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The Taj Mahal, the most famous building of Mughal architecture in India.

The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion. Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India's global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its two millennia-old past. The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions.[1] Among a number of architectural styles and traditions, the contrasting Hindu temple architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture are the best known. Both of these, but especially the former, have a number of regional styles within them.

An early example of town planning was the Harappan architecture of the Indus Valley civilisation. People lived in cities with baked brick houses, streets in a grid layout, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, granaries, citadels and clusters of large non-residential buildings.

Hindu temple architecture is mainly divided into Dravidian and Nagara styles. Dravidian architecture flourished during the rule of the Chola, Chera, and Pandyan empires, as well as the Vijayanagara Empire.

The first major Islamic kingdom in India was the Delhi Sultanate, which led to the development of Indo-Islamic architecture, combining Indian and Islamic features. The rule of the Mughal Empire, when Mughal architecture evolved, is regarded as the zenith of Indo-Islamic architecture, with the Taj Mahal being the high point of their contribution. Indo-Islamic architecture influenced the Rajput and Sikh styles as well.

During the British colonial period, European styles including neoclassical, gothic revival, and baroque became prevalent across India. The amalgamation of Indo-Islamic and European styles led to a new style, known as the Indo-Saracenic style.After independence, modernist ideas spread among Indian architects as a way of progressing from the colonial culture. Le Corbusier, who designed the city of Chandigarh influenced a generation of architects towards modernism in the 20th century. The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy. Traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture during the contemporary era.[1]

Vernacular Indian ArchitectureEdit

 
The "Great Bath" stepwell at Mohenjo-daro

The Indus Valley Civilization covered a large area around the Indus River basin and beyond. In its mature phase, from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, it produced several cities marked by great uniformity within and between sites, including Harappa, Lothal, and the UNESCO World Heritage Site Mohenjo-daro. The civic and town planning and engineering aspects of these are remarkable, but the design of the buildings is "of a startling utilitarian character". There are granaries, drains, water-courses and tanks, but neither palaces nor temples have been identified, though cities have a central raised and fortified "citadel".[2] Mohenjo-daro has wells which may be the predecessors of the stepwell.[3] As many as 700 wells have been discovered in just one section of the city, leading scholars to believe that 'cylindrical brick lined wells' were invented by the Indus Valley Civilization.[3]

Architectural decoration is extremely minimal, though there are "narrow pointed niches" inside some buildings. Most of the art found is in miniature forms like seals, and mainly in terracotta, but there are a very few larger sculptures of figures. In most sites fired mud-brick (not sun-baked as in Mesopotamia) is used exclusively as the building material, but a few such as Dholavira are in stone. Most houses have two storeys, and very uniform sizes and plans. The large cities declined relatively quickly, for unknown reasons, leaving a less sophisticated village culture behind.[4]

Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used arched windows and doors are important features of the architecture during this period.[5] The Indian emperor Ashoka (rule: 273—232 BCE) established a chain of hospitals throughout the Mauryan empire by 230 BCE.[6] One of the edicts of Ashoka (272—231 BCE) reads: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Ashoka) erected two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."[7] Wooden architecture was popular and rock cut architecture became solidified.[8] Rock-cut stepwells in India date from 200–400 CE.[9] Subsequently, the construction of wells at Dhank (550–625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850–950 CE) took place.[9]

Buddhist architectureEdit

Buddhist Architecture

The Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[10] The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.[10] Fortified cities with stūpas, viharas, and temples were constructed during the Maurya empire (c. 321–185 BCE).[5] Wooden architecture was popular and rock cut architecture became solidified.[5] Guard rails—consisting of posts, crossbars, and a coping—became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa.[5] Temples—build on elliptical, circular, quadrilateral, or apsidal plans—were constructed using brick and timber.[5] The Indian gateway arches, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism.[11] Some scholars hold that torii derives from the torana gates at the Buddhist historic site of Sanchi (3rd century BCE – 11th century CE).[12] Guard rails—consisting of posts, crossbars, and a coping—became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa.[8] Temples—build on elliptical, circular, quadrilateral, or apsidal plans—were constructed using brick and timber.[8]The Indian gateway arches, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism.[13] Some scholars hold that torii derives from the torana gates at the Buddhist historic site of Sanchi (3rd century BCE – 11th century CE).[14]

Hindu ArchitectureEdit

South Indian temple architecture—visible as a distinct tradition during the 7th century CE.[15]Māru-Gurjara temple architecture originated somewhere in the 6th century in and around areas of Rajasthan. Māru-Gurjara Architecture shows the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftsmen of the bygone era. Māru-Gurjara Architecture has two prominent styles Maha-Maru and Maru-Gurjara. According to M. A. Dhaky, Maha-Maru style developed primarily in Marudesa, Sapadalaksha, Surasena and parts of Uparamala whereas Maru-Gurjara originated in Medapata, Gurjaradesa-Arbuda, Gurjaradesa-Anarta and some areas of Gujarat.[16] Scholars such as George Michell, M.A. Dhaky, Michael W. Meister and U.S. Moorti believe that Māru-Gurjara Temple Architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture and is quite different from the North Indian Temple architecture.[17] There is a connecting link between Māru-Gurjara Architecture and Hoysala Temple Architecture. In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally.[18] Regional styles include Architecture of Karnataka, Kalinga architecture, Dravidian architecture, Western Chalukya architecture, and Badami Chalukya Architecture.

The South Indian temple consists essentially of a square-chambered sanctuary topped by a superstructure, tower, or spire and an attached pillared porch or hall (maṇḍapa or maṇṭapam), enclosed by a peristyle of cells within a rectangular court. The external walls of the temple are segmented by pilasters and carry niches housing sculpture. The superstructure or tower above the sanctuary is of the kūṭina type and consists of an arrangement of gradually receding stories in a pyramidal shape. Each story is delineated by a parapet of miniature shrines, square at the corners and rectangular with barrel-vault roofs at the centre.

North Indian temples showed increased elevation of the wall and elaborate spire by the 10th century.[19] Richly decorated temples—including the complex at Khajuraho—were constructed in Central India.[19] Indian traders brought Indian architecture to South east Asia through various trade routes.[20] Grandeur of construction, beautiful sculptures, delicate carvings, high domes, gopuras and extensive courtyards were the features of temple architecture in India. Examples include the Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneshwar in Odisha, Sun Temple at Konark in Odisha, Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu.

Hoysala architectureEdit

Hoysala architecture is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire in the region historically known as Karnata, today's Karnataka, India, between the 11th and the 14th centuries.[22] Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. Other examples of fine Hoysala craftmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amrithapura, and Nuggehalli. Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryan influence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.[23] A feature of Hoysala temple architecture is its attention to detail and skilled craftsmanship. The temples of Belur and Halebidu are proposed UNESCO world heritage sites.[24] Approximately 100 Hoysala temples survive today.[25]

Vijaynagara architectureEdit

 
An aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple from the top of the southern gopuram, looking north. The temple was rebuilt by the Vijayanagar Empire and an example of Dravidian architecture.

Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336–1565 CE) was a notable building style evolved by the Vijayanagar empire that ruled most of South India from their capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in present-day Karnataka.[26] The architecture of the temples built during the reign of the Vijayanagara empire had elements of political authority.[27] This resulted in the creation of a distinctive imperial style of architecture which featured prominently not only in temples but also in administrative structures across the deccan.[28] The Vijayanagara style is a combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles which evolved earlier in the centuries when these empires ruled and is characterised by a return to the simplistic and serene art of the past.[29]


Indo Islamic ArchitectureEdit


Dehli Sultanate architectureEdit

The earliest examples of Indo-Islamic Architecture were constructed during this period by the Delhi Sultanates, most famously the Qutb Minar complex, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993. The complex consists of Qutb Minar, a brick minaret commissioned by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak, as well as other monuments built by successive Delhi Sultans.[30] Alai Minar, a minaret twice the size of Qutb Minar was commissioned by Alauddin Khilji but never completed. Other examples include the Tughlaqabad Fort and Hauz Khas Complex.

Mughal EmpireEdit

 
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE.[31]

The most famous Indo-Islamic style is Mughal architecture. Its most prominent examples are the series of imperial mausolea, which started with the pivotal Tomb of Humayun, but is best known for the Taj Mahal. It is known for features including monumental buildings surrounded by gardens on all four sides, and delicate ornamentation work, including pachin kari decorative work and jali-latticed screens.

 
Red Fort was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years, until 1856.[32]

The Red Fort at Agra (1565–74) and the walled city of Fatehpur Sikri (1569–74)[33] are among the architectural achievements of this time—as is the Taj Mahal, built as a tomb for Queen Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan (1628–58).[34] Employing the double dome, the recessed archway, the depiction of any animal or human—an essential part of the Indian tradition—was forbidden in places of worship under Islam. The Taj Mahal does contain tilework of plant ornaments.[1] The architecture during the Mughal Period, with its rulers being of Turco-Mongol origin, has shown a notable blend of Indian style combined with the Islamic. Taj Mahal in Agra, India is one of the wonders of the world.[35]

Regional stylesEdit

The Bahmani and Deccan sultanates in the Southern regions of the Indian subcontinent developed the Indo-Islamic architectural styles of the Deccan. The notable examples are Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Madrasa Mahmud Gawan and Gol Gumbaz.[36]

Within the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region developed a distinct regional style under the independent Bengal Sultanate. It incorporated influences from Persia, Byzantium and North India,[37] which were with blended indigenous Bengali elements, such as curved roofs, corner towers and complex terracotta ornamentation. One feature in the sultanate was the relative absence of minarets.[38] Many small and medium-sized medieval mosques, with multiple domes and artistic niche mihrabs, were constructed throughout the region.[38] The grand mosque of Bengal was the 14th century Adina Mosque, the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent. Built of stone demolished from temples, it featured a monumental ribbed barrel vault over the central nave, the first such giant vault used anywhere in the subcontinent. The mosque was modeled on the imperial Sasanian style of Persia.[39] The Sultanate style flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. A provincial style influenced by North India evolved in Mughal Bengal during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Mughals also copied the Bengali do-chala roof tradition for mausoleums in North India.[40]

Rajput architectureEdit

The Mughal architecture and painting influenced indigenous Rajput styles of art and architecture.[41] Rajput Architecture represents different types of buildings, which may broadly be classed either as secular or religious. The secular buildings are of various scales. These include temples, forts, stepwells, gardens, and palaces. The forts were specially built for defense and military purposes due to the Islamic invasions.

Rajput Architecture continued well into the 20th and 21st centuries, as the rulers of the princely states of British India commissioned vast palaces and other buildings, such as the Albert Hall Museum, Lalgarh Palace, and Umaid Bhawan Palace. These usually incorporated European styles as well, a practice which eventually led to the Indo-Saracenic style.

European colonial architectureEdit

As with the Mughals, under European colonial rule, architecture became an emblem of power, designed to endorse the occupying power. Numerous European countries invaded India and created architectural styles reflective of their ancestral and adopted homes. The European colonizers created architecture that symbolized their mission of conquest, dedicated to the state or religion.[42]

The British, French, Dutch and the Portuguese were the main European powers that colonized parts of India.[43][44]

British Colonial Era: 1757–1947Edit

The Viceroy's House (now Rashtrapati Bhavan) was built for the Viceroy of India. It now serves as the official residence of the President of India.
The War Memorial Arch (now India Gate) is a memorial to 70,000 soldiers of the British Indian Army who died in the First World War
The Secretariat Building is located in the North Block.
The Council House, built for the Imperial Legislative Council, is now Sansad Bhawan, and houses the Parliament of India.
Lutyens' Delhi,designed by Edwin Lutyens, houses all key government buildings of India.

Britain legacy in India remains among others in building and infrastructure.[45] The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Bankipore, Karachi, Nagpur, Bhopal and Hyderabad,[46][44] which saw the rise of Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture.

 
The Viceregal Lodge, now Rashtrapati Niwas, in Shimla designed by Henry Irwin in the Jacobethan style and built in the late 19th century.

Black Town described in 1855 as "the minor streets, occupied by the natives are numerous, irregular and of various dimensions. Many of them are extremely narrow and ill-ventilated ... a hallow square, the rooms opening into a courtyard in the centre."[47] Garden houses were originally used as weekend houses for recreational use by the upper class British. Nonetheless, the garden house became ideal a full-time dwelling, deserting the fort in the 19th Century.[48]

Mumbai, (then known as Bombay) has some of the most prominent examples of British colonial architecture. This included the gothic revival (Victoria terminus, Univeristy of Mumbai, Rajabai Clock Tower, High Court, BMC Building), Indo-Saracenic (Prince of Wales Museum, Gateway of India, Taj Mahal Palace Hotel) and art deco (Eros Cinema, New India Assurance Building).[49]

Calcutta – Madras and Calcutta were similarly bordered by water and division of Indian in the north and British in the south. An Englishwoman noted in 1750 "the banks of the river are as one may say absolutely studded with elegant mansions called here as at Madras, garden houses." Esplanade-row is fronts the fort with lined palaces.[50][51] Indian villages in these areas consisted of clay and straw houses which later transformed into the metropolis of brick and stone.[52]

 
Madras High Court buildings are a prime example of Indo-Saracenic architecture, designed by JW Brassington under the guidance of British architect Henry Irwin.

Indo-SaracenicEdit

Indo-Saracenic architecture evolved by combining Indian architectural features with European styles. Vincent Esch and George Wittet were pioneers in this style.

The Victoria Memorial in Calcutta is the most effective symbolism of British Empire, built as a monument in tribute to Queen Victoria's reign. The plan of the building consists of one large central part covered with a larger dome. Colonnades separate the two chambers. Each corner holds a smaller dome and is floored with marble plinth. The memorial stands on 26 hectares of garden surrounded by reflective pools.[53]

NeoclassicalEdit

Examples of Neoclassical architecture in India include British Residency (1798) and Falaknuma Palace (1893) in Hyderabad, St Andrews Church in Madras (1821),[54] Raj Bhawan (1803) and Metcalfe Hall (1844) in Kolkata, and Bangalore Town Hall (1935) in Bangalore.

Art DecoEdit

The Art Deco movement of the early 20th century quickly spread to large parts of the world. The Indian Institute of Architects, founded in Bombay in 1929, played a prominent role in propagating the movement. The New India Assurance Building, Eros Cinema and buildings along the Marine Drive in Mumbai are prime examples.[49]

Other Colonial powersEdit

The Portuguese had colonized parts of India, including Goa and Mumbai. The Madh Fort, St. John the Baptist Church, and Castella de Aguada in Mumbai are remnants of Portuguese Colonial rule. The Churches and Convents of Goa, an ensemble of seven churches built by the Portuguese in Goa are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[55]

Republic of India (1947 CE–present)Edit

In recent times there has been a movement of population from rural areas to urban centres of industry, leading to price rise in property in various cities of India.[56] Urban housing in India balances space constrictions and is aimed to serve the working class.[57] Growing awareness of ecology has influenced architecture in India during modern times.[58]

Climate responsive architecture has long been a feature of India's architecture but has been losing its significance as of late.[59] Indian architecture reflects its various socio-cultural sensibilities which vary from region to region.[59] Certain areas are traditionally held to be belonging to women.[59] Villages in India have features such as courtyards, loggias, terraces and balconies.[57] Calico, chintz, and palampore—of Indian origin—highlight the assimilation of Indian textiles in global interior design.[60] Roshandans, which are skylights-cum-ventilators, are a common feature in Indian homes, especially in North India.[61][62]

At the time of independence in 1947, India had only about 300 trained architects in a population of what was then 330 million, and only one training institution, the Indian Institute of Architects. Thus the first generation of Indian architects were educated abroad.

 
Panorama of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad designed by Louis Kahn, and completed in 1961.

Some early architects were traditionalists, such as Ganesh Deolalikar, whose design for the Supreme Court imitated the Lutyens-Baker buildings down to the last detail, and B.R. Manickam, who designed the Vidhana Soudha in Bangalore reminiscent of Indo-Saracenic architecture.

In 1950, French architect Le Corbusier, a pioneer of modernist architecture, was commissioned by Jawaharlal Nehru to design the city of Chandigarh. His plan called for residential, commercial and industrial areas, along with parks and a transportation infrastructure. In the middle was the capitol, a complex of three government buildings – the Palace of Assembly, the High Court, and the Secretariat.[63] He also designed the Sanskar Kendra at Ahmedabad. Corbusier inspired the next generation of architects in India to work with modern, rather than revivalist styles.[64]

Other prominent examples of modernist architecture in India include IIM Ahmedabad by Louis Kahn (1961), IIT Delhi by Jugal Kishore Chodhury (1961), IIT Kanpur by Achyut Kanvinde (1963), IIM Bangalore by B. V. Doshi (1973), Lotus Temple by Fariborz Sahba (1986), and Jawahar Kala Kendra (1992) and Vidhan Bhawan Bhopal (1996) by Charles Correa.[64]

Skyscrapers built in the international style are becoming increasingly common in cities. This includes The 42 (2019) and The Imperial (2010) by Hafeez Contractor. Other projects of the 21st century include IIT Hyderabad by Christopher Benninger (2015).

Notable ongoing projects in India include the city of Amaravati, Kolkata Museum of Modern Art, Sardar Patel Stadium, World One, and Navi Mumbai Airport.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c See Raj Jadhav, pp. 7–13 in Modern Traditions: Contemporary Architecture in India.
  2. ^ Rowland, 31-34, 32 quoted; Harle, 15-18
  3. ^ a b Livingstone & Beach, 19
  4. ^ Rowland, 31-34, 33 quoted; Harle, 15-18
  5. ^ a b c d e Chandra (2008)
  6. ^ Piercey & Scarborough (2008)
  7. ^ See Stanley Finger (2001), Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, Oxford University Press, p. 12, ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
  8. ^ a b c Chandra (2008)
  9. ^ a b Livingston & Beach, xxiii
  10. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), Pagoda.
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), torii
  12. ^ Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System (2001), torii.
  13. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), torii
  14. ^ Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System (2001), torii.
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), South Indian temple architecture.
  16. ^ The sculpture of early medieval Rajasthan By Cynthia Packert Atherton
  17. ^ Beginnings of Medieval Idiom c. A.D. 900–1000 by George Michell
  18. ^ The legacy of G.S. Ghurye: a centennial festschrift By Govind Sadashiv Ghurye, A. R. Momin, p. 205
  19. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), North Indian temple architecture.
  20. ^ Moffett et al., 75
  21. ^ "Ellora Caves". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  22. ^ MSN Encarta (2008), Hoysala_Dynasty. Archived 2009-10-31.
  23. ^ See Percy Brown in Sūryanātha Kāmat's A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present, p. 134.
  24. ^ The Hindu (2004), Belur for World Heritage Status.
  25. ^ Foekema, 16
  26. ^ See Percy Brown in Sūryanātha Kāmat's A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present, p. 132.
  27. ^ See Carla Sinopoli, Echoes of Empire: Vijayanagara and Historical Memory, Vijayanagara as Historical Memory, p. 26.
  28. ^ See Carla Sinopoli, The Political Economy of Craft Production: Crafting Empire in South India, C. 1350–1650, p. 209.
  29. ^ See Percy Brown in Sūryanātha Kāmat's A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present, p. 182.
  30. ^ "Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  31. ^ "Humayun's Tomb, Delhi". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  32. ^ Mukherjee, Anisha (3 June 2018). "Whose fort is it anyway". The Indian Express.
  33. ^ "Fatehpur Sikri". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  34. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008), Mughal architecture.
  35. ^ "Taj Mahal". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  36. ^ Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates (The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56321-6, p. 14 & pp. 77–80.
  37. ^ "Architecture - Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  38. ^ a b Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques:The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. United Kingdom: I.B. Tauris. p. 23–27. ISBN 1-84511-381-0.
  39. ^ "BENGAL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  40. ^ Petersen, Andrew (2002). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. pp. 33–35. ISBN 1-134-61366-0.
  41. ^ Kossak, Steven; Watts, Edith Whitney (2001). The Art of South and Southeast Asia: A Resource for Educators. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870999925.
  42. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 122.
  43. ^ Nilsson 1968, p. 9.
  44. ^ a b "(Brief) History of European – Asian trade". European Exploration. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  45. ^ Jaffar 1936, p. 230.
  46. ^ Tadgell 1990, p. 14.
  47. ^ Evenson 1989, p. 2.
  48. ^ Evenson 1989, p. 6.
  49. ^ a b "Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  50. ^ Evenson 1989, p. 20.
  51. ^ Dutta, Arindam (29 March 2010). "Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism and the Colonial Uncanny". Journal of Architectural Education. 63 (2): 167–169. doi:10.1111/j.1531-314X.2010.01082.x.
  52. ^ Nilsson 1968, pp. 66–67.
  53. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 129.
  54. ^ Thapar 2004, p. 125.
  55. ^ "Churches and Convents of Goa". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  56. ^ See Raj Jadhav, p. 11 in Modern Traditions: Contemporary Architecture in India.
  57. ^ a b Gast, 77
  58. ^ Gast, 119
  59. ^ a b c See Raj Jadhav, 13 in Modern Traditions: Contemporary Architecture in India.
  60. ^ Savage 2008
  61. ^ Thomas George Percival Spear; Margaret Spear (1981), India remembered, Orient Longman, 1981, ISBN 978-0-86131-265-8, ... The bungalow was a typical north Indian one, with a large central room lit only by skylights (roshandans) and a number of others opening out from them ...
  62. ^ Pavan K. Varma, Sondeep Shankar (1992), Mansions at dusk: the havelis of old Delhi, Spantech Publishers, 1992, ISBN 978-81-85215-14-3, ... Thirdly, while obviating direct sunlight, it had to allow some light and air to enter through overhead roshandans ...
  63. ^ "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  64. ^ a b Mukerji, Arjun; Sanghamitra, Basu. "A Search for Post-Modernism in Indian Architecture". Abacus.
  65. ^ "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  66. ^ Bhagwat, Ramu (19 December 2001). "Ambedkar memorial set up at Deekshabhoomi". Times of India. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  67. ^ Mukerji, Arjun; Sanghamitra, Basu. "A Search for Post-Modernism in Indian Architecture". Abacus.

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  • Singh, Vijay P. & Yadava, R. N. (2003), Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment, Allied Publishers, ISBN 81-7764-548-X.
  • Teresi, Dick (2002), Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8.
  • Vastu-Silpa Kosha, Encyclopedia of Hindu Temple architecture and Vastu/S.K.Ramachandara Rao, Delhi, Devine Books, (Lala Murari Lal Chharia Oriental series) ISBN 978-93-81218-51-8 (Set)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit