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The Bærum mosque shooting or Al-Noor Islamic Centre shooting was an attack that occurred on 10 August 2019 at the Al-Noor Islamic Centre mosque in Bærum, Norway, about 20 km west of the capital city Oslo. One person was injured, and the gunman's stepsister was later found dead in their family home. The shooter was taken into police custody after being subdued by mosque-goers.

Bærum mosque shooting
Part of Right-wing terrorism in Europe
Al-Noor Islamic Centre (6).jpg
Al-Noor Islamic Centre in Bærum
Bærum is located in Akershus
Bærum
Bærum
Bærum (Akershus)
Bærum is located in Norway
Bærum
Bærum
Bærum (Norway)
LocationAl-Noor Islamic Centre, Bærum, Norway
Coordinates59°55′12″N 10°27′34″E / 59.9200°N 10.4595°E / 59.9200; 10.4595Coordinates: 59°55′12″N 10°27′34″E / 59.9200°N 10.4595°E / 59.9200; 10.4595
DateAugust 10, 2019
approx. 16:00 (CEST UTC+02:00)
Attack type
Mass shooting
Weapons22 caliber rifle, rifle, shotgun [1] [2] [3]
Deaths1 (prior to attack)
Injuries
2 (including the perpetrator)
MotiveWhite nationalism, Islamophobia
AccusedPhilip Manshaus
ChargesAct of terror, murder[a]

The shooting has been described as one attack in a recent "resurgence of white supremacy".[4]

AttackEdit

The shooter, identified as Philip Manshaus,[5] was reportedly wearing a uniform and helmet when he entered the mosque,[6] shooting his way through the locked door.[7] He was carrying two shotguns or "shotgun-like" weapons and a pistol, opening fire in the room.[6][8] Prayers had just ended, with only three elders remaining in the mosque. One of the men approached Manshaus before pinning him down and moving his weapons away.[9] The two began to struggle, with Manshaus injuring him.[9] Another of the men in the room then hit Manshaus on the head to subdue him.[10] The police were called at 16:07 local time.[11] Manshaus was in a chokehold when police arrived at the mosque.[12] Manshaus appeared in the court two days after the attack, 12 August 2019, with his face and neck marked by bruises and scratches.[13]

Manshaus reportedly began a Facebook livestream in the hours preceding his attack, but this was taken down.[14]

One person was killed, prior to the main attack, and another was injured whilst preventing the attack occurring.[15]

SuspectEdit

The suspect is Philip Manshaus, a 21-year-old Norwegian[16][17] man who lived near the area of the shooting.[5][18] He was indicted for terrorism and murder.[8] The police have stated that Manshaus is refusing to speak to them, and that he was already known to law enforcement but did not have a "criminal background".[19] The national broadcaster NRK spoke with some of his neighbors. One described him as ordinary, saying he had helped her with household tasks before, though another claimed he had not been very happy when he was young, with several neighbors also suggesting that a family bereavement a few years earlier had hit him quite hard,[20] and that in the last year he had turned increasingly to religion and extremism.[21] Norwegian police had stated the day after the attack that they were planning to give the suspect a mental health assessment.[20] In the official questioning session, Manshaus decleared that his goal was to intimidate Muslims in Norway.[22]

 
Messages sent by user "Philip Manshaus" to an EndChan imageboard

Shortly before the attack, someone using the name Philip Manshaus was active on a web forum that has been variously reported as 4chan and 8chan,[23][8] but was confirmed to be a copycat forum called EndChan.[5][14] His retrieved messages include telling people that "it's my time, i was elected by saint tarrant" (sic), asking those he was messaging to "bump the race war thread irl", and saying that "Valhalla awaits". Several intermediary messages had been removed.[24] The messages are seen as praising Brenton Tarrant, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in March 2019,[19] and refer to him as "saint tarrant".[25] The Christchurch shootings were inspired by, among other things, the 22/7 attacks that happened in Norway in 2011.[19][25] The user also posted a meme depicting Tarrant, Patrick Crusius, and John T. Earnest as "heroes". All three perpetrated racially and/or religiously motivated gun murders in 2019, including Crusius' attack on a Walmart in El Paso, Texas only a week earlier.[14] Manshaus' posts also reportedly feature him describing himself as the "third disciple"; internet extremism researchers connect this with the rhetoric of Tarrant, suggesting the other 'disciples' would be Earnest and Crusius.[26] Online, Manshaus has also praised Vidkun Quisling, who headed a domestic Nazi collaborationist regime during World War II,[7] and expressed far-right, anti-immigration views.[27]

VictimsEdit

Manshaus' 17-year-old stepsister Johanne Zhangjia Ihle-Hansen was found dead in their home.[28][29] She was born in Jiangxi, China, and adopted at 2 years old by Manshaus' stepmother.[29][21] Manshaus has been charged with her murder.[7]

Mohammad RafiqEdit

The injured man was 65-year-old Mohammad Rafiq, a Pakistani retired Air Force officer who had been living in Norway for two and a half years at the time of the attack.[9] He is a frequent visitor to Al-Noor Islamic Center in Bærum.[30] Rafiq engaged Manshaus and overpowered him before he could attack anyone else in the mosque,[7][8] pinning him down and moving his weapons away.[9] His injuries have been described as "minor",[27] and were not gunshot wounds: they were inflicted by his attacker's hands as he tried to break free from being restrained.[9] The attacker tried to gouge his left eye.[31]

ResponseEdit

Authorities reported that security in Norway may become increased after the attack, as it occurred during the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha,[32] with the Prime Minister raising the national security the following day.[9] The Al-Noor Islamic Centre had already added extra security after the Christchurch mosque shootings.[33] According to local Norwegian media, the mosque said that security would be improved again.[19]

The Norwegian Prime Minister, Erna Solberg, condemned the attack.[32] Solberg and Abid Raja, a Liberal Norwegian politician, spoke together on the day of the attack, assuring the public that places of worship should be safe and calling for plans to break down Islamophobia in the country.[27] Another reaction to the incident was a speech given by Siv Jensen, the leader of the right-wing Progress Party, normally considered anti-immigration, who also referred to Rafiq as a hero.[34] The day after the attack, on the Eid al-Adha celebration day, Solberg and other important figures, as well as the men from the mosque, attended a ceremony in solidarity held in Sandvika.[10][35][36]

EndChan has deleted the thread that the user with Manshaus' named posted on, and had its primary web domain taken offline following the attack.[5]

As the shooting spread in media, so did the actions of Rafiq and the other man in the mosque, which a Danish newspaper described as "courageous";[37] several media outlets, primarily in Norway but also some foreign ones, described Rafiq as a "hero".[38][39][40][41][42]

A Norwegian philanthropist, Elisabeth Norheim, started a fundraising campaign[43] on a Norwegian crowdfunding website.[44] to help raise money so Rafiq and the other man who helped subdue the attack could undertake the hajj. After the initial goal of 55,000 NOK (~ 6100 USD) for the cost of the two to travel was surpassed,[31][45] with more than 180,000 NOK (~20,000 USD) raised in one day, the organizers said they could also fund the hajj for the third man in the mosque during the attack.[31] The fund raised was later passed the adjusted goal of 230,000 NOK (~25,000 USD).[44]

On 15 August 2019, a ceremony was held at the Sandvika Police House to praise Rafiq and the other man for their actions.[46][47] It was hosted by Beate Gangås, the Oslo Police Commander-in-Chief, and Lisbeth Hammer Krogh, the mayor of Bærum.[47]

Investigation and criminal proceedingsEdit

The Norwegian Police Security Service said that they received a tip about Manshaus approximately one year prior to the attack. After coordinating with the local police department, Oslo Police District, they found that the tip was vague and showed no signs of imminent terror planning activities. The tip was not followed up.[48] Norwegian police reported that they have spoken with Manshaus previously because of his online behavior.[21]

When police searched the suspect's address after the attack, a young woman was found dead at the home.[15]

On 12 August 2019, in a court hearing in Oslo District Court, Manshaus was put in pre-trial jail for four weeks with no visitation, mail or media access. Manshaus declared himself not guilty and called to be released.[49]

Communication issuesEdit

It has been reported that when the members of the mosque called the police, the incident was initially classified as low-priority and the police would not respond; the men struggled trying to convey the situation to the operator.[50]

There have also been claims that a user of an online forum had tried to notify the Norwegian police three times that he suspected an attack would happen, but that local police told him to call the FBI. Police say they are aware of this allegation, but that they are not aware of any such call.[51]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The suspect is charged with killing his stepsister prior to the attempted attack.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.newsweek.com/norway-mosque-attack-philip-manshaus-1463563
  2. ^ https://www.nrk.no/norge/philip-manshaus-hadde-med-tre-vapen-under-terrorangrepet-1.14669160
  3. ^ https://www.dagbladet.no/studio/moskangrepet-i-baerum-/383?post=17001
  4. ^ "Attaque d'une mosquée en Norvège: le suspect rejette les accusations". LA VDN (in French). 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  5. ^ a b c d "Norway mosque attack: Bruised suspect Manshaus appears in court". BBC. 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  6. ^ a b "Norway mosque shooting: Man opens fire on Al-Noor Islamic Centre". BBC News. August 11, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Sanchez, Ray; Stanand, Frode (August 10, 2019). "Suspect in Oslo mosque shooting expressed right-wing sympathies, say police". CNN International. Oslo. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Libell, Henrik Pryser (10 August 2019). "After Attack on Norway Mosque, Body Found at Home Tied to Assailant". The New York Times.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Shooting at Norway mosque investigated as 'possible act of..." Reuters. 2019-08-11. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  10. ^ a b "Two Men Took Down A Gunman Allegedly Attempting A Terrorist Attack At Their Mosque". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  11. ^ AS, TV 2. "Pågrepet mann hyllet New Zealand-terrorist timer før han angrep moské i Bærum" (nb). TV 2. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  12. ^ "Norway mosque shooting suspect was inspired by Christchurch and El Paso attackers, 4chan post suggests". The Independent. 11 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Norway mosque attack suspect accused of terrorism". BBC.com. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Burke, Jason (2019-08-11). "Norway mosque attack suspect 'inspired by Christchurch and El Paso shootings'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  15. ^ a b "Man arrested as one injured in Norway mosque shooting". The Independent. 10 August 2019.
  16. ^ Stubley, Peter (August 10, 2019). "Man arrested as one injured in Norway mosque shooting". The Independent. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  17. ^ Reuters (2019-08-10). "Norway mosque shooting suspect appears in court with wounded face". Euronews. Retrieved 2019-08-27.
  18. ^ Pancevski, Bojan. "Man Arrested in Norway Mosque Attack Expressed Anti-Immigrant Views". WSJ. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  19. ^ a b c d "Norway Mosque Shooting 'Attempted Act of Terror'". Voice of America. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  20. ^ a b Zondag, Martin H. W. (2019-08-11). "Bærum-siktede vil ikke la seg avhøre: Siktet for drap på stesøsteren". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  21. ^ a b c "Noruega confirma como "terrorista" el ataque a una mezquita". France 24 (in Spanish). 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  22. ^ "Politiet etter avhør: Ville skremme muslimer i Norge". vg.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  23. ^ Nilssen, Nina Sørlie (2019-08-10). "Bekrefter: Gransker innhold gjerningsmannen publiserte" (no). Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  24. ^ "Dump from 4chan". Nettstedet har begrenset tilgang.
  25. ^ a b Ighoubah, Farid (August 11, 2019). "Dette vet vi om drapssiktede Philip Manshaus". Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  26. ^ "Mistænkt for moskeangreb så op til massemordere – nu mobbes han af sine egne på nettet - TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  27. ^ a b c "Norway: Police investigate mosque shooting as 'terrorist' attempt". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  28. ^ "Norway mosque shooting probed as terror act". BBC. 2019-08-11. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  29. ^ a b Olsson, Svein Vestrum (2019-08-12). "Terrorsaken: Politiet bekrefter at Johanne (17) ble funnet drept". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  30. ^ AS, TV 2. "Eks-soldaten Rafiq (65) stanset gjerningsmannen". TV 2 (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  31. ^ a b c "Har samlet inn over 130.000 kroner til heltene i moskeen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Mannen bakom moskéattacken misstänks för mord". Aftonbladet (in Swedish).
  33. ^ Reuters (2019-08-10). "One injured in gun attack on Norwegian mosque". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  34. ^ "Jensen: – Mohamed Rafiq er en ekte helt". abcnyheter.no (in Norwegian). 13 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  35. ^ "Erna Solberg etter moskéskytingen i Bærum: – Norge skal være trygt". vg.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  36. ^ Reuters, Thomson. "Meet the retiree who tackled a gunman in a Norwegian mosque". Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  37. ^ Taudal, Uffe (12 August 2019). "Mohammed Rafiq er Norges nye helt – men ikke alle er begejstrede". Berlingske.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  38. ^ "65-åring stoppet siktede: – Glad for den støtten og hjelpen jeg har fått". vg.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  39. ^ "Worshipper, 65, takes down mosque gunman before he can kill anyone". The Independent. 11 August 2019.
  40. ^ "65-årige Mohammed stoppede norsk moské-angreb: 'Han er en helt'". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  41. ^ "Rafiq (65) stoppet siktede: – Han er en helt". abcnyheter.no (in Norwegian). 11 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  42. ^ "https://www.irn.no/2019/08/11/2736/". Islamsk Råd Norge (in Norwegian Bokmål). 11 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019. External link in |title= (help)
  43. ^ AS, TV 2. "Hindret moske-angrepet - nå samles det inn penger for sende dem til Mekka". TV 2 (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  44. ^ a b "Pilgrimsreise til Mekka". spleis.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  45. ^ Dahl, Nils Johan (13 August 2019). "Samler inn penger til pilegrimsreise for moskéheltene". budstikka.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  46. ^ Dahl, Nils Johan (15 August 2019). "(+) – Det kan ikke være tvil om at innsatsen deres har reddet liv". budstikka.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  47. ^ a b Zondag, Martin H. W. (16 August 2019). "Heltene etter moskéangrepet hedret: – Var med på å forhindre at liv gikk tapt". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  48. ^ "PST fikk tips om siktede for ett år siden". vg.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  49. ^ Hansen, Anette Holth (2019-08-12). "Terrorsiktet fengslet i fire uker". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2019-08-13.
  50. ^ "Skyteepisode i moské i Bærum" (nb). www.vg.no. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  51. ^ "Politiet om angivelige advarsler: - Vi har hørt om det" (no). Dagbladet (2019-08-11). Retrieved 2019-08-11.