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Demographics of Chad

  (Redirected from Chadian people)
Demographics of Chad, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The people of Chad speak more than 100 different languages and divide themselves into many ethnic groups. However, language and ethnicity are not the same. Moreover, neither element can be tied to a particular physical type.[1]

Although the possession of a common language shows that its speakers have lived together and have a common history, peoples also change languages. This is particularly so in Chad, where the openness of the terrain, marginal rainfall, frequent drought and famine, and low population densities have encouraged physical and linguistic mobility. Slave raids among[specify] non-Muslim peoples, internal slave trade, and exports of captives northward from the ninth to the twentieth centuries also have resulted in language changes.

Anthropologists view ethnicity as being more than genetics. Like language, ethnicity implies a shared heritage, partly economic, where people of the same ethnic group may share a livelihood, and partly social, taking the form of shared ways of doing things and organizing relations among individuals and groups. Ethnicity also involves a cultural component made up of shared values and a common worldview. Like language, ethnicity is not immutable. Shared ways of doing things change over time and alter a group's perception of its own identity.

Not only do the social aspects of ethnic identity change but the biological composition (or gene pool) also may change over time. Although most ethnic groups emphasize intermarriage, people are often proscribed from seeking partners among close relatives—a prohibition that promotes biological variation. In all groups, the departure of some individuals or groups and the integration of others also changes the biological component.

The Chadian government has avoided official recognition of ethnicity. With the exception of a few surveys conducted shortly after independence, little data were available on this important aspect of Chadian society. Nonetheless, ethnic identity was a significant component of life in Chad.

The peoples of Chad carry significant ancestry from Eastern, Central, Western, and Northern Africa.[2]

Chad's languages fall into ten major groups, each of which belongs to either the Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic, or Niger–Congo language family. These represent three of the four major language families in Africa; only the Khoisan languages of southern Africa are not represented. The presence of such different languages suggests that the Lake Chad Basin may have been an important point of dispersal in ancient times.

Contents

PopulationEdit

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[3] the total population was 14,452,543 in 2016, compared to only 2 429 000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 45.4%, 51.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.9% was 65 years or older .[4]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 429 000 37.8 57.8 4.4
1955 2 671 000 39.1 56.8 4.1
1960 2 954 000 40.3 55.9 3.8
1965 3 289 000 41.5 54.7 3.8
1970 3 656 000 42.0 54.2 3.8
1975 4 114 000 42.8 53.4 3.8
1980 4 554 000 44.0 52.3 3.7
1985 5 151 000 45.2 51.2 3.6
1990 6 011 000 45.8 50.7 3.5
1995 6 998 000 45.9 50.8 3.3
2000 8 222 000 45.9 51.0 3.1
2005 9 786 000 45.8 51.2 3.0
2010 11 227 000 45.4 51.7 2.9

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events is in Chad not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[4]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950–1955 118 000 70 000 48 000 46.4 27.5 18.9 6.10 191
1955–1960 130 000 72 000 57 000 46.1 25.8 20.3 6.20 181
1960–1965 142 000 75 000 68 000 45.6 23.9 21.8 6.30 172
1965–1970 159 000 77 000 82 000 45.8 22.2 23.5 6.40 163
1970–1975 184 000 82 000 101 000 47.3 21.2 26.1 6.60 154
1975–1980 209 000 86 000 123 000 48.3 19.9 28.4 6.74 146
1980–1985 233 000 88 000 146 000 48.1 18.1 30.0 6.75 136
1985–1990 266 000 94 000 172 000 47.6 16.8 30.8 6.70 129
1990–1995 308 000 109 000 199 000 47.4 16.7 30.7 6.65 129
1995–2000 362 000 131 000 231 000 47.6 17.3 30.3 6.62 131
2000–2005 429 000 160 000 269 000 47.6 17.8 29.9 6.54 133
2005–2010 482 000 179 000 303 000 45.9 17.1 28.9 6.20 131
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and BirthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[5]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1996-97 47,8 6,6 (6,3) 44,4 6,1 (5,7) 48,8 6,8 (6,5)
2004 44,6 6,3 (6,1) 41,8 5,7 (5,5) 45,3 6,5 (6,2)
2014-15 40,5 6,4 (6,1) 36,0 5,4 (5,1) 41,8 6,8 (6,5)

Fertility data as of 2014-2015 (DHS Program):[6]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Batha 7.3 12.2 8.3
Borkou, Tibesti 5.3 9.6 6.4
Chari Baguirmi 6.6 16.1 7.7
Guéra 6.7 14.6 8.4
Hadjer-Lamis 6.8 14.5 8.4
Kanem 6.0 14.8 7.1
Lac 5.4 14.7 7.9
Logone Occidental 6.4 12.7 7.6
Logone Oriental 7.6 12.7 8.3
Mandoul 6.5 12.7 7.7
Mayo Kebbi Est 6.7 15.0 7.3
Mayo Kebbi Ouest 7.5 13.8 7.9
Moyen Chari 5.5 12.6 6.8
Ouaddaï 6.1 13.1 7.1
Salamat 6.5 19.7 8.0
Tandjilé 7.1 13.1 8.0
Wadi Fira 5.9 12.2 6.5
N’Djaména 5.2 9.4 6.5
Barh El Gazal 5.6 14.5 7.1
Ennedi Est, Ennedi Ouest 5.0 13.4 6.3
Sila 6.7 19.6 7.7

Life expectancyEdit

Period Life expectancy in
Years[7]
1950–1955 36.06
1955–1960   37.36
1960–1965   38.70
1965–1970   40.14
1970–1975   42.52
1975–1980   43.98
1980–1985   45.38
1985–1990   46.64
1990–1995   47.15
1995–2000   47.65
2000–2005   47.65
2005–2010   48.87
2010–2015   51.67

ReligionsEdit

The separation of religion from social structure in Chad represents a false dichotomy, for they are perceived as two sides of the same coin. Three religious traditions coexist in Chad- classical African religions, Islam, and Christianity. None is monolithic. The first tradition includes a variety of ancestor and/or place-oriented religions whose expression is highly specific. Islam, although characterized by an orthodox set of beliefs and observances, also is expressed in diverse ways. Christianity arrived in Chad much more recently with the arrival of Europeans. Its followers are divided into Roman Catholics and Protestants (including several denominations); as with Chadian Islam, Chadian Christianity retains aspects of pre-Christian religious belief.

The number of followers of each tradition in Chad is unknown. Estimates made in 1962 suggested that 35 percent of Chadians practiced classical African religions, 55 percent were Muslims, and 10 percent were Christians. In the 1970s and 1980s, this distribution undoubtedly changed. Observers report that Islam has spread among the Hajerai and among other non-Muslim populations of the Saharan and sahelian zones. However, the proportion of Muslims may have fallen because the birthrate among the followers of traditional religions and Christians in southern Chad is thought to be higher than that among Muslims. In addition, the upheavals since the mid-1970s have resulted in the departure of some missionaries; whether or not Chadian Christians have been numerous enough and organized enough to have attracted more converts since that time is unknown.

Other demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[8]

  • One birth every 48 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 360 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[9]

PopulationEdit

15,833,116 (July 2018 est.)
12,075,985 (2017 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Chad in 2017
0-14 years: 48.12% (male 3,856,001 /female 3,763,622)
15-24 years: 19.27% (male 1,532,687 /female 1,518,940)
25-54 years: 26.95% (male 2,044,795 /female 2,222,751)
55-64 years: 3.25% (male 228,930 /female 286,379)
65 years and over: 2.39% (male 164,257 /female 214,754) (2018 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 15.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 226th
male: 15.3 years
female: 16.3 years (2018 est.)
Total: 17.8 years
Male: 16.8 years
Female: 18.8 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

3.23% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 5th

Birth rateEdit

43 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 4th

Death rateEdit

10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 26th

Net migration rateEdit

-3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 176th

Total fertility rateEdit

5.9 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 4th

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

17.9 years (2014/15 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Dependency ratiosEdit

total dependency ratio: 100.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 95.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rateEdit

5.7% (2014/15)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 23.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.88% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 57.5 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 214th
male: 55.7 years (2018 est.)
female: 59.3 years (2018 est.)
Total population: 50.6 years
Male: 49.4 years
Female: 51.9 years (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDSEdit

Adult prevalence rate: 1.3% (2017 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000(2017 est.)
Deaths: 3,100 (2017 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweightEdit

28.8% (2015)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

Degree of risk: very high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)

NationalityEdit

Noun: Chadian(s)
Adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groupsEdit

The peoples of Chad carry significant ancestry from Eastern, Central, Western, and Northern Africa.[2]

200 distinct groups

About 5,000 French citizens live in Chad.

ReligionsEdit

LanguagesEdit

Arabic (official), French (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

LiteracyEdit

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 22.3% (2016 est.)
male: 31.3% (2016 est.)
female: 14% (2016 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 8 years (2014)
male: 9 years (2014)
female: 6 years (2014)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chad Demographics Profile 2016". indexmundi.com. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 99 (6): 1316–1324. 2016-12-01. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.10.012. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 5142112.
  3. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  5. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". worldbank.org. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  6. ^ http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR317/FR317.pdf
  7. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  8. ^ "Chad Population 2019", World Population Review
  9. ^ "The World FactBook - Chad", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ "Tchad: Enquête Démographique et de Santé, 2014-2015" (PDF) (in French). Institut National de la Statistique, des Études Économiques et Démographiques. p. 34. Retrieved 21 April 2018.

Works cited

  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".