vehicles for attack. Damaging, destroying, looting, and trampling, burning religious books, committing acts of sacrilege were also common.[186] Bhikkhu
May 2001 – May 2002 Attacks 88 Unknown Taungoo, Union of Myanmar Anti-Muslim riots broke out in Taungoo, Pegu division, resulting in the deaths of about 200 Muslims, in the destruction of 11 mosques and the setting ablaze of over 400 houses. On 15 May, the first day of the anti-Muslim uprisings, about 20 Muslims who were praying in the Han Tha mosque were killed and some were beaten to death by the pro-junta forces. The mosques in Taungoo remained closed as of May 2002. Muslims have been forced to worship in their homes. Local Muslim leaders complain that they are still harassed. After the violence, many local Muslims moved away from Taungoo to nearby towns and to as far away as Yangon. After two days of violence the military stepped in and the violence immediately ended.[186] Bhikkhu
8 June 2012 Attacks 200+ Unknown (100,000 displaced) Rakhine 2012 Rakhine State riots: Many Muslims and Rakhine have been killed in sectarian violence in the state.[187][188][189] Bhikkhu
20 March – 2 October 2013 Attacks 50 80+ Various cities 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots: A series of violent acts and riots took place throughout the country targeting Muslims.[190] Bhikkhu
2 July 2014 Attacks 2 12+ Mandalay A vengeful mob of 300 people started throwing stones and bricks at a tea stall. The mob went on to attack Muslim shops and vehicles and shouting slogans in Muslim residential areas.[191] Two men — one Buddhist and one Muslim — were killed. A curfew was imposed on 3 July.[192][193] Unnamed mob
23 June 2016 Arson 0 0 Bago A mob demolished a mosque in Bago Region, about 60 km northeast of the capital Yangon.[194] Unnamed mob
2 July 2016 Arson 0 0 Hpakant A mob burned down a mosque in northern Myanmar.[194] Unnamed mob
4 July 2017 Attacks 1 6 Sittwe A mob of at least 100 buddhists attacked 7 Rohingya men from Dapaing camp, killing one and injuring six others.[195] An unarmed junior policeman was with the Muslim men at the time of the attack, but was unable to protect them from the mob and ran away back to the police station.[196] Unnamed mob


Below is a list of 4 incidents in the Netherlands that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
March – August 2010 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 Groningen A mosque was vandalized in March. In August, arson was attempted on the same mosque and offensive graffiti was sprayed on the walls.[37] Unknown
27 February 2016 Arson 0 0 Enschede, Overijssel Five men threw two Molotov cocktails at a mosque. Some 30 people, including children, were inside the mosque at the time, but no one was injured. Dutch courts called it a "terrorist act."[197][198][199] Five unnamed men
28 December 2016 Arson 0 0 Culemborg, Utrecht A building linked to the Association of Islamic Communities was set on fire. Police suspected it was a hate crime.[200] Unknown
2 September 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Venlo, Limburg A far-right group hanged anti-Islam banners on an under-construction mosque in Venlo. Unknown

New ZealandEdit

Below is a list of 1 incident in New Zealand that is Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
15 March 2019 Shooting 51 40 Christchurch Christchurch mosque shootings: Brenton Harrsion Tarrant a self-proclaimed "Ethno-nationalist" from Grafton, New South Wales, Australia committed two consecutive terrorist attacks at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand killing 51 people and injuring 50 more. Brenton Harrison Tarrant self-published a manifesto titled The Great Replacement named after the French far-right theory of the same name in which he cited belief of a supposed "white genocide", anti-Islamic and anti-immigration sentiments, the death of Ebba Akerlund in the Stockholm truck attack in Sweden, the 2017 presidential election in France and the US/NATO intervention in Kosovo during the Yugoslav Wars as motivations for committing the Christchurch mosque shootings as well as etching onto his guns various historical battles and figures related to Muslims and Christians, labeling all Muslims and non-whites as "invaders", quoting Pope Urban II's First Crusade speech and livestreamed 17 minutes of the shootings/terrorist attacks on Facebook. Brenton Harrison Tarrant cited Islamophobic extremist Anders Behring Breivik as an inspiration and claimed to have briefly met him as well as his organization the Knights' Templar. Brenton Harrison Tarrant


Below is a list of 5 incidents in Norway that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
1985 Bombing 0 1 Oslo Ahmadiyya Muslim Nor mosque at Frogner in Oslo was blasted with dynamite. A 38-year-old woman received smoke damage. The bomb was detonated by an activist from the Norwegian Front, which resulted in several other people from the party being arrested by the police.[201] Norwegian Front
22 July 2011 Car bombing, shooting 77 319 Utøya
2011 Norway attacks: A man named Anders Behring Breivik committed two attacks in Norway. The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST).[202] The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously.[203][204][205] The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification,[206][207] took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright,[208][209] and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously;[204][205] the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre.[210] Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam,[211][212] and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.[213][214] In a manifesto, he describes opposition to what he saw as the Islamisation of Europe as his motive for carrying out the attacks.[215] Anders Behring Breivik
February 2015 Melee attack 0 2 Oslo Three men were charged with racist-motivated violence against two Norwegian Kurds in downtown Oslo. The perpetrators allegedly yelled “Fucking Muslims, you don’t have anything to do here” and “Go back, fucking terrorists” while kicking and punching the victims in their heads and bodies. Two of the perpetrators had ties to neo-Nazi groups in Norway.[216] Three unnamed men
May 2016 Attempted arson 0 0 Oslo A woman was caught on camera trying to set fire to a mosque in Oslo, having been allowed into the building by asking to use its lavatory.[217] Unnamed woman
10 August 2019 Shooting 1 (prior to attack) 1 (+1) Bærum Bærum mosque shooting:[218] 21 year old lone gunman Philip Manshaus opened fire on a mosque in Bærum, Norway, a suburb 20 kilometers outside of Oslo. He injured one person and was then subdued by two worshippers. At the time of the shooting there were three congregants in the mosque before the gunman opened fire on the Al Noor Islamic center of Bærum. Before the incident he killed his adopted stepsister at their home and posted on 4chan ten minutes prior to the failed attack, praising the Christchurch shooter, the Poway synagogue shooter and the El Paso shooter.[219] In June 2020 the two worshippers who prevented the attack, Muhammad Rafiq and Mohammad Iqbal, were awarded the Medal for Heroic Deeds.[220] Manshaus was sentenced to 21 years in prison a few days earlier.[221] Philip Manshaus


Below is a list of 5 incidents in the Philippines that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
March 1970 – January 1972 Shooting, stabbings, arson 300+ Unknown Mindanao The Ilaga committed 22 massacres resulting in the deaths of hundreds of Muslim civilians. The group is guilty of "mutilat[ing] bodies of victims" and "marking bodies with a cross." The group also burned down and looted many houses and properties.[222] Ilaga
19 June 1971 Shooting 70–79 17 Carmen Manili massacre: Moro Muslims were massacred inside a mosque in Manili. The Muslim residents of the town had gathered in their mosque to participate in a supposed peace talk with Christian groups when a group of armed men dressed in uniforms similar to those worn by members of the Philippine Constabulary opened fire on them.[223] Ilaga
24 October 1971 Shooting 40–66 0 Magsaysay Tacub massacre: Maranao Muslims were summarily executed at a military checkpoint in Tacub.[224] Philippine Army
24 September 1974 Shooting 1,000–1,500 Unknown Palimbang Malisbong massacre: The Malisbong massacre was the mass murder of Muslim Moros on 24 September 1974 in the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao where units of the Philippine Army killed more than 1,000.[225][226] Accounts compiled by the Moro Women's Center in General Santos City state that 1,500 male Moros aged 11–70 were killed inside a mosque, 3000 women and children aged 9–60 were detained - with the women being raped, and that 300 houses were razed by the government forces.[225] The massacre occurred two years after Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in September 1972. Philippine Army
3 November 2008 Shooting 5 0 Lanao del Norte Muslim civilians were killed in an ambush by the Ilaga.[227] Ilaga


Below is a list of 2 incidents in the Poland that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
January 2017 Riots 0 0 Ełk The anti-Muslim Ełk riots occurred on 1 January 2017 in the town of Ełk, Poland, after a 21 year old Pole was murdered by the establishment's cook, a Tunisian national.[228][229][230][231][232] Several hundred men surrounded the Prince Kebab restaurant, chanting racist, anti-immigrant and Islamophobic slogans,[229][232] and tossing firecrackers, stones, and Molotov cocktails at the shop. Other attacks on Kebab restaurants took place throughout Poland.[231]
November 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Warsaw In November 2017, amidst a rise in xenophobic incidents, two hooded men smashed a dozen windows in the Muslim cultural centre in Warsaw.[233][234] Two unknown men


Below is a list of incidents in the Romania that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
1 October 2017 Protest 0 0 Cluj Napoca A group of five members of the far-right ultranationalist party Noua Dreaptă disrupted the opening season performance of “The Armed Man-A Mass For Peace” by Karl Jenkins, that took place at the Romanian National Opera, singing the Romanian National Anthem and shouting “no mosque should be built on Romanian lands” or “Prayers in Arabic language used by Muslim terrorists shan't be used in a cultural institution”. The protest took place during “The Call to Prayers (Adhaan)”.[235] Five members of the Noua Dreaptă party


Due to activity of the Muslim Chechens in organised crime and terrorism many Russians (including authorities) have associated Islam and Muslims with terrorism and domestic crimes.[236][237][238][239]

Below is a list of 8 incidents in Russia that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
21 August 2006 Bombing 13 47 Moscow 2006 Moscow market bombing: A home-made bomb detonated in Cherkizovsky Market, which was targeted due to the market's high volume of Central Asian and Caucasian clientele. The perpetrators were charged with racially motivated murder.[240][241] Spas
26 April 2007 Melee attack 0 2 Kostroma Imam Ulugbek Abdullaev and his wife, both of whom were dressed in distinctive Islamic clothing, were beaten by people who yelled "go back to your Muslim country."[242] Two Russian youth
15 August 2007 Execution, shooting 2 0 Maykop Russian National Socialist Party beheading video: A video was released on the Internet of a Tajik immigrant and a Dagestan man being beheaded by Russian neo-Nazis.[243] Russian National Socialist Party
28 November 2007 Vandalism 0 0 Vladimir Men threw stones at and broke windows of a mosque.[244] Four unidentified men
1 January 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Sergiyev Posad A Muslim prayer house was attacked with Molotov cocktails, marking the second attack in two months.[244] Four unidentified men
June 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Zlatoust 15 headstones at a Muslim cemetery were desecrated.[37] Unknown
11 December 2010 Riots 0 >10 Moscow 2010 Manezhnaya Square riots: On 11 December 2010, Manezhnaya Square in Moscow saw thousands of people protesting against the supposed delays in criminal investigations of murders of three people allegedly committed by "people of Northern Caucasus". Protests eventually turned into clashes with police, and many people were either injured detained by police. After the Manezhnaya riots there was a series of street attacks on people coming from the Caucasus.
13 October 2013 Riots 0 0 Moscow 2013 Biryulyovo riots: On 13 October 2013, riots in Biryulyovo Zapadnoye, a district in southern Moscow, erupted as a result of the fatal stabbing of a 25-year-old man believed to be perpetrated by a migrant who "might have come from Central Asia or the Caucasus". Rioters attacked shops and stalls allegedly owned by migrants from aforementioned regions.

Sri LankaEdit

Below is a list of 10 incidents in Sri Lanka that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
28 May – 8 August 1915 Shooting, bombing, arson 116 Unknown   Various cities, British Ceylon 1915 Sinhalese-Muslim riots: A widespread and prolonged ethnic riot took place in the island of Ceylon between Sinhalese Buddhists and the Ceylon Moors before being suppressed by the British colonial authorities.[245][246] According to some official estimates, which must be taken as approximate, the riots resulted in 25 killed, 189 wounded, 4 sexually assaulted, 4,075 houses and boutiques looted, 250 houses and boutiques burned down, 17 mosques burned and 86 mosques damaged.[247][248] Other official figures place total of 116 people were killed, 63 by military and Police forces.[249] Sinhalese Buddhists
8–11 November 1985 Shooting, bombing 30–100+ Unknown   Muttur, Eastern Province 1985 Muttur massacre: The 1985 massacre in Muttur was a slaughter of Tamil civilians in the town of Muttur in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The massacre occurred when all three divisions of the Sri Lankan military attacked the town by land, air and sea. The motive of the attacks was deliberately aimed at slaughtering ethnic Tamils, who formed the local population in the region. The killings lasted for 3 days from 8 to 11 November. Civilians were shot and killed and burned with their houses. Over 30 people were confirmed to have been killed. Over 70 others who have been arrested or have been forcibly disappeared were not accounted for. Several others who attempted to escape and those who sought refuge at temples were also killed.[250] Sri Lankan military
3 August 1990 Shooting, bombing 147 Unknown   Kattankudy, Eastern Province Kattankudy mosque massacre: Tamil militants massacred over 147 Muslims in a mosque in Kattankudi.[251][252][253][254] The act took place when around 30 Tamil rebels raided four mosques in the town of Kattankudi, where over 300 people were prostrating during prayers. The LTTE later apologized (during the 2000 peace talks) for this act and asked the Muslims to return, but very few Muslims have taken up the offer.[255] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
29 April 1992 Shooting 157 Unknown   Polonnaruwa, North Central Province Polonnaruwa massacre: A series of attacks on civilians in the villages of Alanchipothana, Karapola, Madurangala and Muthugal in eastern Polonnaruwa District.[256] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
15 October 1992 Shooting, stabbing, melee attacks 166–285 Unknown   Palliyagodella, North Central Province Palliyagodella massacre: The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the mostly Muslim population of the Palliyagodella village located on border region of the northern part of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the Tigers at the time. This was the largest massacre of Muslim civilians by the LTTE to date. Village eyewitnesses claim that some 285 men, women and children, around a third of the population, were killed by a 1,000 strong force of the Tamil Tigers;[257] however, the Sri Lankan government states that cadres massacred 166 to 171 people by a force of 150 attackers.[258][259] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
30 April 2001 Shooting, melee attack 2 15+   Mawanella, Central Province Mawanella riots: The Mawanella riots was a series of planned attacks on the Sri Lankan Muslim minority by the majority Sinhalese in the town of Mawanella, that resulted in the deaths of two people and left more than 15 injured in the clashes and also leading to destruction of millions of rupees worth property in the region.[260][261][262][263] Sri Lankan police, local thugs
18 September 2006 Shooting, stabbing, melee attack 10 0   Pottuvil, Eastern Province Pottuvil massacre: The Pottuvil massacre is a disputed event in the Sri Lankan civil war where 10 unarmed minority Muslim civilians who were engaged in clearing a reservoir at Rattal Kulam in Pottuvil in the southern part of the Ampara District in the Eastern Province, were attacked and killed. All the men were aged between 19 and 35 years of age; three of the men were decapitated and the others were shot or hacked to death by the unknown gunmen.[264] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
15–17 June 2014 Shooting, stabbing, melee attack, arson 4 80   Kalutara District, Western Province 2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka: The 2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka were religious and ethnic riots in June 2014 in south-western Sri Lanka. Muslims and their property were attacked by Sinhalese Buddhists in the towns of Aluthgama, Beruwala and Dharga Town in Kalutara District. At least four people were killed and 80 injured.[265] Hundreds were made homeless following attacks on homes, shops, factories, mosques and a nursery.[266] 10,000 people (8,000 Muslims and 2,000 Sinhalese) were displaced by the riots.[267] The riots followed rallies by Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), a hard line Buddhist group.[268] The BBS was widely blamed for inciting the riots but it has denied responsibility.[269][270][271] The mainstream media in Sri Lanka censored news about the riots following orders from the Sri Lankan government.[272] Bodu Bala Sena and followers
26 February – 10 March 2018 Widespread looting, assault, arson 2 15   Ampara and Kandy District 2018 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka were a series of religious riots targeting Muslims that began in the Sri Lankan town of Ampara on 26 February 2018, spreading to Kandy District by 2 March until its end on 10 March 2018. Unknown
6–16 May 2019 Widespread looting, assault, arson 9 100+   North Western Province The 2019 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka were a series of religiously motivated riots targeting Muslims in Sri Lanka. The riots originated as isolated incidents in the aftermath of the Easter bombings in the nation, beginning in Chilaw and subsequently spreading to much of the Northwestern Province. Unknown


Below is a list of 7 incidents in Spain that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
24 September 2014 Stabbing 0 5 Lleida At least five immigrants were stabbed and injured, most of them Arabs, in different parts of Lleida, Catalonia. The attacker, a university student, was arrested by police and said that he had Islamophobic ideas.[273] Unnamed university student
23 March 2016 Arson 0 0 Madrid A group of neo-Nazi followers threw Molotov cocktails at the great mosque of the M-30 of Madrid, without causing personal damage.[274] Neo-nazi
7 September 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Barcelona Two right-wing extremists assaulted a pregnant Muslim woman with a niqab while screaming “Get out of my country”. The attack occurred in Ciutat Vella, in the center of Barcelona.[275] Right-wing extremists
20 August 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Seville Vandals and protesters in Seville targeted local mosques with graffiti, hate speech, and violent threats 2 days after the 2017 Barcelona attacks.[276]
20 August 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Granada A mosque was attacked with flares and surrounded by people chanting racial slurs and accusing Muslims of terrorism 2 days after the 2017 Barcelona attacks.[276]
21 August 2017 Melee attack 0 3 Fitero, Navarre Three Moroccans were brutally attacked by a group of extremists with big sticks and melee weapons in Navarre when they participated in a tribute to the victims of the Barcelona attack.[277] Islamophobics
23 August 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Madrid A 38-year-old Muslim woman was injured after being attacked by two or three young men in front of Madrid metro, in the district of Usera. The attack was in response to the 2017 Barcelona attacks.[278] Right-wing extremists


Below is a list of 8 incidents in Sweden that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
2003 Arson 0 0 Malmö An arson attack damaged the Malmö Mosque and totally destroyed other buildings at the Islamic Center.[279] The restoration cost was 17 million Swedish kronor. No one was arrested for the attack.[280] Unknown
18 September 2005 Arson 0 0 Malmö Someone threw in a bottle containing flammable liquid, breaking one of the Malmö Mosque's windows. On that occasion the resulting fire was also doused before it could cause serious damage.[279] Unknown
22 October 2005 Arson 0 1 Malmö One man was taken to hospital suffering from mild smoke injuries as a result of the arson attack targeting Malmö Mosque.[279] No one was arrested for the attack.[280] Unknown
10 October 2009 – 21 October 2010 Shooting 2 13 Malmö 2009–10 Malmö shootings: Serial shooting killed two and injured 13 others in Malmö. The perpetrator had "strong anti-immigrant sentiments" and all but one of the victims were not ethnically Swedish.[281] Peter Mangs
25 December 2014 – 1 January 2015 Arson 0 5+ Eslöv
2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden: On Christmas, five people suffered injuries when, according to early reports, a petrol bomb had been tossed through the window of a mosque in Eskilstuna. Up to 20 people, including children, were in the mosque at the time of the attack.[282][283] Police later said they were investigating the incident as an accident, considering it unlikely to have been a deliberate attack.[284] It was later reported that an overheated deep-fryer was the probable cause of the fire.[285][286] The second attack took place on Monday in the southern Swedish town of Eslöv just after 3 am local time. No one was injured on that occasion.[287][288] Early on New Year's morning, a third attack hit a mosque in Uppsala.[289][290][291] Unknown
22 October 2015 Stabbing 3 (+1) 1 Trollhättan Trollhättan school attack: A masked swordsman killed two and wounded another at Kronan School in Trollhättan. The perpetrator chose the school as his target due to its high immigrant population. He was later shot and killed by police. It is the deadliest attack on a school in Swedish history.[292][293] A teacher who was stabbed during the incident succumbed to his wound on 3 December, raising the death toll to 3.[294] Anton Lundin Pettersson
21 February 2017 Arson 0 0 Gothenburg An Islamic center was set on fire. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[295] Unknown
14 June 2017 Vehicular attack 0 0 Malmö A 22-year-old man with ties to the Nordic Resistance Movement confessed to driving his Volvo into an Iraqi demonstration outside the Migration Agency in Malmö. Police are investigating it as a hate crime.[296] Unnamed man


Below is a list of 1 incidents in Switzerland that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
19 December 2016 Shooting 1 (+1) 3 Zürich Zürich Islamic center shooting: A man yelled "Raus aus unserem Land [Get out of our country]"[297] before opening fire on people at an Islamic center in Central Zürich.[298][299] The motive is still being investigated but the Islamic Central Council of Switzerland issued a statement suggesting it should serve as an "alarm" regarding the threat posed by increasing Islamophobia in Swiss society.[300] Unnamed man


Below is a list of 2 incidents in Ukraine that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
23 August 2010 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 Simferopol Someone drew a swastika on the Seit-Settar mosque and attempted to set it on fire.[37] Unknown
25 December 2010 Attempted arson 0 0 Simferopol Arson on the Seit-Settar mosque was attempted a second time. One local Muslim leader said that vandalism of Muslim holy sites in the Crimea are not properly investigated.[37] Unknown

United KingdomEdit

Below is a list of 29 incidents in the United Kingdom that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
12 July 2005 Melee attack 1 0   Nottingham, England A Muslim man, Kamal Raza Butt, was beaten to death outside a corner shop by a gang of youths who shouted anti-Islamic abuse at him and called him "Taliban".[301] Unnamed gang
10 March 2006 Stabbing, vandalism 0 1   Preston, England The Jamia Masjid mosque was attacked by gangs of white youths using brick and concrete blocks. The youths damaged a number of cars outside the mosque and stabbed a 16-year-old Muslim. The local police described the attack as "racially motivated".[302] Unnamed gang
30 June 2007 Stabbing, melee attack 0 1   Blackley, England Ghulam Mustafa Naz, a Muslim religious teacher, was stabbed and beaten by four men. Police suggested it was a hate crime.[303] Four unnamed men
3 July 2007 Vehicular attack 0 0   Glasgow, Scotland A vehicle was driven into a store owned by a Muslim man named Ashfaq Ahmed. The driver attempted to set fire to the vehicle and threw a gas canister into the shop. The massive blast destroyed the store.[303] Unnamed men
3 August 2007 Arson 0 0   Bradford, England A mosque in Bradford was seriously damaged in an arson attack.[303] Unknown
9 August 2007 Arson 0 0   London, England Assailants attacked the 58-year-old imam of the Central Mosque in Regent's Park. The victim required emergency surgery on both eyes as a result.[303] Two unnamed men
22 August 2008 Melee attack 1 2+   Hastings, England Mohammed al-Majed, a 16-year-old student from Qatar, was beaten up outside a kebab shop. He succumbed to his wound 2 days later in hospital. At least 2 of his friends were also injured during the incident. The perpetrator was convicted of "racially aggravated common assault."[304] George Austin, Paul Rockett, and Alexander Quinn
6 July 2009 Arson 0 0   Glasgow, Scotland The branch of Islamic Relief was badly damaged by a fire which police said was started deliberately, and which members of the Muslim community of Scotland allege was Islamophobic.[305] Two unnamed men
8 April 2010 Melee attack 0 1   Nottingham, England Abida Malik and Asif Ahmed were targeted by up to 20 men on a train. The attackers called the couple terrorists.[93] 20 unnamed men
10 May 2010 Bombing 0 0   Babworth, England Inmates at Ranby Prison made a bomb intending to kill fellow Muslim prisoners. The inmates threw the bomb in the room where worshippers were in, but a prison officer removed it from the facility and disabled it before it went off.[93] 20 unnamed men
9 June 2010 Melee attack 0 1   London, England A 13-year-old girl was burned and robbed in Grangewood Park by three teenagers who yelled anti-Muslim slurs.[93] Three unnamed teenagers
3 December 2010 Attempted arson 0 0   Stoke-on-Trent, England A mosque was filled with flammable gas in an attempt to light it on fire. The police classified it as a "deliberate racist attack".[37] Four unnamed teenagers
26 May 2013 Arson 0 0   Grimsby, England Two ex-soldiers firebombed a mosque four days after the death of Lee Rigby.[306] Gavin Humphreys, Stuart Harness and Daniel Cressey.
29 April 2013 Stabbing 1 0   Birmingham, England Murder of Mohammed Saleem: 82-year-old Mohammed Saleem was stabbed to death while on his way home from Green Lane Masjid in Small Heath, Birmingham. The perpetrator later stated that he killed Salem because he "was a Muslim and there were no witnesses".[307] Pavlo Lapshyn
3 July 2016 Melee attack 0 1   Sunderland, England A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after yelling "You're in our country now" and physically assaulting a Muslim woman at a mall.[308][309] He was formally convicted and jailed in July 2017.[310] Peter Scotter
6 August 2016 Melee attack 0 1   Bletchley, England A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after he kicked a pregnant Muslim woman in the stomach and caused her to lose her unborn twins.[311] He was convicted in May 2017. Rallies were held in Bletchley in support of the victims.[312] David Gallacher
12 December 2016 Stabbing 0 1   London, England A knifeman stabbed a passenger on a train at Forest Hill station before chasing people outside shouting "Who is a Muslim? I want to kill a Muslim." Authorities called the incident a "serious hate crime".[313] Unnamed man
16 December 2016 Vandalism 0 0   Cumbernauld, Scotland A mosque was vandalized with graffiti reading "Saracen go home" and "Deus Vult," a Latin term meaning "God wills it". Authorities stated the incident was "a hate crime".[314] Unknown
16 December 2016 Melee attack 0 1   London, England A Muslim woman was dragged along the pavement by her hijab. Authorities allege it was a "hate crime".[315] Two unnamed men
23 May 2017 Suspected arson attack 0 0   Oldham, England The door of the Jamia Qasmia Zahidia Islamic Centre in Oldham, Greater Manchester, was set alight and badly damaged. Mohammad Saddiq, an imam at the mosque, said the attack was arson attack in revenge for the Manchester Arena bombing.[316] Unknown
19 June 2017 Vehicular attack 1 11   London, England Finsbury Park attack: A man drove into a crowd of Muslims leaving a mosque after prayer. The incident was deemed terrorism and, while the motive is still under investigation,[317] several civil rights groups and politicians claim the perpetrator was motivated by Islamophobia.[318] Darren Osborne
25 June 2017 Melee attack
0 1   Heckmondwike, England A Muslim dad-of-three was knocked out by thugs before racist graffiti was daubed on his walls quoting a controversial Katie Hopkins tweet stating "we need a final solution".[319] Unnamed gang
26 June 2017 Melee attack 0 1   Manchester, England A 13-year-old boy was repeatedly kicked in the head by a gang of older teens during a racially motivated hate crime. The perpetrators repeatedly called him a "Paki".[320] Unnamed gang
11 September 2017 Melee attack 0 2   Manchester, England A man set his dog on two Muslims during a ‘campaign of racism’. Jakub Wendland's cross breed bull terrier bit a man and left a woman traumatised. During one of the attacks, the 32-year-old shouted: "You bite her, bite her. They kill people. So go on, bite a Muslim." The Polish national, who denies being a racist, was jailed for two-and-a-half years at Manchester Crown Court.[321] Jakub Wendland
20 September 2017 Vehicular attack 0 1   Leicester, England A Muslim woman suffered serious injuries after being struck by a car. Police allege the car driver intended to kill her and that it was a hate crime.[322] An unnamed man
24 September 2017 Stabbing 0 1   Altrincham, England A 58-year-old Muslim man named Nasser Kurdy was stabbed as he arrived at the Islamic Cultural Centre on Grove Lane. Greater Manchester Police confirmed the incident is being treated as a hate crime, and that two men aged 54 and 32 had been arrested in connection with the attack.[323] Kurdy had treated victims of the Manchester Arena bombing. After he was out of the hospital, Kurdy said that he had forgiven his attackers and that they were "not representative of what this country stands for".[324] Two unnamed men
10 October 2017 Melee attack 0 1   Manchester, England A 12-year-old boy stamped on a Muslim schoolboy's head in a race hate gang attack, but was not arrested. The boy also chased and "terrorised" a 10-year-old boy with a medical crutch while wearing a mask, and caused £500 damage by hurling stones at a truck on a building site.[325] Unnamed gang
25 October 2018 Assault 0 1   Almondbury, Huddersfield, England Assault of Syrian refugee teenagers at Almondbury Community School.[326][327] Unnamed
16 March 2019 Melee attack 0 1   Stanwell, Surrey, England A man shouting Islamophobic remarks went on a rampage armed with a baseball bat and knife, injuring one 19-year-old male. The man shouted "kill a Muslim" before carrying out the attack.[328] Unnamed 50-year-old male

United StatesEdit

In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, many residents of Middle Eastern descent and African-American Muslims became victims of the initial rage at "Muslim terrorists" as the initial news stories hypothesized. KFOR-TV's coverage of the bombing informed viewers that a member of the Nation of Islam had taken credit for the bombing. Even though the network cautioned that it might be a crank call, it repeated the claim throughout the day's coverage.[329] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the bombings, "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[330] There were also suggestions on the radio that all Arab Americans should "be put in internment camps".[329]

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, hate crimes against people of Middle-Eastern descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000 to 1,501 attacks in 2001.[331] Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle-Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country"[330] and four immigrants were shot and killed by a man named Larme Price who confessed to killing them as "revenge" for the September 11 attacks.[332] Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; on account of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men who were attacked for wearing their religiously mandated turban.[333] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing (which was committed by anti-government white American Timothy McVeigh), "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[330]

While en route to Chicago, Shahrukh Khan, a well-known Bollywood actor, was held for what he described as "humiliating" questioning for several hours in Newark Airport, New Jersey because of his common Muslim surname Khan. He was released only following the intervention of the Indian embassy.[334][335]

In April 2012, various media sources reported that the Joint Forces Staff College taught an anti-Islam course. The course taught that "they [Muslims] hate everything you stand for and will never coexist with you." It also proposed justified the destruction of the cities of Mecca and Medina "without regard for civilian deaths". The course was suspended after a student objected to the material.[336][337]

In early August 2012 U.S. Representative Joe Walsh (R-IL) said at a town hall that radical Muslims were “trying to kill Americans every week.” Soon after his remarks several attacks against Muslims took place in his district, including a 12 August acid bomb attack on a Muslim school in Lombard, Illinois during evening Ramadan prayers and hate graffiti found on 16 August in a Muslim Cemetery.[citation needed] There also were several other attacks of mosques with pellet guns, acid bombs, eggs, or unclean animal parts. Some incidents are being investigated as hate crimes.[338]

Research suggests that hate crimes and discrimination against Muslims in the United States leads to lower assimilation rates.[339]

Below is a list of 50 incidents in the United States that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
15 September 2001 Shooting 1 0 Mesa, Arizona Murder of Balbir Singh Sodhi: Balbir Singh Sodhi, who wore a beard and a turban in accordance with his Sikh faith, was mistaken for an Arab Muslim.[340] Roque had reportedly told friends that he was "going to go out and shoot some towel-heads" the day of the attacks.[341] Frank Silva Roque
15 September – 4 October 2001 Shooting 2 1 Dallas, Texas Waqar Hasan, a 46-year-old Pakistani immigrant, was shot and killed inside of a grocery store in Dallas. Another victim, 28-year-old Raisuddin Bhuiyan was shot in the face while working on a convenience store. He was saved from brain damage, but lost sight of one of his eyes. The third victim, Vasudev Patel, 49, was gunned down in Mesquite, Texas on 4 October 2001. The perpetrator said his motive was "to avenge the United States on 9/11"[342] Mark Anthony Stroman
14 January 2007 Melee attack 0 1 Lackawanna, New York A 26-year-old man of Yemeni ethnicity was physically assaulted by attackers who used a racist and anti-Muslim epithet during the incident. The victim was thrown to the ground, sustaining a fracture under one eye, a broken nose, and cuts requiring six stitches on his face and staples to the back of his head.[242] Unknown
16 September 2007 Melee attack 0 1 Locust Valley, New York Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in what authorities called a bias crime.[343] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.[343] Unknown
9 February 2008 Arson 0 0 Columbia, Tennessee The Islamic Center in Columbia was firebombed with Molotov cocktails by members of the right-wing extremist Christian Identity Movement.[244] Christian Identity Movement
July 2010–March 2011 Burning Qur'ans 0 0 Gainesville, Florida Dove World Outreach Center Quran-burning controversy: The Dove World Outreach Center church planned to burn Qur'ans on the ninth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Despite warning from the military leadership in the Afghan War, Terry Jones, the pastor of the centre, said it would be "tragic" if anybody's life was lost as a result of the planned Quran burning. While he added "Still, I must say that we feel that we must sooner or later stand up to Islam, and if we don't, it's not going to go away." His church's website claims to "expose Islam" as a "violent and oppressive religion;" it also displays a sign reading "Islam is of the Devil."[344] In early September 2010, Jones cancelled and pledged never to burn a Quran,[345] but on 20 March 2011, Jones held a "trial of the Quran" in his Gainesville church. Finding the scriptures guilty of "crimes against humanity," the Quran was burned in the church sanctuary.[346] Terry Jones
25 August 2010 Stabbing 0 1 New York City, New York A New York taxi driver was stabbed after a passenger asked if he was Muslim. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[347] Michael Enright
24 January 2011 Attempted car bombing 0 0 Dearborn, Michigan Dearborn mosque bombing plot: A man was arrested and charged with terrorism after attempting to blow up the Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, Michigan, which has large Arab-American and Muslim populations.[348] The man later said he opposed the Iraq war and targeted the mosque to "grab people's attention."[349] He was arrested in the parking lot outside the mosque with a car filled with high-end, class C fireworks[350] including M-80s.[349][351] Roger Stockham
27 December 2012 Melee attack 1 0 New York City, New York Sunando Sen, a 46-year-old Indian immigrant, was hit and killed by a subway train when a woman pushed him onto the track. The woman later told authorities that she hates Muslims and "ever since 2001 when they put down the twin towers I've been beating them up."[352] Erika Menendez
16 March 2014 Shooting 1 0 Sacramento, California A man gunned down Iraqi artist Hassan Alawsi in the parking lot of a Home Depot. Police suspect the shooter was motivated by "his dislike of people of Middle Eastern descent."[353][354] Jeffrey Caylor
4 December 2014 Vehicular attack 1 0 Kansas City, Missouri Killing of Abdisamad Sheikh-Hussein: A Muslim Somali-American student at Staley High School was killed near the Kansas City Somali Center, a man intentionally rammed his car into him, knocking him into the air, and then ran over him, nearly severing his legs.[355] The driver of the car made rants against Islam and threats against Muslim worshippers outside a mosque. The SUV used in the attack had an anti-Muslim bumper sticker which compared the Quran with Ebola, while another stated that "Islam is worse than Ebola".[356][357] The FBI classified it as a hate crime. Ahmed H. Aden
10 February 2015 Shooting 3 0 Chapel Hill, North Carolina 2015 Chapel Hill shooting: Three Muslims killed by neighbour in their homes[358] Craig Hicks
10 April 2015 Attempted attack 0 0 Tompkins, New York A man spent months gathering weapons and plotting an assault on a Muslim hamlet in northern New York City.[359][360] Robert Doggart
26 December 2015 Melee attack 0 1 Fresno, California Amrik Singh Bal, a 68-year-old Sikh man, was beaten by someone who called him a "terrorist."[361] Daniel Coronel Wilson Jr
29 June 2016 Shooting 0 2 Minneapolis, Minnesota 2016 Minneapolis shooting: A man shot at five Somali-Americans, wounding two of them. Witnesses later recounted that Sawina shouted Anti-Muslim expletives and stated he was going to "going to kill you all."[362] Anthony Sawina
19 July 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Omaha, Nebraska Suthahar Subburaj, an Indian immigrant, was knocked unconscious outside an Indian restaurant by an assailant who shouted “ISIS... Get out of my country” as he beat him. Subbaraj is neither Arab nor Muslim.[363] Unnamed man
13 August 2016 Shooting 2 0 New York City, New York Maulama Akonjee, a 55-year-old imam, and his assistant, 64-year-old Thara Uddin, was shot and killed while on their way home from Al-Furqan Jame Mosque in Ozone Park, Queens. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[364] Oscar Morel
18 August 2016 Shooting 1 0 Tulsa, Oklahoma A Lebanese-American man was shot and killed on his porch in by a neighbor who regularly called him a "dirty Muslim" and "Arab" despite him being Christian.[365] Stanley Majors
31 August 2016 Stabbing 1 0 New York City, New York Nazma Khanam, a Bangladeshi woman was fatally stabbed on a Queens sidewalk. The NYPD investigated it as a hate crime.[366][367] Yonatan Galvez Marin
12 September 2016 Arson 0 0 Fort Pierce, Florida A man set a mosque on fire in fear of another "Manhattan World Trade Center attack or Boston Bombing."[368] Joseph Schreiber
11 October 2016 Attempted car bombing 0 0 Garden City, Kansas 2016 Garden City bombing plot: Three men monitored apartment blocks which were known to house Muslim refugees, stockpiled an arsenal of weapons, and planned to kill by detonating explosives in four trucks laden with ammonium nitrate.[369] Kansas Security Force (Crusaders)
20 October 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Fort Smith, Arkansas Two mosques were damaged with graffiti swastikas and xenophobic slurs.[370] Craig Wigginton
Abraham Davis
10 November 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York City, New York Two Muslim women in Brooklyn were attacked while they were walking and pushing their children in strollers. The perpetrator stated “This is the United States of America, you're not supposed to be different from us" and demanded they leave the country.[371] Unnamed woman
14 November 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Owensboro, Kentucky The Islamic Center of Owensboro was vandalized for the second time in less than a year.[372] Unknown
16 November 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Charlotte, North Carolina A student was beaten and choked by a teacher, ostensibly due to his religion.[373] Unnamed teacher
25 November 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania A man attacked an Indian man sitting next to him at a bar after mistaking him for a Muslim. He was charged with "ethnic intimidation".[374] Jeffrey Burgess
27 November 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Fairfax County, Virginia A man was beaten in a parking lot after someone yelled anti-Muslim slurs at him. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[375] Robin McGreer
5 December 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York City, New York A Muslim New York City transit worker was pushed down the stairs at Grand Central Terminal by a man who called her a terrorist.[376] Unknown
10 December 2016 Stabbing 0 1 Simi Valley, California A Muslim worshipper was stabbed outside of a mosque. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[377] John Matteson
17 December 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Redmond, Washington The sign outside a Redmond mosque was vandalized for a second time in a month. The sign was first vandalized 21 November. Police said they are investigating both incidents as possible hate crimes.[378] Nathan Gray
18 December 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York City, New York A man chucked hot coffee at a Muslim woman, hit her and accused her of being a “terrorist” in a Midtown Dunkin Donuts. He was charged with a hate crime.[379] Nathan Gray
22 January 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Davis, California The windows of the Islamic Center of Davis were smashed. Police called it a hate crime.[380] Unknown
22 January 2017 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 Sacramento, California Burglary and attempted arson took place at a restaurant. Racist and derogatory comments, including the word “terrorist,” were written on the walls directed at the owners, who are Sikh. Police called it a hate crime.[381] Unknown
26 January 2017 Melee attack 0 1 New York City, New York A man kicked a Muslim airline worker and told her “Trump is here now” and “he will get rid of all of you.”[382] Robin Rhodes
1 February 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Roseville, California Members of Roseville's Tarbiya Institute arrived Wednesday morning to find a dozen different racial epithets spray painted on the building's front and back.[383] Unknown
11 February 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Columbus, Ohio An Islamic Center was vandalized with graffiti that read “Allah is a fraud.”[384] Unknown
23 February 2017 Shooting 1 2 Olathe, Kansas 2017 Kansas shooting: A man shot and killed an Indian immigrant engineer he thought was Middle Eastern and wounded two others after shouting "get out of my country" and opening fire.[385] Adam Puritan
4 March 2017 Shooting 0 1 Kent, Washington A man shot and injured a Sikh after shouting "get out of my country."[386] Unknown
10 March 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Salem, Oregon A man beat an Arab employee of Al Aqsa Restaurant with a pipe, yelling "go back to your country terrorist" and "get out of America."[387] Jason Kendall
12 March 2017 Attempted arson 0 0 Port St. Lucie, Florida A Florida man who attempted to set fire to a convenience store told deputies that he assumed the owner was Muslim and that he wanted to “run the Arabs out of our country.” The sheriff later said the store owners are actually Indian.[388][389] Richard Lloyd
26 March 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Washington, D.C. Yosef Steynovitz was charged with assault with significant bodily injury, which is a felony, in connection with the beating of Kamal Nayfeh, a 55-year old Palestinian-American instructor at a community college in Charlotte, North Carolina. Steynovitz was also charged with a "suspected hate crime" based on "anti-Arab" bias.[390] Yosef Steynovitz
11 April 2017 Melee attack, stabbing 0 1 Milwaukee, Wisconsin A woman was beaten and stabbed by a man. Munjed Ahmad of the Islamic Society of Milwaukee concluded that "Nothing was stolen. There was no robbery. Her valuables remain with her. The only motive we can think of—because everything stayed with her and this individual went straight for her scarf is a hate crime."[391] Unnamed man
26 May 2017 Melee attack, stabbing 2 1 Portland, Oregon 2017 Portland train attack: A man fatally stabbed two people and injured a third on a MAX Light Rail train,[392] after he was confronted for reportedly "yelling a gamut of anti-Muslim and anti-everything slurs."[393] The Portland Police Bureau's report said Christian was shouting "hate speech toward a variety of ethnicities and religions", and directed his inflammatory remarks at two young Muslim women, one of whom was wearing a hijab.[394] Jeremy Joseph Christian
5 August 2017 Bombing 0 0 Bloomington, Minnesota 2017 Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center bombing: Bomb detonated in the Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center in Bloomington.[395] Michael Hari and 2 others
13 September 2017 Melee attack 0 2 New York City, New York An Orthodox Jewish woman and her daughter were allegedly beaten up at a Queens subway station by a drunk who mistook them for Muslims.[396] Dimitrious Zia
19 September 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Chicago, Illinois Five football players at a private U.S. Christian college were charged in connection with a hazing incident that allegedly included anti-Muslim taunts and left a student with injuries requiring surgeries.[397] Five unnamed men
24 March 2019 Arson 0 0 Escondido, California Escondido mosque fire: A man set fire to a mosque in Escondido, causing minor damage to the building. Police discovered graffiti on the mosque's driveway referencing the Christchurch mosque shootings shooter, leading them to consider the fire a terrorist attack.[398] John T. Earnest
23 April 2019 Vehicular attack 0 8 Sunnyvale, California Isaiah Joel Peoples while on his way to a Bible Study Group, intentionally ran his car into a group of people because he assumed that they were Muslims and repeatedly said "Thank you Jesus" after crashing into them. Eight individuals were injured. One of the victims, a 7th-grade Indian origin girl, Dhriti Narayan, is in coma and doctors have removed the left side of her skull. He has been charged with a hate crime.[399][400][401] Isaiah Joel Peoples
30 April 2022 Vandalism 0 0 Highland Park, New Jersey A mural of a woman wearing a hijab in downtown Highland Park was defaced after someone spray painted ‘USA’ and multiple Stars of David over her face, as well as the original artist's tags being scribbled out.[402] Unknown
22 November 2022 Melee attack 0 2 A man made anti-Muslim remarks before he punched and slashed a Muslim woman across the face. A male teacher who was also on the L train stepped in to stop the attacker, only to be punched and slashed too. The suspect, believed to be a homeless man, got off the train at Union Square station and fled.[403][404] Manhattan, New York Unknown


The Cham Muslims in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Muslim Chams have experienced violent religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on practicing their faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese state confiscating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs. In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls.[405] Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalized and pushed into poverty by Vietnamese policies, with ethnic Vietnamese Kinh settling on majority Cham land with state support, and religious practices of minorities have been targeted for elimination by the Vietnamese government.[406]

Incidents on aircraftEdit

After 9/11 some incidents with Muslim passengers on aircraft have given rise to the expression "Flying while Muslim".[407]

  • On 16 August 2006, British passengers on board a flight from Malaga to Manchester requested the removal of two men of Asian descent from a plane. According to a spokesman for the Civil Guard in Malaga, "These men had aroused suspicion because of their appearance and the fact that they were speaking in a foreign language thought to be an Arabic language, and the pilot was refusing to take off until they were escorted off the plane." A security sweep of the plane found no explosives or any item of a terrorist nature. Monarch Airlines booked the men, who were Urdu speakers, into a hotel room, gave them a free meal and sent them home on a later plane. The men later responded, "Just because we're Muslim, does not mean we are suicide bombers." The Islamic Human Rights Commission blamed "ever-increasing Islamophobia" related to the "war on terror" for the incident.[408][409]
  • A passenger traveling to the British Virgin Islands on a plane bound for the United States from Manchester in the UK was forced off the plane prior to takeoff. The man, a British-born Muslim residing in the United States, said he was singled out because he was a Muslim pilot and was left feeling "demoralized and humiliated. I must have met the profile on the day. I have an Arabic name, I am a Muslim, I'm from Britain and I know how to fly."[410][411]
  • On 21 November 2006, six imams were forcefully removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport for security reasons. The event led to an outcry from Muslim organizations in America saying that what happened showed the growing prejudice against Muslims in America.[412] Investigations by the airline and police so far have reported that the airline and ground crews responded to security concerns properly in removing the men from the plane.[413] See Flying Imams controversy for more details regarding this incident.
  • In 2009, AirTran Airways removed nine Muslim passengers, including three children, from a flight and turned them over to the FBI after one of the men commented to another that they were sitting right next to the engines and wondered aloud where the safest place to sit on the plane was. Although the FBI subsequently cleared the passengers and called the incident a "misunderstanding," AirTran refused to seat the passengers on another flight, forcing them to purchase last minute tickets on another airline that had been secured with the FBI's assistance. A spokesman for AirTran initially defended the airline's actions and said they would not reimburse the passengers for the cost of the new tickets. Although the men had traditional beards and the women headscarves, AirTran denied that their actions were based on the passengers' appearance.[414] The following day, after the incident received widespread media coverage, AirTran reversed its position and issued a public apology, adding that it would in fact reimburse the passengers for the cost of their rebooked tickets.[415]
  • On 18 November 2015, in two separate incidents, passengers at Midway Airport were allegedly not permitted to fly aboard Southwest Airlines flights when other passengers claimed to be afraid to fly with them because they were speaking Arabic, or appeared to be Muslim. The refusal sparked widespread condemnation on the airline's social media pages and received prominent coverage, in the US and internationally, accompanied by calls for a boycott of the airline.[416] According to The Economist, "in the two Southwest cases, it was the passengers themselves conducting their own vigilante profiling; the airline was merely bowing to their demands."[417]

Politician-related incidentsEdit

  • CAIR and the Associated Press called United States Rep. Virgil Goode (R-VA) Islamophobic for his December 2006 letter stating that Rep-elect Keith Ellison's desire to use the Qur'an during the swearing in ceremonies was a threat to "the values and beliefs traditional to the United States of America" and for saying "I fear that in the next century we will have many more Muslims in the United States if we do not adopt the strict immigration policies."[418][419]
  • Concerning the US state of North Carolina's position (as expressed by their attorney general's office) in the ongoing case of ACLU of N.C. & Syidah Matteen v. State of North Carolina that the only swearing-in for testimony in court that was valid had to be on a Christian Bible (and that all others must choose to affirm), CAIR's Legal Director in Washington D.C, Arsalan Iftikhar, said “This shows there's a lot of anti-Muslim sentiment, especially here in the United States.”[420]
  • British cabinet ministers had been criticized in October 2006 for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" in the United Kingdom by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a survey commissioned by the Home Office on 400, 15-year-old white and Asian-Muslim youths finding that Asian-Muslim youths are more tolerant and that white British youths have more intolerant attitudes.[421]

Media-related incidentsEdit

  • A 2008 amateur shoot 'em up computer game called Muslim Massacre: The Game of Modern Religious Genocide had as its aim killing all Muslims that appear on the screen. The game's creator took down the game's download site with a statement of apology on his personal website, stating his original intention in releasing the game, to "mock the foreign policy of the United States and the commonly held belief in the United States that Muslims are a hostile people to be held with suspicion." He said this had not been understood by the wider public and that its release "did not achieve its intended effect and instead only caused hurt to hospitable, innocent people."[422] However, it later emerged that the apology was indeed fake and the original game was an act of a political statement and not of anti-Muslim sentiment.[423]
  • In September 2012 the group Stop Islamization of America, which has been labeled a "hate group" by the Southern Poverty Law Center[424][425] and the Anti-Defamation League,[426] ran advertisements in the New York City Subway reading "In any war between the civilized man and the savage, support the civilized man. Support Israel. Defeat Jihad." Several groups condemned the advertisements as "hate speech."[427] In early January 2013 a related group put up advertisements next to 228 clocks in 39 New York subway stations showing the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center with a quote attributed to the Koran: “Soon shall we cast terror into the hearts of the unbelievers.”[428] The New York City Transit Authority, which said it would have to carry the advertisements on First Amendment grounds, insisted that 25% of the ad contain a Transit Authority disclaimer.[429][430] These advertisements also were criticized.[431][432]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The police report stated that Wiens called El-Sherbini Terroristin, Islamistin and Schlampe.[112]


  1. ^ "Islamophobia". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  2. ^ "islamophobia". Unabridged (Online). n.d. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  3. ^ "Islamophobia". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  4. ^ Miles & Brown 2003, p. 166.
  5. ^ See Egorova; Tudor (2003) pp. 2–3, which cites the conclusions of Marquina and Rebolledo in: "A. Marquina, V. G. Rebolledo, 'The Dialogue between the European Union and the Islamic World' in Interreligious Dialogues: Christians, Jews, Muslims, Annals of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, v. 24, no. 10, Austria, 2000, pp. 166–68. "
  6. ^ Wike, Richard; Stokes, Bruce; Simmons, Katie (July 2016). Europeans Fear Wave of Refugees Will Mean More Terrorism, Fewer Jobs (PDF) (Report). Pew Research Center. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  7. ^ Sinani, Besnik (2017). "Islamophobia in Albania National Report 2016" (PDF). European Islamophobia Report. Istanbul, Turkey: Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research. p. 27. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
  8. ^ "Reclaiming Australia: Liberalisms Role in Islamophobia". ABC News. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Reclaim Australia Rally drowns out Counter Protesters". The Canberra Times. 6 February 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  10. ^ a b "ASIO monitoring of right-wing extremists uncovered alleged plan to attack radical left". the Age. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  11. ^ a b "Truck driver who abused cyclist identified as neo-Nazi connected to United Patriots Front". The Age. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  12. ^ Judith Bessant; Rys Farthing; Rob Watts (2017). The Precarious Generation: A Political Economy of Young People. Taylor & Francis. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-317-28917-3.
  13. ^ Salim Farrar; Ghena Krayem (2016). Accommodating Muslims Under Common Law: A Comparative Analysis. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-317-96422-3.
  14. ^ "Anti-Islam group protests outside ABC building over Zaky Mallah's Q&A appearance". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 June 2015.
  15. ^ "Far-right anti-Islam group to rally at Victorian Parliament House". The Age. 12 July 2015.
  16. ^ Worrall, Allison. "Anti-Islam group beheads dummy in protest of Bendigo mosque". The Age. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  17. ^ Ceranic, Irena (13 July 2017). "Muslim woman hit me first with shopping bag, man accused of beer bottle assault tells court". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  18. ^ Menagh, Joanna (13 July 2017). "Perth man found guilty of assaulting Muslim woman after throwing beer bottle at her". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  19. ^ "Priest stabbed in neck in Melbourne church". 19 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d "Inside the far-right Q Society's explosive dinner, where Muslims are fair game". The Age. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  21. ^ Knaus, Christopher (11 February 2017). "LGBTI groups condemn homophobic comments at far-right Q Society meeting". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  22. ^ Corporate or institutional Author (11 February 2017). "I do not incite hate speech I expose it". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  23. ^ "Anti-Islam group Q Society dinner disrupted by protesters in Melbourne – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  24. ^ Zhou, Naaman (11 May 2017). "Four Muslim women allegedly punched outside university in Sydney". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  25. ^ Marsden, Harriet (3 June 2017). "Muslim schoolgirls in hijabs 'asked to leave careers show because people felt threatened'". The Independent. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  26. ^ Garcia, Jocelyn (17 March 2019). "Man allegedly rams car into gates, shouts offensive words outside Queensland mosque". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  27. ^ Crockford, Toby (11 September 2019). "Christchurch shooter's name, swastika sprayed onto Brisbane mosque". Brisbane Times. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  28. ^ Bowman, Verity (22 November 2019). "Pregnant woman viciously attacked in 'Islamophobic' assault in Australia". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 12.
  30. ^ Ebner 2017, p. 57.
  31. ^ a b Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 7.
  32. ^ Hope, Alan (7 July 2018). "Two arrested in connection with Anderlues racist attack". Brussels Times. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  33. ^ Z. Husain & D. M. Rosenbaum (2004). "Perceiving Islam: The Causes and Consequences of Islamophobia in the Western Media". In Santosh C. Saha (ed.). Religious fundamentalism in the contemporary world: critical social and political issues. Lexington Books. pp. 177–8. ISBN 978-0-7391-0760-7.
  34. ^ Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina, Head of the Delegation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly on the occasion of the General Debate, Summary, 23 September 2008, pp. 2.
  35. ^ "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". Archived from the original on 19 February 2009.
  36. ^ "After anti-Muslim attack, Brazilians shower victim with love". DAWN. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stahnke 2011, p. 5.
  38. ^ "Canada: Mosque Attack Provokes Fear and Anxiety". Human Rights Watch. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  39. ^ Muslim groups want action from U of T, University of Toronto News, 16 March 2006 Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "GTA woman has niqab pulled off in assault". CBC.
  41. ^ "Discrimination experienced by Muslims in Ontario | Ontario Human Rights Commission".
  42. ^ John Geddes. "Canadian anti-Muslim sentiment is rising, disturbing new poll reveals". Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  43. ^ Graeme Hamilton. "Quebec values charter sending tolerance, civilized discussion out the window". National Post.
  44. ^ a b 2013 ODIHR Hate Crime Report (PDF) (Report). National Council of Canadian Muslims.
  45. ^ "Bomb threat called in on North Vancouver mosque". Vancouver Sun.
  46. ^ "Man with sword stopped by stun gun outside Islamic centre". CBC News.
  47. ^ a b 2014 ODIHR Hate Crime Report (PDF) (Report). National Council of Canadian Muslims.
  48. ^ "Muslim students attacked in apparent Kingston, Ont., hate crime". CBC.
  49. ^ "Mosque in Chateauguay target of bomb threat". CTV News.
  50. ^ "Muslim convert attacked while wearing niqab in Toronto". Globe and Mail.
  51. ^ "Shitty Remarks, a Torched Mosque and Other Ways Canadians Responded to the Paris Attacks". 17 November 2015.
  52. ^ "Mosque fire in Peterborough was hate crime, say police". Toronto Star.
  53. ^ "London, Ont. man suffers concussion in alleged hate attack". CBC.
  54. ^ "Attack on Western University student from Iran is a 'wake-up call' for city, mayor says". London Free Press.
  55. ^ Barbash, Fred (1 December 2016). "He 'just kept hitting me with the bat': Canadian Muslim teen brutally beaten by white men". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  56. ^ St. Pierre, Jean (26 October 2016). "La mosquée de Sept-Îles vandalisée". Le Journal de Québec (in French). Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  57. ^ Russell, Graham (30 January 2017). "Québec City mosque shooting: six dead as Trudeau condemns 'terrorist attack'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  58. ^ Ashifa Kassam; Jamiles Lartey (30 January 2017). "Québec City mosque shooting: six dead as Trudeau condemns 'terrorist attack'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Witnesses reported seeing two men dressed in black and wearing ski masks walking into the mosque and opening fire. One watched as one of the gunmen began shooting at "everything that was moving"
  59. ^ Feith, Jesse (31 January 2017). "Why no terrorism charges in Quebec mosque shooting? It would place extra burden on prosecutors: experts". National Post. Postmedia Network. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  60. ^ Hawkins, Derek; Freeman, Alan (30 January 2017). "6 killed, 8 injured by gunmen who invaded Quebec City mosque". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  61. ^ "Quebec City mosque attack: Six dead and eight injured". Al Jazeera. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  62. ^ "Man charged in stabbing death of mosque caretaker followed hate group online". CBC News. 21 September 2020.
  63. ^ "Muslim family ID'd in fatal truck attack in London, Ont., known for commitment to community". CBC. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  64. ^ "Muslim family in Canada killed in 'premeditated' truck attack". BBC News. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  65. ^ "Man suspected of killing Canadian Muslim family was motivated by hate -police". Reuters. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  66. ^ Horowitz, Donald L. (2001). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780520224476. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  67. ^ "Tibetans, Muslim Huis clash in China". CNN. 23 February 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
  68. ^ "Police shut Muslim quarter in Lhasa". Lhasa, Tibet: CNN. 28 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008.
  69. ^ "Ethnic Clashes Over Gansu Mosque". Radio Free Asia. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  70. ^ "U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps". Reuters. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  71. ^ "17 Muslims killed in communal strife in Central African Republic". Dawn. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  72. ^ "Christian anti-Balaka militants kill 25 worshippers in mosque in Central African Republic". Daily Sabah. 14 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  73. ^ Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 11.
  74. ^ "Suspect held for arson attack on Copenhagen mosque". The Times of Israel. 16 August 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  75. ^ Kaplan, Michael (2 September 2015). "Anti-Muslim Hate Crime In Denmark? Cemetery Vandalism Draws Condemnations, Demonstration In Odense". International Business Times. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  76. ^ "Overfaldet på gaden: Skaldet mand rev tørklædet af 17-årig pige". DR. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  77. ^ "- YouTube".
  78. ^ "Denmark's Quran-burning extremist just misses out on parliament - The Local". Archived from the original on 7 June 2019.
  79. ^ Søgaard, Jan (5 February 2020). "Buschauffør tiltalt for vold: Kørte bus ind i muslimsk optog". Ekstra Bladet. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  80. ^ "Police are investigating vandalism against a mosque in Copenhagen". Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  81. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (19 September 2011). "France's burqa ban: women are 'effectively under house arrest'". Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  82. ^ "Charlie Hebdo terror spree spawns anti-Muslim attacks throughout France". New York Daily News. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  83. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profile: Masada, Action and Defense Movement". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  84. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (20 December 1988). "Immigrant Hostel Bombed in France". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  85. ^ "Blasts Wreck Immigrant Home in France; 1 Dead". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 20 December 1988. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  86. ^ Fysh, P.; Wolfreys, J. (31 January 2003). The Politics of Racism in France. Springer. p. 38. ISBN 9780230288331. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  87. ^ a b Reuters (20 March 2012). "TIMELINE-Attacks on Jews, Muslims in France since 1980". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2012. {{cite news}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  88. ^ "Vandals target Paris mosque". The Guardian. Associated Press. 22 February 2005.
  89. ^ "French Muslim war graves defaced". BBC News. 6 April 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  90. ^ O., M. (13 December 2009). "Desecration of a mosque in France". Ennahar Online English. Hydra – Alger: El Athir For the Press. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  91. ^ "Anti-Muslim graffiti found on French mosque". Associated Press. 13 December 2009. Archived from the original on 18 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  92. ^ "Anti-Muslim Graffiti Found on French Mosque". The New York Times. 13 December 2009. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  93. ^ a b c d Stahnke 2011, p. 4.
  94. ^ Sabin, Lamiat (17 January 2015). "Moroccan man in France killed at home in front of wife in 'horrible Islamophobic attack'". The Independent. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  95. ^ "Veiled Muslim woman attacked in southern France". The Local. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  96. ^ "Corsica march: Hundreds defy protest ban after Muslim prayer hall attack". BBC News. BBC. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  97. ^ "Paris mosque: Driver arrested after attempting to ram crowd". CNN. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  98. ^ "French far-right group arrested over alleged plot to attack Muslims". The Independent. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  99. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (28 October 2019). "Police arrest 84-year-old man over gun and arson attack at French mosque". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  100. ^ Roberts, Joe (21 October 2020). "Two Muslim women are stabbed under the Eiffel Tower by white female attackers shouting 'Dirty Arabs' after argument about dogs amid rising tensions after teacher was beheaded for Mohammed cartoons". Metro News. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  101. ^ Presse, AFP-Agence France. "Mosque In France Defaced With Islamophobic Graffiti". Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  102. ^ "France: Minister calls for security at mosques after attack". Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  103. ^ "Video of Man Assaulting Woman With Hijab Stirs Anger in France". Retrieved 17 April 2022. {{cite web}}: |first= missing |last= (help)
  104. ^ Welle (, Deutsche. "Right-wing terror in Germany: A timeline | DW | 20.02.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  105. ^ "2 Germans Admit Arson Attack That Killed 3 Turkish Nationals". The New York Times. 2 December 1992.
  106. ^ Faas, Daniel (2016), "Muslims in Germany: from guest workers to citizens?", in Triandafyllidou, Anna (ed.), Muslims in 21st Century Europe: Structural and Cultural Perspectives, Routledge, p. 63, ISBN 978-1134004454
  107. ^ Chin, Rita; Fehrenbach, Heide (2010), "German Democracy and the Question of Difference, 1945-1995", in Chin, Rita; Fehrenbach, Heide; Eley, Geoff; Grossmann, Atina (eds.), After the Nazi Racial State: Difference and Democracy in Germany and Europe, University of Michigan Press, p. 117, ISBN 978-0472025787
  108. ^ "Thousands of Germans Rally for the Slain Turks". The New York Times. 4 June 1993.
  109. ^ Pidd, Helen; Harding, Luke (16 November 2011). "German neo-Nazi terrorists had 'hitlist' of 88 political targets". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  110. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (12 November 2011). "Braune Zelle Zwickau: Neonazi-Terroristen hinterließen Geständnis auf DVD - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Panorama". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  111. ^ "SPIEGEL.TV - Web-TV der SPIEGEL Gruppe". Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  112. ^ Der Spiegel, 31 August 2009, p. 65.
  113. ^ "Woman killed in courtroom bloodbath was pregnant". The Local. 3 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  114. ^ Connolly, Kate (10 May 2016). "One dead, three injured in knife attack at train station near Munich". The Guardian. Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  115. ^ "Gejagt von Wahnvorstellungen und Islam-Angst". Wolfsburger-Allgemeine (in German). 7 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  116. ^ "Germany: Dresden mosque bombed in 'xenophobic' attack". Al Jazeera. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  117. ^ "German police detain suspect in Dresden mosque attack". The Times of Israel. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  118. ^ "Mann gesteht Schüsse in Bäckerei". Der Spiegel. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  119. ^ "Amokfahrt von Bottrop: Fuhr Täter an weiteren Orten gezielt auf Menschen zu?". 23 January 2019.
  120. ^ "Attacke in Bottrop: Autofahrer hatte die "klare Absicht, Ausländer zu töten"" [Attack in Bottrop: Car driver had "clear intention to kill foreigners"]. Spiegel Online (in German). 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  121. ^ "Suspected far-right attacker 'intentionally' rams car into crowd of Syrian and Afghan citizens in Germany". The Independent. 1 January 2019.
  122. ^ "Man drives into crowd in Germany, injuring 4 in apparent attack on foreigners, police say". Los Angeles Times. 2 January 2019.
  123. ^ "Silvesternacht in Bottrop: Mann fährt gezielt Fußgänger um - möglicherweise Anschlag". Spiegel Online (in German). 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  124. ^ "ZEIT ONLINE | Lesen Sie mit Werbung oder im PUR-Abo. Sie haben die Wahl".
  125. ^ "Messerangriff in der Straßenbahn: 27-Jähriger gesteht". buten un binnen. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  126. ^ a b AA, Daily Sabah with (12 June 2019). "Anti-Muslim attacks target three mosques in two days in Germany". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  127. ^ "German gunman calling for genocide kills 9 people". AP NEWS. 20 February 2020.
  128. ^ "Hanau-Morde: Zeuge schildert die schrecklichen Szenen - Video von Überwachungskamera aufgetaucht". 22 February 2020.
  129. ^ "Germany boosts security against far-right threat". BBC News. 21 February 2020.
  130. ^ "Greece: Refugees attacked and in 'hellish conditions' on Kos". Amnesty International. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  131. ^ "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings". Amnesty International. 27 April 2007.
  132. ^ Freedom Lost by Mark Lattimer, 13 December 2007 in The Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2016
  133. ^ George J. Church,"When Fury Rules", Time 7 March 1994 (subscription required)
  134. ^ "West Bank mosque fire 'was arson'". BBC News. 6 May 2010.
  135. ^ Lappin, Yaakov (10 June 2010), "Mosque vandals 'influenced by flotilla'", The Jerusalem Post, retrieved 13 August 2010
  136. ^ Hassan Shaalan (22 August 2012). "In wake of lynch, Arabs fear the streets". Ynetnews.
  137. ^ "Israeli settlers kidnap, burn and kill Palestinian boy in Jerusalem". 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  138. ^ Zion, Ilan Ben & Gross, Judah Ari (3 December 2015). "Israel Arrests Jewish Terror Suspects in Deadly Firebombing". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 25 December 2016. Police and Shin Bet security service agents recently arrested multiple Jewish terror suspects who may have been involved in the fatal firebombing of the Dawabsha family home in the Palestinian village of Duma…{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  139. ^ Hovel, Revital (17 July 2017). "Israeli Christian Charged With Murdering His Teen Daughter Over Relationship With Muslim". Haaretz. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  140. ^ "East Timor". Archived from the original on 7 January 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  141. ^ "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (3) - Salam Online". 13 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  142. ^ "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (2) - Salam Online". 8 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  143. ^ "Mengenal Sosok Intelijen Anti-Islam (1) - Salam Online". 8 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  144. ^ "Jelang Ajal, Sang 'Islam Phobi' Theo Syafei Diserang Kanker Otak Langka - VOA-ISLAM.COM". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  145. ^ "BEKAM STERIL JAKARTA Klinik Terapi Pengobatan Bekam Panggilan di Jakarta Jasa Layanan Bekam Center - Atom". Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  146. ^ "Political disillusionment shadows presidential election". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  147. ^ "Tokoh Senior PDIP Theo Syafei Meninggal". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  148. ^ "Tokoh Senior PDIP Theo Syafei Meninggal". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  149. ^ "Sumargono dengan Para Tokoh". Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  150. ^ Charu Gupta and Mukul Sharma (July 1996). "Communal constructions: media reality vs real reality". Race & Class 38 (1). doi:10.1177/030639689603800101. Retrieved 8 February 2013
  151. ^ Shani, Ornit (2007). Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat. Cambridge University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-521-72753-2.
  152. ^ Corporation, British Broadcasting (11 May 2005). "Gujarat riot death toll revealed". BBC.
  153. ^ "NIA to nail Hindu radicals in Malegaon chargesheet". The Times of India. 13 May 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  154. ^ "Ajmer blast case: Two 'RSS pracharaks' sentenced life imprisonment". 20 August 2018.
  155. ^ "India jails Hindu radicals for life over Ajmer Sharif shrine blast". 22 March 2017.
  156. ^ "Troops deployed to quell deadly communal clashes between Hindus, Muslims in north India". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  157. ^ Adrija Bose (8 September 2013). "Firstpost India IBN7 journalist killed in UP communal riots, Army clamps curfewIBN7 journalist killed in UP communal riots, Army clamps curfew". Firstpost. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  158. ^ Ahmed Ali Fayyaz (8 September 2013). "9 killed in communal riots in Muzaffarnagar, curfew clamped, army deployed". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  159. ^ "Fresh clashes in UPs Muzaffarnagar leave 26 dead, Army deployed in affected areas". The Hindustan Times. 7 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  160. ^ "Rebels kill 23 in Assam for not voting for Bodos". Times of India. 3 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  161. ^ "Indian man lynched over beef rumours". BBC News. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  162. ^ "Dadri: Outrage after mob lynches man for allegedly consuming beef". The Indian Express. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  163. ^ "Indian mob kills man over beef eating rumour". Al Jazeera. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  164. ^ "Bisara faces political polarisation". Deccan Herald. 3 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  165. ^ "Gujarat communal clash: Mob came thrice, bigger each time, says survivor". The Indian Express. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  166. ^ Raj, Suhasini (5 April 2017). "Hindu Cow Vigilantes in Rajasthan, India, Beat Muslim to Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  167. ^ Dey, Sanjoy (7 April 2017). "Muslim man tied to tree, beaten to death for being in love with Hindu woman". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  168. ^ "Muslims on India train assaulted 'because they ate beef'". BBC News. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  169. ^ "Muslim family attacked with iron rods, robbed by 30-35 men on a train in UP". Times Now. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  170. ^ "Muslims flee Indian village after singer killed in argument with Hindu priest - police". Reuters. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  171. ^ "Delhi Riots Death Toll at 53, Here Are the Names of 51 of the Victims". The Wire. 6 March 2020.
  172. ^ Dhume, Sadanand (18 April 2019). "Opinion | India's Government Considers a 'Muslim Ban'". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  173. ^ "'Anti-Muslim' citizenship law challenged in India court". BBC News. 12 December 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  174. ^ "Narendra Modi Looks the Other Way as New Delhi Burns". Time. 28 February 2020.
  175. ^ "Anti-Muslim violence in Delhi serves Modi well". The Guardian. 26 February 2020.
  176. ^ "Modi slammed as death toll in New Delhi violence rises". Al-Jazeera. 26 February 2020.
  177. ^ "Narendra Modi's Reckless Politics Brings Mob Rule to New Delhi". The Wire. 27 February 2020.
  178. ^ Kamdar, Mira (28 February 2020). "What Happened in Delhi Was a Pogrom". The Atlantic. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  179. ^ "AP finds mass graves, latest evidence of Rohingya genocide in Myanmar". Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  180. ^ "U.N. genocide advisor: Myanmar waged 'scorched-earth campaign' against the Rohingya". Los Angeles Times. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  181. ^ Wilkinson, Bard (12 March 2018). "UN official convinced of Myanmar Rohingya 'genocide'". CNN. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  182. ^ "UN Security Council: End disgraceful inaction on Myanmar's Rohingya crisis". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  183. ^ a b Renaud, Egreteau (19 October 2009). "Burma (Myanmar) 1930–2007". SciencePo. Mass Violence and Resistance – Research Network. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  184. ^ Democratic Voice of Burma, Media conference (19–20 July, Oslo) Burmese Media: Past, present and future by U Thaung (Mirror/Kyae Mon news paper Retired Chief Editor)
  185. ^ Yegar Muslims; p. 32, paragraph 4; p. 36, paragraph 1, lines 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15
  186. ^ a b "Riots In Burmese History". CNN. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  187. ^ "Home". Archived from the original on 24 August 2012.
  188. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Nay Pyi Taw" (PDF). Archived from the original on 13 October 2012.
  189. ^ "Myanmar gov't refutes accusations of religious persecution, discrimination in Rakhine incident – Xinhua |". 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  190. ^ "The Dark Side of Transition: Violence Against Muslims in Myanmar" (PDF). The International Crisis Group. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  191. ^ "Wirathu's 'Buddhist Woman Raped' Facebook Post Stokes Anti-Muslim Violence in Mandalay". International Business Times UK. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  192. ^ "Curfew imposed in Myanmar's second-largest city after riots – Channel NewsAsia". Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  193. ^ "Curfew imposed in Myanmar as gang violence escalates". Myanmar News. Net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  194. ^ a b "Mob burns down mosque in Myanmar". Al Jazeera. 2 July 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  195. ^ "Myanmar: Rohingya Muslim Stoned To Death By Buddhist Mob". Outlook. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  196. ^ Lewis, Simon (5 July 2017). "Mob kills Rohingya Muslim with bricks in street attack as violence against group intensifies in Burma". The Independent. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  197. ^ Stoter, Brenda (16 March 2016). "Netherlands mosque attacks and rising Islamophobia". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  198. ^ "Men jailed for arson attack on mosque, it was a terrorist act says court". 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  199. ^ "Dutch court convicts 5 men for mosque arson attack". Fox News. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  200. ^ "Islamic Centre set on fire in Netherlands". The Nation. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  201. ^ Hansen, Ståle (9 January 2013). "Oslos hemmelige historie". NRK.
  202. ^ "Eksplosjonen i Oslo sentrum 22. juli 2011" [The explosion in Oslo 22 July 2011] (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  203. ^ "Dette er Breivik tiltalt for" [Breivik's indictment] (in Norwegian). NRK. 7 March 2012.
  204. ^ a b "Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response". Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 26 January 2012.
  205. ^ a b "Læring for bedre beredskap; Helseinnsatsen etter terrorhendelsene 22. juli 2011" (in Norwegian). 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  206. ^ "Slik skaffet han politiuniformen" [How he obtained the uniform]. NRK (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011.
  207. ^ "Slik var Behring Breivik kledd for å drepe" [How Behring Breivik was dressed to kill]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 20 November 2011.
  208. ^ "Terrorofrene på Utøya og i Oslo". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  209. ^ "Navn på alle terrorofre offentliggjort". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  210. ^ "En av de sårede døde på sykehuset" [One of the wounded died in hospital]. Østlendingen (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  211. ^ Sindre Bangstad (28 August 2012). "After Anders Breivik's conviction, Norway must confront Islamophobia". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  212. ^ "AFP: Norway remembers 77 victims a month after massacre". 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  213. ^ Starla Muhammad (19 August 2011). "Tragedy in Norway Borne Out of Seeds of Racism and Intolerance in UK, EU". New America Media. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  214. ^ Godfrey, Hannah (19 August 2011). "Utøya island shooting victims return to scene of Breivik's killing spree". The Guardian. London.
  215. ^ Birnbaum, Elisa; Goodman, David J. (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  216. ^ Thjømøe, Silje Løvstad (22 April 2015). "Tiltalt for rasistisk motivert vold: "Fucking muslims, you don't have anything to do here"". VG Nett (in Norwegian Bokmål).
  217. ^ "Woman attempted to set fire to Oslo mosque". The Local. 20 May 2016. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  218. ^ Norway mosque attack: Bruised suspect Manshaus appears in court, BBC, 12 August 2019
  219. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (11 August 2019). "Norway mosque shooting suspect was inspired by Christchurch and El Paso attackers, 4chan post suggests". The Independent. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  220. ^ "Tildelt medaljen for edel dåd" (in Norwegian Bokmål). 24 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  221. ^ "Philip Manshaus" (in Norwegian Bokmål). 10 August 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  222. ^ Majul, Cesar Adib (2015). The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the Philippines. BookBaby. p. 50. ISBN 9781483555584. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  223. ^ Larousse, William (2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 136. ISBN 978-8876528798.
  224. ^ Landis, Dan; Albert, Rosita D. (2012). Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 79. ISBN 978-1461404484.
  225. ^ a b "1,500 Moro massacre victims during Martial Law honored". Mindanews. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  226. ^ Santos, Chyna (11 April 2015). "Violence in Mindanao". The Guidon. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  227. ^ "Christian militia kills five Muslims in Philippines". Dawn. 3 November 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  228. ^ "Łyszczarz, Michał, and Stefan M. Marcinkiewicz. "Radykalizacja antymuzułmańskiego i antyimigranckiego dyskursu w mediach społecznościowych w latach 2016 i 2017 na przykładzie wydarzeń w Ełku." Uniwersyteckie Czasopismo Socjologiczne/Academic Journal of Sociology 22.1 (2019)".
  229. ^ a b "Tunisian charged over Poland stabbing that sparked riot". BBC News. 2 January 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  230. ^ "Zamieszki w Ełku po śmierci 21-latka. Lokal z kebabem zniszczony" [From the early morning in the place where the 21-year-old died, people gathered to lit candles next to the kebab restaurant. From around noon, young people started to appear around the gastronomic premises and at one point, began to shout slogans against foreigners and the police who had assembled on the scene...In total, around 300 people gathered on Armii Krajowej street. At some point, stones, bottles, and cobblestones began to fly from the crowd towards the premises. Within minutes, the kebab shop was demolished. The window was broken and firecrackers were thrown inside.]. (in Polish). Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  231. ^ a b Died by the kebab knife, NRC Handelsblad, 29 December 2017, Roeland Termote & Pieter van Os
  232. ^ a b "Zawadzka, Anna. "Drinking vodka with anti-Semites. A case study of 'Polish-Jewish relations' today." Adeptus 11 (2018): 1-23" (PDF).
  233. ^ Warsaw Muslim centre attack renews Islamophobia fears, Al Jazeera, Agnieszka Pikulicka-Wilczewska 7 December 2017
  234. ^ Poland probes mosque attack, far-right ‘gallows’ protest, 27 November 2017, Associated Press (TOI reprint)
  235. ^ Norman Lebrecht (3 October 2017). "ANTI-ISLAM PROTESTS AT ROMANIAN OPERA HOUSE".
  236. ^ "Islamophobia in Russia". 16 October 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  237. ^ "More Racism in Russia". Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  238. ^ "Institute for War and Peace Reporting". 26 June 2002. Archived from the original on 26 June 2002. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  239. ^ "Страница не найдена « Мануфактурный вестник". 9 September 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2004.
  240. ^ Danilova, Maria (22 August 2006). "2 Accused of Hate Crime in Moscow Blast". The Washington Post.
  241. ^ "Moscow attack 'may be race hate'". BBC News. 22 August 2006.
  242. ^ a b Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 8.
  243. ^ MICHAEL SCHWIRTZ (9 June 2008). "Family identifies son in Russian beheading video - The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  244. ^ a b c Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 13.
  245. ^ Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja (1992). Buddhism Betrayed?: Religion, Politics, and Violence in Sri Lanka. University of Chicago Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-226-78950-0.
  246. ^ Gunasinghe, Newton (2004). "4: The Open Economy and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in Sri Lanka". In Winslow, Deborah; Woost, Michael D. (eds.). Economy, Culture, and Civil War in Sri Lanka. Indiana University Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-253-34420-4.
  247. ^ Gunawardena, Charles A. (25 March 2018). Encyclopedia of Sri Lanka. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 9781932705485 – via Google Books.
  248. ^ "May 1915". Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  249. ^ "—Daily News Online Edition - Sri lanka :: Print Page".
  250. ^ THE NORTHEAST SECRETARIAT ON HUMAN RIGHTS (NESOHR) Archived 8 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Massacres of Tamils (1956-2008)p. 14–15. Chennai: Manitham Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-81-909737-0-0
  251. ^ "Reports". Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  252. ^ The New York Times, Tamils Kill 110 Muslims at 2 Sri Lankan Mosques, 5 August 1990
  253. ^ The Times, Tamils kill 116 Muslims, 13 August 1990
  254. ^ Associated Press, Tamil Rebels Order Muslims to Leave City, 17 June 1995
  255. ^ "Hindu On Net "A timely and prudent step by the LTTE"". Archived from the original on 7 December 2004. Retrieved 30 April 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  256. ^ "Sri Lanka: Deliberate killings of Muslim and Tamil villagers in Polonnaruwa". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011.
  257. ^ "Sri Lanka's forgotten massacre". BBC News. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  258. ^ Letter sent by the Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the Centre for Human Rights, Government of Sri Lanka, 9 August 1994
  259. ^ "South Asia Intelligence Review (SAIR), Weekly Assessments & Briefings".
  260. ^ "For a place in the sun". The Hindu. 15 July 2001. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.
  261. ^ Information Laboratories (Pvt.) Ltd. (12 February 1998). "The Sunday Times News/Comment Section". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  262. ^ "Interplay between competition for scarce resources and identity issues in the May 2001 Riots of Mawanella" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  263. ^ "THE MAY 2001 RIOTS IN MAWANELLA: A SOCIOLOGICAL ACCOUNT" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2014.
  264. ^ "SOUTH ASIA INTELLIGENCE REVIEW Weekly Assessments & Briefings Volume 5, No. 12, October 2, 2006". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
  265. ^ Colombage, Dinouk (17 June 2014). "n Pictures: Sri Lanka hit by religious riots". Al Jazeera.
  266. ^ "Sri Lankan riots spark international concern". Gulf Times. Agence France-Presse. 16 June 2014.
  267. ^ Karunarathne, Waruni (22 June 2014). "The Human Tragedy Of Aluthgama". The Sunday Leader.
  268. ^ "Religious Riots Kill 3 Muslims in Sri Lanka". Voice of America. 16 June 2014.
  269. ^ Athas, Iqbal; Hume, Tim (20 June 2014). "Fear, shock among Sri Lankan Muslims in aftermath of Buddhist mob violence". CNN.
  270. ^ "Sri Lanka police hit back after media flak over deadly riots". The Times of India. Agence France-Presse. 22 June 2014.
  271. ^ "Muslim businesses stay shut in Colombo after ethnic riots". Oman Tribune. Agence France-Presse. 19 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015.
  272. ^ "Sectarian violence in south declared off-limits for media". Reporters Without Borders. 17 June 2014.
  273. ^ Visa, Lluís; Congostrina, Alfonso L. (24 September 2014). "Medical student arrested over stabbing of five people in Lleida". El País.
  274. ^ "La Policía investiga la acción neonazi en la mezquita de la M-30". El Mundo. 23 March 2016.
  275. ^ "Dos 'ultras' pegan una patada en Barcelona a una embarazada con 'niqab'". 7 September 2016.
  276. ^ a b "Islamophobia is on the rise in Spain". 5 March 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  277. ^ "Una jueza rebaja a "lesiones" una grave agresión islamófoba a tres menores investigada por la Guardia Civil". 23 August 2017.
  278. ^ "Varios jóvenes atacan a una mujer musulmana en Madrid". La Vanguardia. 24 August 2017.
  279. ^ a b c "Arson attack on Malmö mosque". The Local. 22 October 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  280. ^ a b "Brandattentat i natt mot moské". Aftonbladet. 22 October 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  281. ^ Adetunji, Jo (22 October 2010). "Swedish police hunt gunman targeting immigrants". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  282. ^ "Arson attack at Swedish mosque leaves five injured". euronews. 26 December 2014.
  283. ^ "Five hurt in mosque arson attack".
  284. ^ "Source: Police "no longer suspect arson" at Eskilstuna mosque". Sveriges Radio. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  285. ^ "Local newspaper: Eskilstuna mosque fire caused by deep-fryer". Sveriges Radio. 9 March 2015.
  286. ^ "Report deep fryer started mosque fire". The Local. 9 March 2015.
  287. ^ David Crouch (29 December 2014). "Swedish mosque set ablaze in second suspected arson attack in a week". the Guardian.
  288. ^ "Second Swedish Mosque Targeted in Suspected Arson Attack". 29 December 2014.
  289. ^ "Uppsala mosque hit in third firebomb attack".
  290. ^ "Sweden hit by third mosque arson attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 January 2015.
  291. ^ "Sweden suffers third mosque arson attack in a week". The National. January 2015.
  292. ^ "Tre dödsoffer: Vuxen, elev och gärningsman" [Three deaths: adult, student and perpetrator]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  293. ^ "Sweden sword attack: Two dead after masked attacker strikes". BBC News. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  294. ^ "Tredje offret död efter skolattacken".
  295. ^ Altuntas, Atila (21 February 2017). "Arson attack on Islamic center in Sweden". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  296. ^ "Man with alleged Nazi links admits driving his car into a refugee demonstration in Malmö". The Local. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  297. ^ "Moschee-Schütze hat auch Ex-Kollegen getötet". 20 Minuten. 20 December 2016.
  298. ^ "Swiss shooting: Three wounded near Zurich Islamic centre". BBC. 19 December 2016.
  299. ^ "Three injured in gun attack on Zurich mosque". The Guardian. 19 December 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  300. ^ Islamische Zentralrat Schweiz (20 December 2016). "Offene Fragen nach Anschlag auf Zürcher Moschee".
  301. ^ Vikram Dood (13 July 2005). "Islamophobia blamed for attack". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  302. ^ "Muslim teenager stabbed during attack on UK mosque". Arabic News. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  303. ^ a b c d Stahnke et al. 2008, p. 10.
  304. ^ Siddique, Haroon (16 October 2009). "Man convicted of killing Qatari student". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  305. ^ Islamic charity fire 'deliberate' BBC News, 6 July 2009
  306. ^ "Ex-soldiers jailed for mosque attack". BBC News. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  307. ^ "Ukrainian student in one man racist reign of terror targeting Black Country mosques". Express & Star. 22 October 2013.
  308. ^ Association, Press (6 February 2017). "Man admits pulling niqab off Muslim woman in Sunderland". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  309. ^ Kelly, Karon (6 February 2017). "Man pulled veil from Muslim woman's face in Sunderland race attack". Sunderland Echo. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  310. ^ Bulman, May (4 July 2017). "Man who ripped off woman's veil while shouting "You f***ing stupid Muslim" is jailed". The Independent. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  311. ^ Kentish, Ben (8 February 2017). "Man charged with racially aggravated assault on Muslim woman who lost unborn twins". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  312. ^ "Man jailed for pregnant woman attack at Bletchley Co-op". BBC News. 22 May 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  313. ^ Osborne, Samuel (12 December 2016). "Forest Hill stabbing: Attacker shouted 'I want to kill a Muslim' while chasing passengers". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  314. ^ Bulman, May (17 December 2016). "Mosque sprayed with Islamophobic graffiti in 'worrying' attack in Scotland". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  315. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (16 December 2016). "Muslim woman dragged along pavement by hijab in London hate crime attack". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  316. ^ Revesz, Rachael (23 May 2017). "Mosque attacked by arsonists in Oldham in suspected revenge attack for Manchester bombing". The Independent. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  317. ^ "British PM May Condemns 'Sickening' Attack on Muslims". Voice of America. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  318. ^ See:
  319. ^ Finnegan, Stephanie (26 June 2017). "Muslim knocked unconscious by thugs who then vandalised his home with racist graffiti quoting Katie Hopkins' "final solution" tweet". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  320. ^ Keeling, Neal (26 June 2017). "Boy, 13, battered by racist gang while he played in the park, after they asked 'are you a P**i?'". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  321. ^ Bardsley, Andrew (11 September 2017). "Man set his dog on Muslims and ordered it to bite them during 'campaign of racism'". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  322. ^ Dodd, Vikram (27 October 2017). "Muslim woman hit by car in Leicester was hate crime victim, police say". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  323. ^ Yarwood, Sam; Smithers, Dominic (24 September 2017). "Man attacked from behind and stabbed in the neck as he arrived at a mosque for evening prayers". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  324. ^ Reporters, Telegraph (26 September 2017). "Muslim surgeon stabbed outside mosque has 'totally forgiven' attacker". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  325. ^ Britton, Paul (10 October 2017). "Boy, 12, who stamped on Muslim schoolboy's head in race hate gang attack warned he could be locked up". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  326. ^ "Teenager to be charged with assault after 'Syrian refugee' is allegedly attacked at Huddersfield school". The Telegraph. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  327. ^ Clarke-Billings, Lucy (28 November 2018). "'Waterboarded' Syrian refugee's sister attempted suicide after headscarf attack". The Mirror. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  328. ^ "Stanwell stabbing: Terror investigation in Surrey". BBC News. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  329. ^ a b Linenthal, Edward (2003). The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-19-516107-6.
  330. ^ a b c "Arab American Institute 2001 report submitted to the United States Commission on Civil Rights" (PDF). Arab American Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007.
  331. ^ Oswald, Debra L. (September 2005). "Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9): 1775–1799. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02195.x.
  332. ^ "'Vibes Made Man Kill... and Confess, Police Say". The New York Times. 1 April 2003. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  333. ^ "Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks". US News. CNN. 17 September 2001. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  334. ^ "SRK detained at Newark airport over 'Khan' name (Second Lead)". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  335. ^ "The world sees Muslims differently: Mahesh Bhatt". The Times Of India. 15 August 2009. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  336. ^ "Anti-Islam course in U.S. military part of 'wider problem': activists". Al-Arabiya. 14 May 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  337. ^ "U.S. military embarrassed by Islamophobic lectures". The Hindu. 11 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  338. ^ Kolsy, Uzma (14 August 2012). "There's a crime wave targeting houses of worship, most of them Muslim. Is something sinister at work?". Salon. Archived from the original on 8 December 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  339. ^ Gould, Eric D.; Klor, Esteban F. (1 July 2015). "The Long-run Effect of 9/11: Terrorism, Backlash, and the Assimilation of Muslim Immigrants in the West". The Economic Journal. 126 (597): 2064–2114. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12219. hdl:10.1111/ecoj.12219. ISSN 1468-0297. S2CID 55809315.
  340. ^ "Remembering Victims of Hate Crimes". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  341. ^ "Sodhi murder trial begins". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  342. ^ Williams, Timothy (18 July 2011). "The Hated and the Hater, Both Touched by Crime". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  343. ^ a b Fanelli, James (16 September 2007). "MUSLIM BIZ GAL BEATEN". Archived from the original on 28 June 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  344. ^ "Warnings against Quran burning plan". Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  345. ^ Pastor Terry Jones: 'We will not burn the Quran' - US news - Security - NBC News . NBC News (9 November 2010). Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  346. ^ Gainesville's Dove World Outreach Center denied it is responsible for violence in Afghanistan over its burning of the Quran Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, (1 April 2011). Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  347. ^ "Taxi driver stabbed after passenger asks if he's Muslim". CNN. 26 August 2010. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  348. ^ Karoub, Jeff; Watson, Julie (2 February 2011). "Mosque plot suspect planted bomb in airport in '85". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  349. ^ a b Jeff Karoub (8 April 2011). "Mosque plot suspect calls case absurd". Associated Press. Retrieved 31 December 2018.[dead link]
  350. ^ "California man jailed in alleged attempt to blow up Dearborn mosque". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011.
  351. ^ "Detroit free Press: "Experts: M-80s dangerous, but can't blow up a mosque"". Archived from the original on 4 February 2011.
  352. ^ Santora, Marc (29 December 2012). "Woman Is Charged With Murder as a Hate Crime in a Fatal Subway Push". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  353. ^ Lindelof, Bill (22 December 2016). "Man convicted in slaying of Iraqi artist at Florin Road Home Depot". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  354. ^ Magagnini, Stephen (28 March 2014). "Family mourns artist who fled violence in Iraq only to be killed in a Sacramento parking lot". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  355. ^ "Interfaith vigil held for slain teen Abdisamad Sheikh-Hussein". 41 Action News. 7 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  356. ^ "FBI investigating the death of somali american teen as a possible hate crime". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  357. ^ Walters, Joanna (6 December 2014). "Community mourns somali muslim death in Kansas city". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  358. ^ Sullivan, Kevin (16 May 2015). "Three Muslims killed in shooting near UNC; police, family argue over motive". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  359. ^ Cleary, Tom (16 May 2015). "Robert Doggart: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  360. ^ Peterson, Zack (26 January 2017). "Tennessee man accused of plot to blow up Muslim community heading to trial". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  361. ^ Lopez, Pablo (24 October 2016). "Fresno man on trial for beating a Sikh, thinking victim was ISIS". The Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  362. ^ Harvard, Sarah A. (1 July 2016). "2 Muslim Men Were Shot Near Minneapolis Mosque, Police Are Investigating as Hate Crime". Mic. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  363. ^ Roberts, Dave (19 July 2016). "Indian immigrant says attacker yelled 'ISIS,' profanities at him before attacking". KETV. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  364. ^ "Queens Imam Murder: Oscar Morel Charged With Killing of Maulama Akonjee". Newseek. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  365. ^ Kestler D'Amours, Jillian (18 August 2016). "Man killed in suspected 'anti-Arab hate crime'". al-Jazeera. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  366. ^ "Man Arrested in Fatal Stabbing of Bangladeshi Woman Some Called 'Hate Crime'". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  367. ^ "NYPD Investigates Possible Hate Crime in Fatal Stabbing of Bangladeshi Woman". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  368. ^ Hyman, Alyssa; Keegan, Charlie (6 February 2017). "Suspect charged in Fort Pierce mosque arson sentenced to 30 years". WPTV. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  369. ^ Laughland, Oliver (22 February 2017). "Kansas town reels months after foiled mosque bombing: 'I'm still scared'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  370. ^ Meyers, Shawnya (21 February 2017). "Two Arrested In Connection To Fort Smith Mosque Vandalism". 5News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  371. ^ del Valle, Lauren (10 September 2016). "2 Muslim women, babies attacked in alleged hate crime". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  372. ^ "Islamic Center of Owensboro vandalized with paint". WHAS-TV. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  373. ^ Marusak, Joe (23 December 2016). "Muslim kindergarten student assaulted by teacher at CMS elementary school, civil rights group claims". The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  374. ^ Gettys, Travis (25 November 2016). "Drunken Pittsburgh man sucker punches oblivious Indian man he mistook for 'sand n****r'". The Charlotte Observer. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  375. ^ Jouvenal, Justin (27 February 2017). "Va. man charged with hate crime after using Muslim slurs, biting victim's face, police say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  376. ^ "Muslim woman pushed down NYC stairs, called "terrorist"". CBS News. 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  377. ^ Stevens, Matt; Hamilton, Matt (12 December 2016). "Man stabs worshiper near Simi Valley mosque in hate crime, police allege". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  378. ^ "Redmond mosque vandalized for second time in a month". Los Angeles Times. 17 December 2016. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  379. ^ Reyna, Rikki; Dimon, Laura; Annese, John (19 December 2016). "Homeless man throws coffee at Muslim woman, calls her 'terrorist' in Manhattan Dunkin' Donuts". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  380. ^ "Shattered windows and bacon investigated as hate crime toward Islamic Center of Davis". ABC10. 22 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  381. ^ Locke, Cathy (24 January 2017). "Burglary, vandalism of Woodland restaurant investigated as hate crime". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  382. ^ Mele, Christopher (16 January 2017). "Man Kicked J.F.K. Airport Worker Wearing Hijab, Prosecutor Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  383. ^ Resnik, Max (1 February 2017). "Roseville Islamic center tagged with hate speech graffiti". KCRA-TV. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  384. ^ "CAIR calling for FBI, local police to investigate after they say local mosque was vandalized". NBC. 11 February 2017. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  385. ^ Brennan, Christopher; Sommerfeldt, Chris (23 February 2016). "Kansas man accused of fatally shooting Indian engineer after shouting 'get out of my country'". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  386. ^ Day, Matt (4 March 2017). "Sikh man in Kent says he was told, 'Go back to your own country' before he was shot". The Seattle News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  387. ^ "Hate crime suspect beats Salem restaurant employee with pipe". KPTV. 10 March 2017. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  388. ^ Raj, Yashwant (13 March 2017). "Man tries to burn store run by Indian-Americans in US, says they are 'Arabs'". The Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  389. ^ Wang, Amy B (12 March 2017). "A man assumed a store's Indian owners were Muslim. So he tried to burn it down, police say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  390. ^ Csillag, Ron (31 March 2017). "Canadian JDL Member Charged in D.C. Beating of Palestinian-American". The Canadian Jewish News. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  391. ^ Sanchick, Myra (11 April 2017). ""Beat me like an animal:" Muslim woman says attacker ripped off her hijab, cut her with knife". Fox 6 News. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  392. ^ Henriksen, Erik (26 May 2017). "Following Hate Speech, Two Dead and One Wounded at Hollywood Transit Center". The Portland Mercury. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  393. ^ Marco, Tony; Chavez, Nicole; Hanna, Jason (27 May 2017). "Man shouting 'anti-everything slurs' kills 2 in Portland, police say". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  394. ^ Windsor, Morgan (28 May 2017). "Portland fatal stabbings point to rise in hate speech, civil rights advocates say". ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 May 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  395. ^ Chuck, Elizabeth (5 August 2017). "Bomb blast shakes Minnesota mosque as worshipers prepare for prayers". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
  396. ^ Parascandola, Rocco (14 September 2017). "Drunken bigot attacks Jewish mom, daughter he mistook for Muslims at Queens subway station: 'Get out of my country'". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  397. ^ "US college football players charged in anti-Muslim beating". Middle East Eye. 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  398. ^ "California mosque fire: police investigate possible arson and hate crime". The Guardian. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  399. ^ "Police: Sunnyvale Rampage Suspect Targeted Victims Because Of Their Race, Muslim Faith". Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  400. ^ "Young Indian American Victim of Possible Hate Crime Struggles for Life in Sunnyvale ICU". Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  401. ^ "Authorities: Army vet thought Muslims among people in Sunnyvale crash". 30 May 2019. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  402. ^ "Vandals deface mural depicting Muslim woman in Highland Park, New Jersey". Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  403. ^ "Man wanted for slashing woman, good Samaritan in suspected anti-Muslim attack on NYC subway".
  404. ^ Fatima, Sakina (27 November 2022). "Man shouts anti-Muslim slogans, slashes Muslim woman's face at NYC subway". The Siasat Daily.
  405. ^ "Mission to Vietnam Advocacy Day (Vietnamese-American Meet up 2013) in…". 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
  406. ^ Taylor, Philip (December 2006). "Economy in Motion: Cham Muslim Traders in the Mekong Delta" (PDF). The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology. 7 (3): 237–250. doi:10.1080/14442210600965174. ISSN 1740-9314. S2CID 43522886. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  407. ^ Airline checks claim of 'Muslim while flying' discrimination Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine CNN 21 November 2006.
  408. ^ Exclusive: Malaga Jet mutiny pair's shock at plane ejectionThe Daily Mirror. 23 August 2006.
  409. ^ Removal of men from holiday flight condemnedThe Guardian. 21 August 2006 Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  410. ^ Muslim pilot kicked off jet in terror alertManchester Evening News. 11 August 2006
  411. ^ Muslim pilot reveals shock at being ordered off flight Archived 7 October 2008 at the Wayback MachineThe Independent. 22 August 2006
  412. ^ "U.S. Muslims outraged after imams kicked off plane"[dead link], The Washington Post, 22 November 2006.
  413. ^ "Probes dismiss imams' racism claim". The Washington Times. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  414. ^ Gardner, Amy (2 January 2009). "9 Muslim Passengers Removed From Jet". Retrieved 15 January 2017 – via
  415. ^ Gardner, Amy; Hsu, Spencer S. (3 January 2009). "Airline Apologizes For Booting 9 Muslim Passengers From Flight". Retrieved 15 January 2017 – via
  416. ^ Lauren Gambino (21 November 2015). "Southwest Airlines criticized after incidents involving Middle Eastern passengers". the Guardian.
  417. ^ "Southwest Airlines accused of profiling Muslims". The Economist. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  418. ^ Erika Howsare (19 December 2006). "Anti-Muslim letter goes out to hundreds – not all are amused". Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  419. ^ "Congressman Will Not Apologize for IslamophobiaBy The Associated Press". Associated Press. 21 December 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  420. ^ Patrik Jonsson (20 July 2005). "Raise your right hand and swear to tell the truth... on the Koran?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  421. ^ "Muslim students 'more tolerant'". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  422. ^ 'Muslim Massacre' Creator Tucks Tail, Apologizes, 14 September 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  423. ^ "GamePolitics News | GamePolitics". Archived from the original on 17 October 2013.
  424. ^ Steinback, Robert (Summer 2011). "Jihad Against Islam". The Intelligence Report. No. 142. Southern Poverty Law Center.
  425. ^ Siemaszko, Corky (25 February 2011). "Southern Poverty Law Center lists anti-Islamic NYC blogger Pamela Geller, followers a hate group". New York Daily News.
  426. ^ "Stop the Islamization of America (SIOA)". Extremism. Anti-Defamation League. 14 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  427. ^
  428. ^ New anti-Muslim ads up in NYC subway stations, CBS News, 9 January 2013.
  429. ^ Emily Anne Epstein, New Anti-Islam Ads to Debut This Month, Now With 25% More MTA Disclaimer, The New York Observer, 7 December 2012.
  430. ^ Matt Flegenheimer (13 December 2012). "Controversial Group Plans More Ads in Subway Stations". New York Times.
  431. ^ Murtaza Hussain, Anti-Muslim violence spiraling out of control in America, Al-Jazeera, 31 December 2012.
  432. ^ Wajahat Ali, Death by brown skin, Salon, 31 December 2012.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit