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Open mandapa at Amritapura

Mandapa (also spelled mantapa or mandapam) in Indian architecture is a pillared outdoor hall or pavilion for public rituals.[1]

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Temple architectureEdit

 
Mandapa in Odisha with a shape like a bell Ghanta

In the Hindu temple the mandapa is a porch-like structure through the (gopuram) (ornate gateway) and leading to the temple. It is used for religious dancing and music and is part of the basic temple compound.[2] The prayer hall was generally built in front of the temple's sanctum sanctorum (garbhagriha). A large temple would have many mandapas.[3]

If a temple has more than one mandapa, each one is allocated for a different function and given a name to reflect its use. For example, a mandapa dedicated to divine marriage is referred to as a kalyana mandapa.[4] Often the hall was pillared and the pillars adorned with intricate carvings.[5] In contemporary terms, it also represents a structure within which a Hindu wedding is performed. The bride and groom encircle a holy fire lit by the officiating priest in the center of the Mandapa.[1]

Name variationsEdit

 
Mandapa of the central shrine of Banteay Srei temple, Cambodia.

When a temple has more than one mandapa, they are given different names.[3][6]

  • Ardhamandapa (Artha Mandapam or Ardh Mandapam) – intermediary space between the temple exterior and the garba griha (sanctum sanctorum) or the other mandapas of the temple
  • Asthana Mandapam – assembly hall
  • Kalyana Mandapam – dedicated to ritual marriage celebration of the Lord with Goddess
  • Maha Mandapam – (Maha=big) When there are several mandapas in the temple, it is the biggest and the tallest. It is used for conducting religious discourses. Sometimes, the maha mandapa is also built along a transversal axis with a transept (bumped-out portions along this transversal axis). At the exterior, the transept ends by a large window which brings light and freshness into the temple.
  • Nandi Mandapam (or Nandi mandir) – In the Shiva temples, pavilion with a statue of the sacred bull Nandi, looking at the statue or the lingam of Shiva.
  • Ranga Mandapa
  • Meghanath Mandapa
  • Namaskara Mandapa
  • Open Mandapa

Other languagesEdit

 
A Thai Buddhist Mandapa or Mondop, Wat Phra Kaew, Bangkok

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In Burmese, the term mandat (မဏ္ဍပ်), which has etymological origins in Pali maṇḍapa, is an open platform or pavilion from which people spray water to passers-by during the Buddhist festival Thingyan.

In Indonesian, the mandapa is known as a pendopo (ꦥꦼꦤ꧀ꦝꦥ). Unusually, Indonesian pendopos are built mostly for Muslim communities. Many mosques follow the pendopo design, with a layered roof to resemble Mount Meru.

In Khmer, Mandapa is pronounced to be Mondup (មណ្ឌប), means pavilion. Khmer people often refer it as a small shrine with high crown-shaped like tower, decorated with exquisite ornaments in various styles.[7] In Khmer temples during Angkor era, A Mandapa is generally attached to the central tower of a temple and lied longitudinally to one of each main direction.

In Tamil, this platform is the Aayiram Kaal Mandapam – a distinctly thousand pillared hall close to the vimana of the Koil which forms a distinct part of the site plan of classical Dravidian architecture.

In Thai, it is called a mondop (มณฑป). It features often in Thai temple art and architecture, either in the form of a Hor Trai (a temple library) or as an altar shrine such as the one in Wat Chiang Man in Chiang Mai.

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Thapar, Binda (2004). Introduction to Indian Architecture. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 143. ISBN 0-7946-0011-5.
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3.
  3. ^ a b "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent - Glossary". Retrieved 2007-01-08.
  4. ^ Thapar, Binda (2004). Introduction to Indian Architecture. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 43. ISBN 0-7946-0011-5.
  5. ^ "Glossary of Indian Art". art-and-archaeology.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-05. Retrieved 2007-01-08.
  6. ^ http://personal.carthage.edu/jlochtefeld/picturepages/Khajuraho/architecture.html
  7. ^ Khmer dictionary, word មណ្ឌប (Mondup), p.767, published in 2007, adapted from Khmer dictionary that was published by Buddhist institute of Cambodia in 1967.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit