Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals. Christian terrorists justify their violent tactics through their interpretation of the Bible, in accordance with their own objectives and world view. These interpretations are typically different from those of established Christian denominations.
These terrorist acts can be committed against other Christian denominations, other religions, or a secular government group, individuals or society. Christianity can also be used cynically by terrorists as a rhetorical device to achieve political or military goals.
Christian terrorist groups include paramilitary organizations, cults and loose collections of people that might come together to attempt to terrorize another group. Some groups also encourage terrorist acts by unaffiliated individuals. The paramilitary groups are typically tied to ethnic and political goals as well as religious ones and many of such groups have religious beliefs at odds with conventional Christianity.
Religion can be cited as the motivation for terrorism in conflicts that have a variety of ethnic, economic and political causes, such as the one in Bosnia. In cases such as the Lord's Resistance Army or the Taiping Rebellion the beliefs of the founders differ significantly from what is recognizably Christian. In such cases the term Christian terrorism is problematic despite the claim that they are motivated by their religious beliefs.
The term terrorist can also be applied for disingenuous reasons, to encourage public support for a groups vilification or allow the use of stricter laws in punishing a group or individual. The intimidation of minority communities along with sporadic acts of violence do not typically get referred to as terrorism. However, in 2015 a majority of Americans from both political parties thought that 'attacks on abortion providers [should] be considered domestic terrorism'.
Christianity came to prominence in the Roman Empire during and directly after the rule of Constantine the Great (324-337 AD). By this time it had spread throughout western Asia as a minority belief and became the state religion of Armenia. In early Christianity there were many rival sects, which were collectively persecuted by some rulers. There is, however, no record of indiscriminate violence or attempts to use terror as a religious weapon by early Christian groups.
Once a particular Christian sect or creed gained state backing religious violence increased. This took the form of persecuting adherents to rival Christian beliefs and other religions. In Europe during the Middle Ages Christian antisemitism increased and both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to an increase in interdenominational violence. As with modern examples it is debated as to what extent these acts were religious as opposed to ethnic or political in nature.
The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the recusancy that emerged in opposition to it. The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I, and to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. Although the modern concept of religious terrorism, or indeed terrorism at all, had not yet come into use in the seventeenth century, David C. Rapoport and Lindsay Clutterbuck point out that the Plot, with its use of explosives, was an early precursor of nineteenth century anarchist terrorism. Sue Mahan and Pamala L. Griset classify the plot as an act of religious terrorism, writing that "Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion." Peter Steinfels also characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism.
Orthodox Christian-influenced movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic and fascist, respectively, they were involved in the Bucharest pogrom and committed numerous politically-motivated murders during the 1930s.
Ku Klux KlanEdit
After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, former Confederate soldiers organized the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) organization originally as a social club, which was taken over in the next year by "night rider" elements. It then began engaging in arson, beatings, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering, whipping, and voter intimidation. They targeted newly freed slaves, carpetbaggers and scalawags, and the occupying Union army. That iteration of the Klan disappeared by the 1870s, but in 1915 a new Protestant-led iteration of the Klan was formed in Georgia, during a period of xenophobia and anti-Catholicism. This version of the Klan vastly expanded both its geographical reach and its list of targets over those of the original Klan.
Vehemently anti-Catholic, the 1915 Klan had an explicitly Protestant Christian terrorist ideology, basing its beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity and targeting Jews, Catholics, and other social or ethnic minorities, as well as people who engaged in "immoral" practices such as adulterers, bad debters, gamblers, and alcohol abusers. From an early time onward, the goals of the KKK included an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", and it believed that "Jesus was the first Klansman". Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK.
From 1915 onward, "second era" Klansmen initiated cross burnings (adapted from scenes in the 1915 film Birth of a Nation), not only to intimidate targets, but also to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ. The ritual of lighting crosses was steeped in Christian symbolism, including prayer and hymn singing. Modern Klan organizations remain associated with acts of domestic terrorism in the United States.
Start of modern terrorismEdit
Mark Juergensmeyer, a former president of the American Academy of Religion, has argued that there has been a global rise in religious nationalism after the Cold War due to a post-colonial collapse of confidence in Western models of nationalism and the rise of globalization. Juergensmeyer categorizes contemporary Christian terrorists as being a part of "religious activists from Algeria to Idaho, who have come to hate secular governments with an almost transcendent passion and dream of revolutionary changes that will establish a godly social order in the rubble of what the citizens of most secular societies regard as modern, egalitarian democracies".
According to terrorism expert David C. Rapoport, a "religious wave", or cycle, of terrorism, dates from approximately 1979 to the present. According to Rapoport, this wave most prominently features Islamic terrorism, but it also includes terrorism by Christians and other religious groups that may have been influenced by Islamic terrorism.
Reason for claiming a Christian motivationEdit
Numerous individuals and groups have cited their Christianity or Christian beliefs as the motivation for their terrorist acts. This can mean that they see Christianity as their identity, partially in comparison to another group which they view as threatening and non-Christian. Terrorists can also cite their interpretation of the Bible or Christian beliefs as their motivation. All types of terrorism have a complex interrelationship with psychology and mental health, however only a minority have diagnosable medical illnesses. Christianity can also be disingenuously claimed as a motive to inspire followers or curry political favor or protection. All these motivations are not independent and often complexly interwoven.
Christianity as an identityEdit
Religion is often closely tied to ethnic identity, economic standing and self image. Should a group of Christians feel threatened, religion is a verifiable, culturally important label to use in creating a "them-and-us" mentality. This is particularly the case where both groups are from a broadly similar cultural group, for example the break up of Yugoslavia and the Lords Resistance Army in Uganda. In situations where the opposing ethnicities are more diverse, skin color or cultural practices are also sometimes used as identifiers of the other. In these cases terrorists may identify themselves as Christian, but not be motivated by any particular interpretation of Christian belief. For example Anders Behring Breivik, who considers himself to be 'culturally Christian', claims no strong religious beliefs, but cited saving Christian Europe as motive for his attacks. The use of Christianity in this way serves as a legitimating device for violence and claims solidarity with a wider social group. In such cases Christianity is a label and does not necessarily have connection to any Christian texts, beliefs or practices.
This cultural Christian identity is often reinforced in the mind of the terrorist by media and governmental sources that vilify the other group or amplify its threat. This politicizing of ethno-religious tensions is a key contributor to the violence in the Central African Republic. The targets of this kind of terrorist motivation include other religions or denominations, but can also extend to those that the perpetrator believes to be in any way threatening, such as LGBT or any group that does not conform with the view they have of who they are.
When the opposing group is also Christian but belongs to a different denomination, it is often denounced as non-Christian or anti-Christian. For example the leader of the Orange Volunteers, who described themselves as Protestant fundamentalists, defended their attacks on Catholic churches on the basis that they were "bastions of the Antichrist".
Interpretations of Christian morality or theologyEdit
Perpetrators have cited their often very individual forms of Christianity as both a justification and a motivation for their actions. Typically as with attacks on abortion clinics or LGBT people the perpetrators use a nuanced negativity from an established Church as justification for unsanctioned acts of violence. However, they may also have a wholly individual theology that is unrecognizable as established Christian dogma. Conventional Christian Bible interpretations also offer a number of sanctions against violence as a political or religious weapon.
There are a wide variety of mental health conditions and illness, and it is quite rare for them to lead to violence. Objectivity determining the mental health of a terrorist is often complicated by a number of factors. There is minimal statistically robust information specifically on terrorists who claim Christian motivation. However, one study claims that about 30% of right wing, 52% of single issue and 25% of Al Qaeda related individual terrorists and 8% of those in a terrorist group have a mental illness. Another study found that about 53% of individual terrorists could have been characterized as socially isolated before their attacks. People in some terrorist groups are less likely to have a mental illness than the general population, due to the selection criteria of such groups. Mental illness does not seem to unduly prevent terrorists from performing successful complex attacks.
Tactics of terroristsEdit
Terrorists who claim to have a Christian motivation can act alone or in groups. It is often difficult to determine if the perpetrator acted completely alone or was inspired by a religious or political group. The same problem exists with "Islamic terrorism" or any allegedly religiously or politically motivated act of terror.
On 16 July 2001, Peter James Knight walked into the East Melbourne Fertility Clinic, a private abortion provider, carrying a rifle and other weapons including 16 litres of kerosene, three lighters, torches, 30 gags, and a handwritten note that read "We regret to advise that as a result of a fatal accident involving some members of staff, we have been forced to cancel all appointments today". Knight later stated that he intended to massacre everyone in the clinic, and attack all Melbourne abortion clinics. He developed home made mouth gags and door jambs to restrain all patients and staff inside a clinic while he doused them with the kerosene. He shot 44-year-old Stephen Gordon Rogers, a security guard, in the chest, killing him. Staff and clients overpowered him soon after. He intended to massacre the 15 staff and 26 patients at the clinic by burning them alive.
Eric Robert Rudolph carried out the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, as well as subsequent attacks on an abortion clinic and a lesbian nightclub. Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, considers Rudolph to likely fit the definition of a Christian terrorist. James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, argues that religious considerations inspired Rudolph only in part.
Dr. George Tiller, one of the few doctors in the United States who provided abortions late in pregnancy, was a frequent target of anti-abortion violence and was killed in 2009 by Scott Roeder as he stood in the foyer of his church. A witness who was serving as an usher alongside Dr. Tiller at the church that day told the court that Mr. Roeder entered the foyer, put a gun to the doctor's head and pulled the trigger. At trial, Mr. Roeder admitted to killing Dr. Tiller and said he did it to protect unborn babies. He was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison. At his sentencing, he told the court that God's judgment would "sweep over this land like a prairie wind."
Dr. Tiller was shot once before, in 1993, by Shelley Shannon, an anti-abortion activist who compared abortion providers to Hitler and said she believed that "justifiable force" was necessary to stop abortions. Ms. Shannon was sentenced to 10 years in prison for the shooting of Dr. Tiller and later confessed to vandalizing and burning a string of abortion clinics in California, Nevada and Oregon.
James Kopp was convicted of the murder of Dr. Barnett Slepian, an obstetrician who provided abortion services in the Buffalo area, and has been named a suspect in the shooting of several abortion providers in Canada. Mr. Kopp hid in the woods behind Dr. Slepian's home in October 1998 and shot him through the window with a high-powered rifle, killing him as he stood in his kitchen with his family. Dr. Slepian had just returned from a memorial service for his father when he was killed. Mr. Kopp spent several years on the run in Mexico, Ireland and France before he was captured and extradited to the United States. He was convicted of a state charge of second-degree murder in 2003 and sentenced to 25 years in jail. He was convicted in 2007 on a separate federal charge and sentenced to life in prison. The authorities in Canada also suspect Mr. Kopp in the nonlethal attacks on several abortion providers there who were shot through the windows of their homes. He was charged with the 1995 attempted murder of Dr. Hugh Short, an abortion provider in Ontario, although the charges were dropped after his conviction in New York. The police in Canada also named him a suspect in the 1997 shooting of Dr. Jack Fainman in Winnipeg and the 1994 shooting of Dr. Garson Romalis in Vancouver, which was the first attack on an abortion provider in Canada.
The November 2015 Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting, in which three were killed and nine injured, was described as "a form of terrorism" by Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper. The gunman, Robert Lewis Dear, was described as a "delusional" man who had written on a cannabis internet forum that "sinners" would "burn in hell" during the end times, and had also written about smoking marijuana and propositioned women for sex. He had praised the Army of God, saying that attacks on abortion clinics are "God's work". Dear's ex-wife said he had put glue on a lock of a Planned Parenthood clinic, and in court documents for their divorce she said "He claims to be a Christian and is extremely evangelistic, but does not follow the Bible in his actions. He says that as long as he believes he will be saved, he can do whatever he pleases. He is obsessed with the world coming to an end." Authorities said that he spoke of "no more baby parts" in a rambling interview after his arrest.
Anders Behring Breivik was convicted for the 2011 Norway attacks, in which he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo and then shot dead 69 participants at a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya, leaving 77 dead. On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, describing his militant ideology. In them, he lays out a worldview that encompasses opposition to Islam and blames feminism for causing Europe's "cultural suicide". The texts call Islam and "Cultural Marxism" the enemy and advocate the deportation of all Muslims from Europe based on the model of the Beneš decrees, while also claiming that feminism and Islam exist to destroy Christian European culture. Breivik wrote that his main motive for the atrocities was to market his manifesto. Breivik contends that he is waging a Christian Crusade against multiculturalism and believes that the attacks were "necessary". His manifesto also states that its author is "100 percent Christian", but he is not "excessively religious". Nevertheless, he said he planned to pray to God for help during his attacks. Before the attacks, he stated an intention to attend Frogner Church in a final "Martyr's mass". In 2015, Breivik claimed to be an Odinist, but Breivik and others have previously linked his religious beliefs to Christianity during the attacks.
Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that the information on Breivik's websites was "so to speak, Christian fundamentalist" and many mainstream media such as The New York Times have described him a Christian fundamentalist. Others, however, have disputed Andresen's characterisation of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist.
Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder were a gay couple from Redding, California, who were murdered by Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams in 1999. Neighbors said that the family was known for its fundamentalist Christian beliefs, and that recordings of sermons and religious music were often heard from their house. The two perpetrators are believed to have had ties to the Christian Identity movement. They were also suspected of playing a role in 18 arson attacks on three synagogues.
In 1996 three men—Charles Barbee, Robert Berry and Jay Merelle—were charged with two bank robberies and bombings at the banks, a Spokane newspaper, and a Planned Parenthood office in Washington State. The men were anti-Semitic Christian Identity theorists who believed that God wanted them to carry out violent attacks and they also believed that such attacks would hasten the ascendancy of the Aryan race.
In 2015, Robert Doggart, a 63-year-old mechanical engineer, was indicted for solicitation to commit a civil rights violation by intending to damage or destroy religious property after communicating that he intended to amass weapons to attack Islamberg, an Islamic hamlet and religious community in Delaware County, New York. Doggart, a member of several private militia groups, communicated to an FBI source in a phone call that he had an M4 carbine with "500 rounds of ammunition" that he intended to take to the Delaware County enclave, along with a handgun, molotov cocktails and a machete. The FBI source recorded him saying "if it gets down to the machete, we will cut them to shreds". Doggart had previously travelled to a site in Dover, Tennessee, which had been described as a "jihadist training camp", in chain emails and found that the claims were wrong. In April, Doggart accepted a plea bargain and stated that he had "willfully and knowingly sent a message in interstate commerce containing a true threat" to injure someone. The plea bargain was struck down by a judge because it did not contain enough facts to constitute a true threat. Doggart, who describes himself as a Christian minister in the "Christian National (Congregational) Church" (apparently the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches). None of the charges against him are terrorism related, however, some groups have described his actions as such.
According to University of Auckland Professor Douglas Pratt, who is an international expert in religious terrorism, the Christchurch mosque shootings which killed 51 people and injured 50 more (primarily Muslims) at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand were a form of "Christian terrorism" and white supremacy. Australia-born Christchurch shooter Brenton Harrison Tarrant's manifesto The Great Replacement named after the French far-right theory of the same name quoted Pope Urban II (who ordered The First Crusade) and his speech demanding the retaking of Jerusalem, the death of 11-year-old Swedish girl Ebba Akerlund, NATO involvement in Kosovo, a desire to retake Istanbul (aka Constantinople) from Turkey to have in Christian hands and the motives listed was in his own words revenge against Islam. The shooter's rifles were covered with white supremacist symbols and names of various historical figures and battles between Muslims and non-Muslims such as Charles Martel and Skanderbeg as well as the Battle of Tours in 732 and Battle of Vienna in 1683.
The perpetrator of the Pittsburgh Tree of Life synagogue shooting Robert Bowers cited a Bible quote about Jesus Christ on the bio of his now defunct Gab account. Similarly the Poway synagogue shooting suspect John T. Earnest also used Bible quotes to justify the attack and had burned down a mosque in Escondido, California earlier in March 2019.
- B. Hoffman, "Inside Terrorism", Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 105–120. ISBN 978-0231126991
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and Terrorism: An Interfaith Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 9780275969233.
- Hoffman, Bruce (1995). ""Holy terror": The implications of terrorism motivated by a religious imperative". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 18 (4): 271–284. doi:10.1080/10576109508435985. ISSN 1057-610X.
- Pratt, Douglas (2010). "Religion and Terrorism: Christian Fundamentalism and Extremism". Terrorism and Political Violence. 22 (3): 438–456. doi:10.1080/09546551003689399. ISSN 0954-6553.
- "Pope makes 'Christmas wish' for fraternity to overcome violence, conflict". Crux. 25 December 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- "What is the Lord's Resistance Army?". Christian Science Monitor. 8 November 2011. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Bruce Hoffman (1998). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11468-4.
- Flynn, Daniel (29 July 2014). "Insight - Gold, diamonds feed Central African religious violence". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (1 September 2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93061-2.
- Barkun, Michael (1996). "preface". Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. University of North Carolina Press. pp. x. ISBN 978-0-8078-4638-4.
- Horgan, John; Braddock, Kurt (2012). Terrorism Studies: A Reader. Routledge. ISBN 9780415455046.
- Camacho, Daniel José (23 March 2018). "Why Mark Anthony Conditt – a white Christian – isn't called a terrorist | Daniel José Camacho". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- "Pope tells U.S. summit "No people is criminal, no religion is terrorist"". Crux. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Rapoport, David C. (2006). Terrorism: The fourth or religious wave. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN 9780415316545.
- Judah, Tim (2000). The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300085075.
- Thompson, John B. "The World's Bloodiest Civil War". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Shariatmadari, David (27 January 2015). "Is it time to stop using the word 'terrorist'?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Shelton, Tracey (21 July 2018). "'An intrinsically political act': How the word terrorism is used and misused around the world". ABC News. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Misuse of anti-terror legislation threatens freedom of expression". Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Murder charge for gay-bar gunman". BBC News. 25 September 2000. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Ekklesia | Evangelical leader criticises failure to condemn violence against gays". www.ekklesia.co.uk. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Crockett, Emily (2 December 2015). "Poll: Most Americans think attacks on abortion clinics are "domestic terrorism"". Vox. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Wendy Doniger (ed.), "Constantine I", in Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006), p. 262.
- Theo Maarten van Lint (2009). "The Formation of Armenian Identity in the First Millenium". Church History and Religious Culture. 89 (1/3): 269.
- Jenkins, John Philip (28 October 2008). The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia--and How It Died. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780061472800.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195182491.
- R. MacMullen, "Christianizing The Roman Empire A.D.100-400, Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03642-6
- Anti-Semitism. Jerusalem: Keter Books. 1974. ISBN 9780706513271.
- hermesauto (31 October 2017). "Catholics, Lutherans 'beg forgiveness' for violence on 500th anniversary of Protestant Reformation". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- McCoog, Thomas M.; Holmes, Peter; Crosignani, Ginevra; Questier, Michael C., eds. (2010). Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England: Manuscript and Printed Sources in Translation. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 9780888441706.
- Rapoport, David C. (2006). Terrorism: The first or anarchist wave. Routledge. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-415-31651-4.
- Mahan, Sue; Griset, Pamala L. (2013). "Religious Terrorism: Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot". Terrorism in Perspective (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9781452225456.
Like many terrorists throughout history, Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion. Like other instances of 'holy terror', the Gunpowder Plot was deeply rooted in events that had occurred long before.
- Peter Steinfels (5 November 2005). "A Day to Think About a Case of Faith-Based Terrorism". New York Times.
- Paul Tinichigiu (January 2004). "Sami Fiul (interview)". The Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Ioanid, Radu (2004). "The sacralised politics of the Romanian Iron Guard". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 5 (3): 419–453. doi:10.1080/1469076042000312203. ISSN 1469-0764.
- Leon Volovici (1991). Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-08-041024-1.
citing N. Cainic, Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie, pp. 162–4
- "Roots of Romanian Antisemitism: The League of National Christian Defense and Iron Guard Antisemitism" (PDF). Background and Precursors to the Holocaust: 37.
- Payne, Stanley G. (1995). A History of Fascism 1914–1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press (pp. 277–289) ISBN 0-299-14874-2
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91.
- Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, US: Scarecrow Press, 1997 p. 267.
- Perlmutter, Philip (1 January 1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M.E. Sharpe. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4.
Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, reminds us that "virtually every" Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but most KKK members were not "innately depraved or anxious enough to subvert American institutions," rather, they believed that their membership was in keeping with "one-hundred percent Americanism" and Christian morality.
- Wade, Wyn Craig (1998). The fiery cross: the Ku Klux Klan in America. US: Oxford University Press. pp. 146, 185. ISBN 978-0-19-512357-9.
- "About the Ku Klux Klan". ADL. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- Mark Juergensmeyer; Margo Kitts; Michael Jerryson (14 February 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-975999-6.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (10 May 1993). The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91501-5.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark (1998). "Christian Violence in America". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
- Rapoport, David C. The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism (PDF). p. 47. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and Terrorism: An Interfaith Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275969233.
- Pratt, Douglas (2010). "Religion and Terrorism: Christian Fundamentalism and Extremism". Terrorism and Political Violence. 22 (3): 438–456. doi:10.1080/09546551003689399. ISSN 0954-6553.
- Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige (2014). "Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59 (2): 425–435. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12312. ISSN 1556-4029. PMC 4217375. PMID 24313297.
- Sharpe, Tanya Telfair (2000). "The Identity Christian Movement: Ideology of Domestic Terrorism". Journal of Black Studies. 30 (4): 604–623. doi:10.1177/002193470003000407.
- Kozlowska, Iga; Béland, Daniel; Lecours, André (2016). "Nationalism, religion, and abortion policy in four Catholic societies". Nations and Nationalism. 22 (4): 824–844. doi:10.1111/nana.12157. ISSN 1469-8129.
- Chatlani, Hema (2006–2007). "Uganda: A Nation in Crisis". California Western International Law Journal. 37: 277.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
- "Islamophobia: A New Word for an Old Fear - ProQuest". search.proquest.com. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Helbling, Marc. "Islamophobia in the West". www.taylorfrancis.com. doi:10.4324/9780203841730-14 (inactive 14 March 2019). Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Gibson, David (28 July 2011). "Is Anders Breivik a 'Christian' terrorist?". Times Union. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Strømmen, Hannah (2017). "Christian Terror in Europe? The Bible in Anders Behring Breivik's Manifesto". Journal of the Bible and its Reception. 4 (1): 147–169. doi:10.1515/jbr-2017-2006. ISSN 2329-440X.
- Debos, Marielle. ""Hate" and "Security Vacuum": How Not to Ask the Right Questions about a Confusing Crisis – Cultural Anthropology". culanth.org. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Claire Mitchell (2006). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7546-4155-1.
- "Self-styled loyalist pastor jailed". BBC News. 8 March 2001.
- "BBC - Religions - Christianity: Abortion". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The fifth commandment". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Hoffman, Bruce (6 June 2006). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231510462.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark; Juergensmeyer, Professor of Global and International Studies Sociology and Religious Studies Mark (2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520240117.
- Deb, Koushik Sinha; Gupta, Rishab; Krishnan, Vijay; Mahapatra, Ananya; Varshney, Mohit (1 March 2016). "Violence and mental illness: what is the true story?". J Epidemiol Community Health. 70 (3): 223–225. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-205546. ISSN 0143-005X. PMC 4789812. PMID 26320232.
- Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G. (2014). "Mental Illness and Violence: Lessons From the Evidence". American Journal of Public Health. 104 (2): e5–e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301710. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3935671. PMID 24328636.
- Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul; Mason, Oliver (2016). "Mental Health Disorders and the Terrorist: A Research Note Probing Selection Effects and Disorder Prevalence". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 39 (6): 560–568. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2015.1120099. ISSN 1057-610X.
- "A False Dichotomy? Mental Illness and Lone-Actor Terrorism". psycnet.apa.org. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige (2014). "Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone‐Actor Terrorists". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59 (2): 425–435. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12312. PMC 4217375. PMID 24313297.
- Fein, R. A.; Vossekuil, B. (1999). "Assassination in the United States: an operational study of recent assassins, attackers, and near-lethal approachers". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 44 (2): 321–333. ISSN 0022-1198. PMID 10097356.
- Callimachi, Rukmini (4 February 2017). "Not 'Lone Wolves' After All: How ISIS Guides World's Terror Plots From Afar". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed; Barr, Nathaniel (26 July 2016). "The Myth of Lone-Wolf Terrorism". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Abortion clinic guard killer jailed for life" (transcript). The World Today. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Anderson, Paul (11 March 2014). "Deluded pro-life crusader Peter James Knight kills guard, but wanted more dead after he brought his gun and hatred to an abortion clinic in Melbourne". Herald Sun. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Berry, Jamie; Munro, Ian (19 November 2002). "'Remorseless' recluse gets life". The Age. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Cooperman, Alan (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect? Religion May Have Motivated Bombing: Suspect". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
'Based on what we know of Rudolph so far, and admittedly it's fragmentary, there seems to be a fairly high likelihood that he can legitimately be called a Christian terrorist,' said Michael Barkun, a professor of political science at Syracuse University who has been a consultant to the FBI on Christian extremist groups.
- "Colorado Springs shootings: Calls to cool abortion debate". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Psychologists Call Suspect in Colorado Clinic Shooting Delusional".
- "Robert Dear appeared to solicit sex, rant about Bible online".
- Cleary, Tom (29 November 2015). "Robert Lewis Dear's Online Dating Profile & Cannabis.com Rants".
- "For Robert Dear, Religion and Rage Before Planned Parenthood Attack". The New York Times. 2 December 2015.
- Ben Hartman (24 July 2011). "'Norway attack suspect had anti-Muslim, pro-Israel views'". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Kumano-Ensby, Anne Linn (23 July 2011). "Sendte ut ideologisk bokmanus en time før bomben". NRK News (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- AVKRISTINA OVERN. "Var aktiv i norsk antiislamsk organisasjon – Nyheter – Innenriks". Aftenposten.no. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Bjoern Amland; Sarah Dilorenzo (24 July 2011). "Lawyer: Norway suspect wanted a revolution". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Jones, Jane Clare. Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism, The Guardian, 27 July 2011.
- Goldberg, Michelle. Norway Killer's Hatred of Women, The Daily Beast, 24 July 2011.
- Buehrer, Jack (27 July 2011). "Oslo terrorist sought guns in Prague". The Prague Post. Archived from the original on 31 May 2015.
- McIntyre, Jody. "Anders Behring Breivik: a disturbing ideology". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012.
- "Norway Shooting Suspect Breivik Is Ordered into Isolation for Four Weeks". Bloomberg. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Englund, Will (24 July 2011). "In diary, Norwegian 'crusader' details months of preparation for attacks". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- Gardham, Duncan (26 July 2011). "Norway killings: Breivik's plan for the day". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Self-confessed killer Anders Behring Breivik pleads not guilty in court". The Courier-Mail. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Breivik mener Jesus er "patetisk"". Dagen.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Norway police say 85 killed in island youth camp attack". London: BBC News. 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
We have no more information than ... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist.
- "Google cache of Facebook page of Anders Behring Breivik". Archived from the original on 11 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Davey, Melissa (24 July 2011). "'You will all die' – Norway terror attack: Anders Behring Breivik". Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Norway police say 84 killed in Utoeya shooting". Reuters. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Steven Erlanger; Scott Shane (24 July 2011). "As Horrors Emerge, Norway Charges Christian Extremist". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Introvigne, Massimo (July 2011). "The Identity Ideology of Anders Breivik. Not a Christian Fundamentalist". Turin: CESNUR. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
At first, the media called Anders Behring Breivik a Christian fundamentalist, some of them even called him a Roman Catholic. This shows the cavalier use of the word 'fundamentalist' prevailing today in several quarters.
- Stanton, Sam; Gary Delsohn (9 October 1999). "Poster boys for the summer of hate". Salon.Com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- "Charges Filed in Slaying of Gay Couple". Los Angeles Times. 20 July 1999. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- Martin, Gus (2003). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0761926153.
- "Signal Mountain man pleads not guilty in alleged plot to kill New York Muslims". timesfreepress.com. 14 July 2015.
- "Plotter of attack on Muslim town ruled out possible 'threat' in Tennessee". timesfreepress.com. 20 May 2015.
- "Trial of Tennessee man Robert Doggart accused of planning mosque attack delayed". commercialappeal.com.
- "Judge delays trial of man accused of plotting attack on Muslim community". The Guardian.
- "Robert Doggart". ballotpedia.org.
- Raya Jalabi in New York (7 July 2015). "Release of man who threatened Islamberg hamlet prompts outcry". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Ex-Tennessee congressional hopeful Robert Doggart indicted in alleged plot against Muslims in upstate New York". CBS News. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Zennie, Michael (19 May 2015). "Ex-Congressional candidate Robert Doggart plotted massacre at Islamberg, NY". Daily Mail. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Protesters outside Chattanooga federal building blast handling of Robert Doggart case". Times Free Press. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Christchurch attacks were a form of 'Christian terrorism', as well as racial hatred, says religion expert". Television New Zealand. 19 March 2019.
- "Warning signs of terror attack in New Zealand have been apparent, experts say". Stuff.co.nz. 15 March 2019.
- "Brenton Tarrant Manifesto: The 'Great Replacement' Rant". Heavy.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "New Zealand shooting gunman's rifles covered in white supremacist symbols popular online". CBS News.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Robert Bowers, Shooter Who Killed 11 at Synagogue, Talked About Jesus Christ". www.christianpost.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.[dead link]
- Cleary, Tom (27 April 2019). "John Earnest: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Mason, Carol. 2002. Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-Life Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- Zeskind, Leonard. 1987. The 'Christian Identity' Movement, [booklet]. Atlanta, Georgia: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Greenwood. January 2003. ISBN 978-0-275-96923-3
- "The Armies of God: A Study in Militant Christianity" by Iain Buchanan, Publisher: Citizens International (2010), ISBN 978-9833046096
- Introduction: The Enduring Relationship of Religion and Violence – Oxford Handbooks Online