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Trimūrti (//; Sanskrit: त्रिमूर्ति trimūrti, "three forms") is the triple deity of supreme divinity in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified as a triad of deities, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer, though individual denominations may vary from that particular line-up. The legendary yogi Dattatreya is often treated as not only one of the 24 avatars of Vishnu, but also of Shiva and Brahma as well in a single three-headed body.
Creation, Preservation and Destruction; Universe
Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma
|Affiliation||Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), and Shiva (destroyer)|
|Abode||Satyaloka abode of Brahma|
Vaikuntha abode of Vishnu
Kailash abode of Shiva
|Mantra||Om Tridevaya Namah|
|Weapon||Bramhastra and Kamandala (Brahma); Sudarshana and Kaumodaki (Vishnu); Trishula (Shiva)|
|Mount||Swan (mount of Brahma), Garuda (mount of Vishnu) and Nandi (mount of Shiva)|
|Consort||Tridevi which consists of |
Saraswati (Brahma's wife)
Lakshmi (Vishnu's wife)
Parvati (Shiva's wife)
|Glossary of Hinduism|
Trimurti with Tridevi
This period had no homogeneity, and included orthodox Brahmanism in the form of remnants of older Vedic faith traditions, along with different sectarian religions, notably Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Shaktism that were within the orthodox fold yet still formed distinct entities. One of the important traits of this period is a spirit of harmony between orthodox and sectarian forms. Regarding this spirit of reconciliation, R. C. Majumdar says that:
Its most notable expression is to be found in the theological conception of the Trimūrti, i.e., the manifestation of the supreme God in three forms of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Śiva... But the attempt cannot be regarded as a great success, for Brahmā never gained an ascendancy comparable to that of Śiva or Viṣṇu, and the different sects often conceived the Trimūrti as really the three manifestations of their own sectarian god, whom they regarded as Brahman or Absolute.
However, this argument overlooks the obvious correlation of Brahmā with Brahman. The identification of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva as one being is strongly emphasized in the Kūrma Purāṇa, wherein 1.6 Brahman is worshipped as Trimurti; 1.9 especially inculcates the unity of the three gods, and 1.26 relates to the same theme. Historian A. L. Basham explains the background of the Trimurti as follows, noting Western interest in the idea of trinity:
There must be some doubt as to whether the Hindu tradition has ever recognized Brahma as the Supreme Deity in the way that Visnu and Siva have been conceived of and worshiped.
Temples dedicated to various permutations of the Trimurti can be seen as early as the 6th century C.E., and there are still some temples today in which the Trimurti are actively worshiped.
Views within HinduismEdit
In general it can be said that the trimurti has less of a role in the Hinduism of recent centuries than in ancient India.
Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma adoring Kali.
Shaivites hold that, according to Shaiva Agama, Shiva performs five actions - creation, preservation, dissolution, concealing grace, and revealing grace. Respectively, these first three actions are associated with Shiva as Sadyojata (akin to Brahma), Vamadeva (akin to Vishnu) and Aghora (akin to Rudra). Thus, Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra are not deities different from Shiva, but rather are forms of Shiva. As Brahma/Sadyojata, Shiva creates. As Vishnu/Vamadeva, Shiva preserves. As Rudra/Aghora, he dissolves. This stands in contrast to the idea that Shiva is the "God of destruction". To Shaivites, Shiva is God and performs all actions, of which destruction is only but one. Ergo, the Trimurti is a form of Shiva Himself for Shaivas. Shaivites believe that Lord Shiva is the Supreme, who assumes various critical roles and assumes appropriate names and forms, and also stands transcending all these. A prominent visual example of a Shaivite version of the Trimurti is the Trimurti Sadashiva sculpture in the Elephanta Caves on Gharapuri Island.
Despite the fact that the Vishnu Purana describes that Vishnu manifests as Brahma in order to create and as Rudra (Shiva) in order to destroy, Vaishnavism generally does not acknowledge the Trimurti concept; instead, they believe in the avataras of Vishnu like Buddha, Rama, Krishna, etc. They also believe that Shiva and Brahma both are forms of Vishnu. For example, the Dvaita school holds Vishnu alone to be the supreme God, with Shiva subordinate, and interprets the Puranas differently. For example, Vijayindra Tîrtha, a Dvaita scholar interprets the 18 puranas differently. He interprets the Vaishnavite puranas as satvic and Shaivite puranas as tamasic and that only satvic puranas are considered to be authoritative.
The Female-Centric Shaktidharma denomination assigns the eminent roles of the three forms (Trimurti) of Supreme Divinity not to masculine gods but instead to feminine goddesses: Mahasarasvati (Creatrix), Mahalaxmi (Preservatrix), and Mahakali (Destructrix). This feminine version of the Trimurti is called Tridevi ("three goddesses"). The masculine gods (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva) are then relegated as auxiliary agents of the supreme feminine Tridevi.
Smartism is a denomination of Hinduism that places emphasis on a group of five deities rather than just a single deity. The "worship of the five forms" (pañcāyatana pūjā) system, which was popularized by the ninth-century philosopher Śankarācārya among orthodox Brahmins of the Smārta tradition, invokes the five deities Ganesha, Vishnu, Brahma, Shakti and Shiva. Śankarācārya later added Kartikeya to these five, making six total. This reformed system was promoted by Śankarācārya primarily to unite the principal deities of the six major sects on an equal status. The monistic philosophy preached by Śankarācārya made it possible to choose one of these as a preferred principal deity and at the same time worship the other four deities as different forms of the same all-pervading Brahman.
The Saura sect that worships Surya as the supreme personality of the godhead and saguna brahman does not accept the Trimurti as they believe Surya is God. Earlier forms of the Trimurti sometimes included Surya instead of Brahma, or as a fourth above the Trimurti, of whom the other three are manifestations; Surya is Brahma in the morning, Vishnu in the afternoon and Shiva in the evening. Surya was also a member of the original Vedic Trimurti, which included Varuna and Vayu. Some Sauras worship either Vishnu or Brahma or Shiva as manifestations of Surya, others worship the Trimurti as a manifestation of Surya, and others exclusively worship Surya alone.
- "Trimurti" Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- Grimes, John A. (1995). Ganapati: Song of the Self. SUNY Series in Religious Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2440-5.
- Jansen, Eva Rudy (2003). The Book of Hindu Imagery. Havelte, Holland: Binkey Kok Publications BV. ISBN 90-74597-07-6.
- Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (Editorial Chairman) (1956). The Cultural Heritage of India. Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture.
- Winternitz, Maurice (1972). History of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation.
- For quotation defining the trimurti see Matchett, Freda. I real all the three deities are avatar of Shiva. The Brahma is "Swetamber"(one who wears white clothes), Maha Vishnu is "Pitamber" (one who wears yellow/red/orange clothes) and the Shiva is "Digamber/Vaagamber"(one who doesn't wears any cloth, only the skin of tiger). "The Purāṇas", in: Flood (2003), p. 139.
- For the Trimurti system having Brahma as the creator, Vishnu as the maintainer or preserver, and Shiva as the destroyer. see Zimmer (1972) p. 124.
- Mhatre, Sandeep. "Datta Sampradaay and Their Vital Role". Swami Samarth temple. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
- For dating of Puranic period as c. CE 300-1200 and quotation, see: Majumdar, R. C. "Evolution of Religio-Philosophic Culture in India", in: Radhakrishnan (CHI, 1956), volume 4, p. 47.
- For characterization as non-homogeneous and including multiple traditions, see: Majumdar, R. C. "Evolution of Religio-Philosophic Culture in India", in: Radhakrishnan (CHI, 1956), volume 4, p. 49.
- For harmony between orthodox and sectarian groups, see: Majumdar, R. C. "Evolution of Religio-Philosophic Culture in India", in: Radhakrishnan (CHI, 1956), volume 4, p. 49.
- For quotation see: see: Majumdar, R. C. "Evolution of Religio-Philosophic Culture in India", in: Radhakrishnan (CHI, 1956), volume 4, p. 49.
- For references to Kūrma Purana see: Winternitz, volume 1, p. 573, note 2.
- Sutton, Nicholas (2000). Religious doctrines in the Mahābhārata (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 81-208-1700-1.
- "Brahma, Rudra, and Vishnu are called the supreme forms of him. His portion of darkness is! Rudra. His portion of passion is Brahma. His portion of purity is Visnu"—Maitri Upanishad [5.2]
- Flood, Gavin, An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, p. 111, ISBN 0-521-43878-0
- Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A history of the Dvaita school of Vedānta and its literature: from the earliest beginnings to our own times. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 412. ISBN 81-208-1575-0. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Flood (1996), p. 17.
- Dating for the pañcāyatana pūjā and its connection with Smārta Brahmins is from Courtright, p. 163.
- For worship of the five forms as central to Smarta practice see: Flood (1996), p. 113.
- Grimes, p. 162.
- Basham, A. L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.
- Courtright, Paul B. (1985). Gaṇeśa: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505742-2.
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
- Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1972). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01778-6.
- Media related to Trimurti at Wikimedia Commons