Communist Party of India

  (Redirected from Communist party of India)

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist party in India and one of the eight national parties in the country.[5] The CPI was founded in Kanpur on 26 December 1925.[2][6][7]

Communist Party of India
AbbreviationCPI
General SecretaryD. Raja
Parliamentary ChairpersonBinoy Viswam
Lok Sabha leaderK. Subbarayan
Rajya Sabha leaderBinoy Viswam
Founded26 December 1925 (95 years ago) (1925-12-26)
HeadquartersAjoy Bhavan, 15, Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi, India-110002
NewspaperNew Age
Mukti Sangharsh
Janayugom
Kalantar
Visalaandhra
Jana Sakthi
Praja Paksham
Nawan Zamana
Nua Dunia
Janashakti
Kembavuta
Yugantar
Kholao Thakhai
Student wingAll India Students Federation
Youth wingAll India Youth Federation
Women's wingNational Federation of Indian Women
Labour wing
Peasant's wingAll India Kisan Sabha
IdeologyCommunism[1]
Marxism–Leninism[2]
Political positionLeft-wing[3]
International affiliationIMCWP
Colours  Red
ECI StatusNational Party[4]
Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
2 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
1 / 245
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies
Indian states
17 / 140
(Kerala)
2 / 243
(Bihar)
2 / 234
(Tamil Nadu)
Seats in State Legislative Councils
2 / 75
(Bihar)
Number of states and union territories in government
2 / 31
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Ears of Corn and Sickle.png
Party flag
CPI-banner.svg
Website
www.communistparty.in

HistoryEdit

FormationEdit

The Communist Party of India was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur, which was then known as Cawnpore. S.V. Ghate was the first General Secretary of CPI. There were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world, Tashkent group of Contacts were made with Anushilan and Jugantar the groups in Bengal, and small communist groups were formed in Bombay (led by S.A. Dange), Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani), Punjab, Sindh (led by Ghulam Hussain) and Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed).

Involvement in independence struggleEdit

During the 1920s and the early 1930s the party was badly organised, and in practice there were several communist groups working with limited national co-ordination. The British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party very difficult. Between 1921 and 1924 there were three conspiracy trials against the communist movement; First Peshawar Conspiracy Case, Meerut Conspiracy Case and the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case. In the first three cases, Russian-trained muhajir communists were put on trial. However, the Cawnpore trial had more political impact. On 17 March 1924, Shripad Amrit Dange, M.N. Roy, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R.C. Sharma were charged, in Cawnpore (now spelt Kanpur) Bolshevik Conspiracy case. The specific pip charge was that they as communists were seeking "to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution." Pages of newspapers daily splashed sensational communist plans and people for the first time learned, on such a large scale, about communism and its doctrines and the aims of the Communist International in India.[8]

Singaravelu Chettiar was released on account of illness. M.N. Roy was in Germany and R.C. Sharma in French Pondichéry, and therefore could not be arrested. Ghulam Hussain confessed that he had received money from the Russians in Kabul and was pardoned. Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani and Dange were sentenced for various terms of imprisonment. This case was responsible for actively introducing communism to a larger Indian audience.[8] Dange was released from prison in 1927. Rahul Dev Pal was a prominent communist leader

On 25 December 1925 a communist conference was organised in Kanpur.[9] Colonial authorities estimated that 500 persons took part in the conference. The conference was convened by a man called Satya Bhakta. At the conference Satyabhakta argued for a 'National communism' and against subordination under Comintern. Being outvoted by the other delegates, Satyabhakta left the conference venue in protest. The conference adopted the name 'Communist Party of India'. Groups such as Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan (LKPH) dissolved into the CPI.[10] The émigré CPI, which probably had little organic character anyway, was effectively substituted by the organisation now operating inside India.

Soon after the 1926 conference of the Workers and Peasants Party of Bengal, the underground CPI directed its members to join the provincial Workers and Peasants Parties. All open communist activities were carried out through Workers and Peasants Parties.[11]

The sixth congress of the Communist International met in 1928. In 1927 the Kuomintang had turned on the Chinese communists, which led to a review of the policy on forming alliances with the national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries. The Colonial theses of the 6th Comintern congress called upon the Indian communists to combat the 'national-reformist leaders' and to 'unmask the national reformism of the Indian National Congress and oppose all phrases of the Swarajists, Gandhists, etc. about passive resistance'.[12] The congress did however differentiate between the character of the Chinese Kuomintang and the Indian Swarajist Party, considering the latter as neither a reliable ally nor a direct enemy. The congress called on the Indian communists to utilise the contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the British imperialists.[13] The congress also denounced the WPP. The Tenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, 3 July 1929 – 19 July 1929, directed the Indian communists to break with WPP. When the communists deserted it, the WPP fell apart.[14]

On 20 March 1929, arrests against WPP, CPI and other labour leaders were made in several parts of India, in what became known as the Meerut Conspiracy Case. The communist leadership was now put behind bars. The trial proceedings were to last for four years.[15][16]

As of 1934, the main centres of activity of CPI were Bombay, Calcutta and Punjab. The party had also begun extending its activities to Madras. A group of Andhra and Tamil students, amongst them P. Sundarayya, were recruited to the CPI by Amir Hyder Khan.[17]

The party was reorganised in 1933, after the communist leaders from the Meerut trials were released. A central committee of the party was set up. In 1934 the party was accepted as the Indian section of the Communist International.[18]

When Indian left-wing elements formed the Congress Socialist Party in 1934, the CPI branded it as Social Fascist.[12]

The League Against Gandhism, initially known as the Gandhi Boycott Committee, was a political organisation in Calcutta, founded by the underground Communist Party of India and others to launch militant anti-Imperialist activities. The group took the name ‘League Against Gandhism’ in 1934.[19]

In connection with the change of policy of the Comintern toward Popular Front politics, the Indian communists changed their relation to the Indian National Congress. The communists joined the Congress Socialist Party, which worked as the left-wing of Congress. Through joining CSP, the CPI accepted the CSP demand for a Constituent Assembly, which it had denounced two years before. The CPI however analysed that the demand for a Constituent Assembly would not be a substitute for soviets.[20]

In July 1937, clandestine meeting held at Calicut.[21] Five persons were present at the meeting, P. Krishna Pillai, K. Damodaran, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, N.C. Sekhar and S.V. Ghate. The first four were members of the CSP in Kerala. The CPI in Kerala was formed in 31 December 1939 with the Pinarayi Conference.[22] The latter, Ghate, was a CPI Central Committee member, who had arrived from Madras.[23] Contacts between the CSP in Kerala and the CPI had begun in 1935, when P. Sundarayya (CC member of CPI, based in Madras at the time) met with EMS and Krishna Pillai. Sundarayya and Ghate visited Kerala at several times and met with the CSP leaders there. The contacts were facilitated through the national meetings of the Congress, CSP and All India Kisan Sabha.[17]

In 1936–1937, the co-operation between socialists and communists reached its peak. At the 2nd congress of the CSP, held in Meerut in January 1936, a thesis was adopted which declared that there was a need to build 'a united Indian Socialist Party based on Marxism-Leninism'.[24] At the 3rd CSP congress, held in Faizpur, several communists were included into the CSP National Executive Committee.[25]

In Kerala communists won control over CSP, and for a brief period controlled Congress there.

Two communists, E.M.S. Namboodiripad and Z.A. Ahmed, became All India joint secretaries of CSP. The CPI also had two other members inside the CSP executive.[20]

On the occasion of the 1940 Ramgarh Congress Conference CPI released a declaration called Proletarian Path, which sought to utilise the weakened state of the British Empire in the time of war and gave a call for general strike, no-tax, no-rent policies and mobilising for an armed revolutionary uprising. The National Executive of the CSP assembled at Ramgarh took a decision that all communists were expelled from CSP.[26]

In July 1942, the CPI was legalised, as a result of Britain and the Soviet Union becoming allies against Nazi Germany.[27] Communists strengthened their control over the All India Trade Union Congress. At the same time, communists were politically cornered for their opposition to the Quit India Movement.

CPI contested the Provincial Legislative Assembly elections of 1946 of its own. It had candidates in 108 out of 1585 seats. It won in eight seats. In total the CPI vote counted 666 723, which should be seen with the backdrop that 86% of the adult population of India lacked voting rights. The party had contested three seats in Bengal, and won all of them. One CPI candidate, Somnath Lahiri, was elected to the Constituent Assembly.[28]

The Communist Party of India opposed the partition of India and did not participate in the Independence Day celebrations of 15 August 1947 in protest of the division of the country.[29]

After independenceEdit

 
The Telangana armed struggle (1946–1952), was a peasant rebellion by communists against the feudal lords of the Telangana region in the princely state of Hyderabad.
 
Guerrillas of the Telangana armed struggle
 
CPI election campaign in Karol Bagh, Delhi, for the 1952 Indian general election.
 
First Council of Ministers, First CPI Ministry in Kerala
.

During the period around and directly following Independence in 1947, the internal situation in the party was chaotic. The party shifted rapidly between left-wing and right-wing positions. In February 1948, at the 2nd Party Congress in Calcutta, B. T. Ranadive (BTR) was elected General Secretary of the party.[30] The conference adopted the 'Programme of Democratic Revolution'. This programme included the first mention of struggle against caste injustice in a CPI document.[31]

In several areas the party led armed struggles against a series of local monarchs that were reluctant to give up their power. Such insurgencies took place in Tripura, Telangana and Kerala.[citation needed] The most important rebellion took place in Telangana, against the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Communists built up a people's army and militia and controlled an area with a population of three million. The rebellion was brutally crushed and the party abandoned the policy of armed struggle. BTR was deposed and denounced as a 'left adventurist'.

In Manipur, the party became a force to reckon with through the agrarian struggles led by Jananeta Irawat Singh. Singh had joined CPI in 1946.[32] At the 1951 congress of the party, 'People's Democracy' was substituted by 'National Democracy' as the main slogan of the party.[33]

Communist Party was founded in Bihar in 1939. Post independence, communist party achieved success in Bihar (Bihar and Jharkhand). Communist party conducted movements for land reform, trade union movement was at its peak in Bihar in the sixties, seventies and eighties. Achievement of communists in Bihar placed the communist party in the forefront of left movement in India.[citation needed] Bihar produced some of the legendary leaders like Kishan leaders Sahajanand Saraswati and Karyanand Sharma, intellectual giants like Jagannath Sarkar, Yogendra Sharma and Indradeep Sinha, mass leaders like Chandrasekhar Singh and Sunil Mukherjee, Trade Union leaders like Kedar Das and others.[citation needed] It was in Bihar that JP's total revolution was exposed and communist party under the leadership of Jagannath Sarkar fought Total Revolution and exposed its hollowness. "Many Streams" Selected Essays by Jagannath Sarkar and Reminiscing Sketches, Compiled by Gautam Sarkar, Edited by Mitali Sarkar, First Published : May 2010, Navakaranataka Publications Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore . In the Mithila region of Bihar Bhogendra Jha led the fight against the Mahants and Zamindars. He later went on the win Parliamentary elections and was MP for seven terms.[citation needed]

In early 1950s young communist leadership was uniting textile workers, bank employees and unorganised sector workers to ensure mass support in north India. National leaders like S A Dange, Chandra Rajeswara Rao and P K Vasudevan Nair were encouraging them and supporting the idea despite their differences on the execution. Firebrand Communist leaders like Homi F. Daji, Guru Radha Kishan, H L Parwana, Sarjoo Pandey, Darshan Singh Canadian and Avtaar Singh Malhotra were emerging between the masses and the working class in particular.[citation needed] This was the first leadership of communists that was very close to the masses and people consider them champions of the cause of the workers and the poor. In Delhi, May Day (majdoor diwas or mai diwas) was organised at Chandni Chowk Ghantaghar in such a manner that demonstrates the unity between all the factions of working classes and ignite the passion for communist movement in the northern part of India.[citation needed]

In 1952, CPI became the first leading opposition party in the Lok Sabha, while the Indian National Congress was in power.[citation needed]

Communist movement or CPI in particular emerged as a front runner after Guru Radha Kishan undertook a fast unto death for 24 days to promote the cause of textile workers in Delhi. Till than it was a public misconception that communists are revolutionaries with arms in their hands and workers and their families were afraid to get associated with the communists but this act mobilised general public in the favour of communist movement as a whole. During this period people with their families used to visit 'dharna sthal' to encourage CPI cadre.[citation needed]

This model of selflessness for the society worked for the CPI far more than what was expected. This trend was followed by almost all other state units of the party in the Hindi heartland. Communist Party related trade union AITUC became a prominent force to unite the workers in textile, municipal and unorganised sectors, the first labour union in unorganised sector was also emerged in the leadership of Comrade Guru Radha Kishan during this period in Delhi's Sadar Bazaar area.[citation needed] This movement of mass polarisation of workers in the favour of CPI worked effectively in Delhi and paved the way for great success of CPI in the elections in working class dominated areas in Delhi. Comrade Gangadhar Adhikari and E.M.S. Namboodiripad applauded this brigade of dynamic comrades for their selfless approach and organisational capabilities. This brigade of firebrand communists gained more prominence when Telangana hero Chandra Rajeswara Rao to be General Secretary of the Communist Party of India.[citation needed]

In the 1952 Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly election, Communist Party was banned, so it couldn't take part in the election process.[34] In the general elections in 1957, the CPI emerged as the largest opposition party. In 1957, the CPI won the state elections in Kerala. This was the first time that an opposition party won control over an Indian state. E. M. S. Namboodiripad became Chief Minister. At the 1957 international meeting of Communist parties in Moscow, the Communist Party of China directed criticism at the CPI for having formed a ministry in Kerala.[35]

Liberation of Dadra-Nagar Haveli: The Communist Party of India, along with its units in Bombay, Maharashtra and Gujarat, decided to start armed operations in the area in the July 1954. Both the areas were liberated by the beginning of August. Communist leaders like Narayan Palekar, Parulekar, Vaz, Rodriguez, Cunha and others emerged as the famous Communist leaders of this movement. Thereafter, the struggle to liberate Daman and Diu was begun by the Communist Party in Gujarat and other forces.[36]

Goa Satyagraha: The countrywide Goa satyagraha of 1955-56 is among the unforgettable pages in the history of freedom struggle, in which the Communists played a major and memorable role. The CPI decided to send batches of satyahrahis since the middle of 1955 to the borders of Goa and even inside. Many were killed, many more others arrested and sent to jails inside Goa and inhumanly treated. Many others were even sent to jails in Portugal and were brutally tortured. The satyagraha was led and conducted by a joint committee known as Goa Vimochan Sahayak Samiti. S.A. Dange, Senapati Bapat, S.G. Sardesai, Nana Patil and several others were among the prominent leaders of the Samiti. Satyagraha began on 10 May 1955, and soon became a countrywide movement.[37]

Ideological differences led to the split in the party in 1964 when two different party conferences were held, one of CPI and one of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).[citation needed]

During the period 1970–77, CPI was allied with the Congress party. In Kerala, they formed a government together with Congress, with the CPI-leader C. Achutha Menon as Chief Minister. After the fall of the regime of Indira Gandhi, CPI reoriented itself towards co-operation with CPI(M).[citation needed]

In the 1980s, CPI opposed the Khalistan movement at Punjab. In 1986, CPI's leader in Punjab and MLA in the Punjabi legislature Darshan Singh Canadian was assassinated by Sikh extremists. Altogether about 200 communist leaders out of which most were Sikhs were killed by Sikh extremists in Punjab.[citation needed]

Present situationEdit

 
Communist Party of India (CPI) and CPI-M regional control.
  State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI.
  State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI-M.
  State/s which had chief ministers from both the CPI-M and the CPI.
  States which did not have/had a chief minister from the CPI-M or the CPI.
  Union territories without a state government.

CPI was recognised by the Election Commission of India as a 'National Party'. To date, CPI happens to be the only national political party from India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol. Owing to a massive defeat in 2019 Indian general election where the party saw its tally reduce to 2 MP, the Election Commission of India has sent a letter to CPI asking for reasons why its national party status should not be revoked.[38][39][40][41][42] If similar performance is repeated in the next election, the CPI will no longer be a national party.

On the national level they supported the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government along with other parliamentary Left parties, but without taking part in it. Upon attaining power in May 2004, the United Progressive Alliance formulated a programme of action known as the Common Minimum Programme. The Left bases its support to the UPA on strict adherence to it. Provisions of the CMP mentioned to discontinue disinvestment, massive social sector outlays and an independent foreign policy.

On 8 July 2008, the General Secretary of CPI(M), Prakash Karat, announced that the Left was withdrawing its support over the decision by the government to go ahead with the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act. The Left parties combination had been a staunch advocate of not proceeding with this deal citing national interests.[43]

In West Bengal it participates in the Left Front. It also participated in the state government in Manipur. In Kerala the party is part of Left Democratic Front. In Tripura the party is a partner of the Left Front, which governed the state till 2018. In Tamil Nadu it is part of the Democratic Progressive Alliance. It is involved in the Left Democratic Front in Maharashtra. The current general secretary of CPI is D. Raja.

Presence in statesEdit

As of 2020, the CPI part of the state government in Kerala. Pinarayi Vijayan is Chief Minister of Kerala. CPI have 4 Cabinet Ministers in Kerala. In Tamil Nadu it is in power with SPA coalition led by M. K. Stalin. The Left Front governed West Bengal for 34 years (1977–2011) and Tripura for 25 years (1993–2018)

State GovernmentsEdit

S.No State/ Govt Since Chief Minister Alliance Coalition Seats in Assembly Last election
Portrait Name Party Seats Since
1 Kerala 26 May 2016   Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 62 26 May 2016 Left Democratic Front (Kerala)
99 / 140
6 April 2021
2 Tamil Nadu 7 May 2021   M. K. Stalin DMK 133 7 May 2021 Secular Progressive Alliance
159 / 234
6 April 2021

List of Members of ParliamentEdit

List of Rajya Sabha (Upper House) membersEdit

List of Rajya sabha members from Communist Party of India
No Name State Date of Appointment Date of Retirement
1 Binoy Viswam Kerala 02-Jul-2018 01-Jul-2024

List of Lok Sabha (Lower House) membersEdit

List of Lok sabha members from Communist Party of India
No Name Constituency State
1 K. Subbarayan Tiruppur Tamil Nadu
2 M. Selvarasu Nagapattinam Tamil Nadu

LeadershipEdit

The following are the members of the Central Control Commission, National Council and Candidate Members to National Council, National Executive, National Secretariat and Party Programme Commission were elected at the 23rd Party Congress of Communist Party of India held from 25 to 29 April 2018 in Kollam, Kerala.[44]

General SecretaryEdit

National SecretariatEdit

  1. S. Sudhakar Reddy
  2. D. Raja
  3. Atul Kumar Anjaan
  4. Amarjeet Kaur
  5. Ramendra Kumar
  6. K. Narayana
  7. Kanam Rajendran
  8. Binoy Viswam
  9. Bhalchandra Kango
  10. Pallab Sen Gupta

National ExecutiveEdit

  1. S. Sudhakar Reddy
  2. D. Raja
  3. Atul Kumar Anjaan
  4. Amarjeet Kaur
  5. Ramendra Kumar
  6. K. Narayana
  7. Kanam Rajendran
  8. Binoy Viswam
  9. Bhalchandra Kango
  10. Pallab Sengupta
  11. Nagendra Nath Ojha
  12. Girish Sharma
  13. Annie Raja
  14. Azeez Pasha
  15. K. Ramakrishna
  16. Satya Narayan Singh
  17. Janaki Paswan
  18. Ram Naresh Pandey
  19. Bhubneshwar Prasad Mehta
  20. K.E. Ismail
  21. Moirangthem Nara
  22. Dibakar Naik
  23. R. Mutharasan
  24. C. Mahendran
  25. Chada Venkat Reddy
  26. K. Subbarayan
  27. Swapan Banerjee
  28. Bant Singh Brar
  29. Munin Mahanta
  30. C.H. Venkatachalam

Ex-Officio Members

  1. Pannian Ravindran (Chairperson, Central Control Commission)

Invitees

  1. Rama Krushna Panda
  2. Manish Kunjam

National Council MembersEdit

Members from Centre:

Andhra Pradesh

  • K. Ramakrishna
  • M.N. Rao
  • J.V.S.N. Murthy
  • Jalli Wilson
  • Akkineni Vanaja

Assam

Bihar

  • Ram Naresh Pandey
  • Janki Paswan
  • Jabbar Alam
  • Rajendra Prasad Singh
  • Rageshri Kiran
  • Om Prakash Narayan
  • Pramod Prabhakar
  • Ram Chandra Singh
  • Nivedita

Chhattisgarh

  • R.D.C.P. Rao
  • Rama Sori

Delhi

  • Dhirendra K. Sharma
  • Prof. Dinesh Varshney

Goa

  • Chirstopher Fonseca

Gujarat

  • Raj Kumar Singh
  • Vijay Shenmare

Haryana

  • Dariyao Singh Kashyap

Himachal Pradesh

  • Shayam Singh Chauhan

Jharkhand

Jammu and Kashmir

Vacant

Karnataka

  • P.V. Lokesh
  • Saathi Sundaresh

Kerala

Manipur

Meghalaya

  • Samudra Gupta

Maharashtra

  • Tukaram Bhasme
  • Namdev Gavade
  • Ram Baheti
  • Prakash Reddy

Madhya Pradesh

  • Arvind Shrivastava
  • Haridwar Singh

Odisha

Puducherry

  • A. M. Saleem
  • A. Ramamoorthy

Punjab

  • Bant Singh Brar
  • Jagrup Singh
  • Hardev Singh Arshi
  • Nirmal Singh Dhaliwal
  • Jagjit Singh Joga

Rajasthan

  • Narendra Acharya
  • Tara Singh Sidhu

Tamil Nadu

Telangana

  • Chada Venkat Reddy
  • Palla Venkat Reddy
  • K. Sambasiva Rao
  • Pasya Padma
  • K. Srinivas Reddy
  • K. Shanker
  • T. Srinivas Rao

Tripura

  • Ranjit Majumdar

Uttar Pradesh

  • Girish Sharma
  • Arvind Raj Swarup
  • Imtiyaz Ahmed
  • Prof. Nisha Rathor
  • Ram Chand Saras

Uttarakhand

  • Samar Bhandari

West Bengal

  • Swapan Banerjee
  • Manju Kumar Mazumdar
  • Santosh Rana
  • Shyama Sree Das
  • Ujjawal Chaudhury
  • Chittaranjan Das Thakur
  • Prabir Deb
  • Tarun Das

Candidate Members

  • Prof. Arun Kumar
  • N. Chidambaram
  • Arun Mitra
  • M. Bal Narsima
  • Mithlesh Jha
  • Suhaas Naik
  • Mahesh Kakkath
  • Kh. Surchand Singh
  • Richard B. Thabah
  • G. Obulesu
  • Vicky Mahesari
  • Shuvam Banerjee

Invitee Members

  • Bhupender Sambar
  • Periyaswamy
  • Gulzar Singh Goria
  • Aruna Sinha
  • Asomi Gogoi
  • Kannagi
  • Usha Sahani
  • Indra Mani Devi
  • Durga Bhavani
  • R. C. Singh
  • Amiya Kumar Mohanty

Central Control CommissionEdit

  1. Pannian Ravindran (Chairman)
  2. C. A. Kurian
  3. Dr Joginder Dayal (Punjab)
  4. C.R. Bakshi (Chhattisgarh)
  5. P.J.C. Rao (Andhra Pradesh)
  6. Bijoy Narayan Mishra (Bihar)
  7. Moti Lal (Uttar Pradesh)
  8. M. Sakhi Devi (Tripura)
  9. T. Narsimhan (Telangana)
  10. M. Arumugham (Tamil Nadu)
  11. Apurba Mandal (West Bengal)

Party Programme CommissionEdit

  1. Pallab Sen Gupta
  2. Prekash Babu
  3. C.R. Bakshi
  4. Moirangthem Nara
  5. Anil Rajimwale

State Committee secretariesEdit

Sources[44]

  • Andhra Pradesh : K.Ramakrishna
  • Assam : Munin Mahanta
  • Bihar : Ram Naresh Pandey[45]
  • Chhattisgarh : RDCP Rao
  • Delhi :Prof.Dinesh Varshney
  • Goa : RD Mangueshkar
  • Gujarat : Rajkumar Singh
  • Haryana : Dariyao Singh Kashyap
  • Himachal Pradesh : Shayam Singh Chauhan
  • Jharkhand : Bhubneshwar Prasad Mehta
  • Kerala : Kanam Rajendran
  • Karnataka : Saathi Sundaresh
  • Maharashtra : Prakash Reddy
  • Madhya Pradesh : Arvind Shrivastava
  • Manipur : L. Sotin Kumar
  • Meghalaya : Samudra Gupta
  • Odisha : Ashish Kanungo
  • Puducherry : A. M. Saleem
  • Punjab : Bant Singh Brar
  • Rajasthan : Narendra Acharya
  • Tamil Nadu : R. Mutharasan [46][47]
  • Telangana : Chada Venkat Reddy
  • Uttar Pradesh : Girish Sharma
  • Uttarakhand : Samar Bhandari
  • West Bengal : Swapan Banerjee

List of General secretaries and Chairmen of CPIEdit

Article XXXII of the party constitution says:

"The tenure of the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary, if any, and State Secretaries is limited to two consecutive terms—a term being of not less than two years. In exceptional cases, the unit concerned may decide by three-fourth majority through secret ballot to allow two more terms. In case such a motion is adopted that comrade also can contest in the election along with other candidates. As regards the tenure of the office-bearers at district and lower levels, the state councils will frame rules where necessary."[48]

General secretaries and Chairmen[49][50][51][52][53]
No Photo Name Tenure
1st   Sachchidanand Vishnu Ghate 1925-1933
2nd   Gangadhar Adhikari 1933-1935
3rd   Puran Chand Joshi 1935-1948
4th   B. T. Ranadive 1948-1950
5th Chandra Rajeswara Rao 1950-1951, 1964-1990
6th Ajoy Ghosh 1951-1962
Chairman   Shripad Amrit Dange 1962-1981
7th   E. M. S. Namboodiripad 1962-1964
8th Indrajit Gupta 1990-1996
9th   Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan 1996-2012
10th   Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy 2012-2019
11th   D. Raja 2019–Present

Party CongressEdit

Party Congress [54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67]
Party Congress Year Place
Founding Conference 1925 December 25 – 28 Kanpur
1st 1943 May 23–1 June Bombay
2nd 1948 February 28–27 March Calcutta
3rd 1953 December 27 – 1, 954 January 4 Madurai
4th 1956 April 19 – 29 Palghat
5th 1958 April 6 – 13 Amritsar
6th 1961 April 7 – 16 Vijayawada
7th 1964 December 13 – 23 Bombay
8th 1968 February 7 – 15 Patna
9th 1971 October 3 – 10 Cochin
10th 1975 January 27–2 February Vijayawada
11th 1978 March 31–7 April Bathinda
12th 1982 March 22 – 28 Varanasi
13th 1986 March 2 – 17 Patna
14th 1989 March 6 – 12 Calcutta
15th 1992 April 10 – 16 Hyderabad
16th 1995 October 7 – 11 Delhi
17th 1998 September 14 – 19 Chennai
18th 2002 March 26 – 31 Thiruvananthapuram
19th 2005 March 29–3 April Chandigarh
20th 2008 March 23 – 27 Hyderabad
21st 2012 March 27 – 31 Patna
22nd 2015 March 25 – 29 Puducherry
23rd 2018 April 25 – 29 Kollam

Principal mass organisationsEdit

Former chief ministersEdit

Former chief ministers [68][69][70]
Photo Name Tenure State
  E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957 – 1959) Kerala
  C. Achutha Menon (1969 – 1970; 1970 – 1977)
  P. K. Vasudevan Nair (1978 – 1979)

Notable leadersEdit

[71]

General election resultsEdit

Performance of Communist Party of India in Lok Sabha elections
Lok Sabha Year Lok Sabha
constituencies
Seats
Contested
Won Net Change
in seats
Votes Votes % Change in
vote %
Reference
First 1952 489 49 16 - 3,487,401 3.29% - [72]
Second 1957 494 109 27   11 10,754,075 8.92%   5.63% [73]
Third 1962 494 137 29   02 11,450,037 9.94%   1.02% [74]
Fourth 1967 520 109 23   06 7,458,396 5.11%   4.83% [75]
Fifth 1971 518 87 23   00 6,933,627 4.73%   0.38% [76]
Sixth 1977 542 91 7   16 5,322,088 2.82%   1.91% [77]
Seventh 1980 529 ( 542* ) 47 10   03 4,927,342 2.49%   0.33% [78]
Eighth 1984 541 66 6   04 6,733,117 2.70%   0.21% [79][80]
Ninth 1989 529 50 12   06 7,734,697 2.57%   0.13% [81]
Tenth 1991 534 43 14   02 6,898,340 2.48%   0.09% [82][83]
Eleventh 1996 543 43 12   02 6,582,263 1.97%   0.51% [84]
Twelfth 1998 543 58 09   03 6,429,569 1.75%   0.22% [85]
Thirteenth 1999 543 54 04   05 5,395,119 1.48%   0.27% [86]
Fourteenth 2004 543 34 10   06 5,484,111 1.41%   0.07% [87]
Fifteenth 2009 543 56 04   06 5,951,888 1.43%   0.02% [88]
Sixteenth 2014 543 67 01   03 4,327,298 0.78%   0.65% [89]
Seventeenth 2019 543 49 02   01 3,576,184 0.58%  
0.2%
[90][91]

* : 12 seats in Assam and 1 in Meghalaya did not vote.

State No. of candidates 2019 No. of elected 2019 No. of candidates 2014 No. of elected 2014 No. of candidates 2009 No. of elected 2009 Total no. of seats in the state
Andhra Pradesh 2 0 1 0 2 0 (25)(2014)/42(2009)
Arunachal Pradesh 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Assam 2 0 1 0 3 0 14
Bihar 2 0 2 0 7 0 40
Chhattisgarh 1 0 2 0 1 0 11
Goa 0 0 2 0 2 0 2
Gujarat 1 0 1 0 1 0 26
Haryana 1 0 2 0 1 0 10
Himachal Pradesh 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Jammu and Kashmir 0 0 0 0 1 0 6
Jharkhand 3 0 3 0 3 0 14
Karnataka 1 0 3 0 1 0 28
Kerala 4 0 4 1 4 0 20
Madhya Pradesh 4 0 5 0 3 0 29
Maharashtra 2 0 4 0 3 0 48
Manipur 1 0 1 0 1 0 2
Meghalaya 0 0 1 0 1 0 2
Mizoram 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Nagaland 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Odisha 1 0 4 0 1 1 21
Punjab 2 0 5 0 2 0 13
Rajasthan 3 0 3 0 2 0 25
Sikkim 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Tamil Nadu 2 2 8 0 3 1 39
Tripura 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Telangana 2 0 17
Uttar Pradesh 12 0 8 0 9 0 80
Uttarakhand 0 0 1 0 1 0 5
West Bengal 3 0 3 0 3 2 42
Union Territories:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Chandigarh 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Daman and Diu 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Delhi 0 0 1 0 1 0 7
Lakshadweep 1[92] 0 1 0 0 0 1
Puducherry 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Total: 50 2 67 1 56 4 543

[90][91][93][94]

State election resultsEdit

State No. of candidates No. elected Total no. of seats in Assembly Year of Election
Andhra Pradesh 7 0 175 2019
Assam 1 0 126 2021
Bihar 6 2 243 2020
Chhattisgarh 2 0 90 2018
Delhi 3 0 70 2020
Goa 2 0 40 2017
Gujarat 2 0 182 2017
Haryana 4 0 90 2019
Himachal Pradesh 3 0 68 2017[95]
Jammu and Kashmir 3 0 87 2014
Jharkhand 16 0 81 2019
Karnataka 4 0 224 2018
Kerala 23 17 140 2021
Madhya Pradesh 18 0 230 2018
Maharashtra 16 0 288 2019
Manipur 6 0 60 2017
Meghalaya 1 0 60 2013
Mizoram 0 0 40 2013
Odisha 12 0 147 2019
Puducherry 1 0 30 2021
Punjab 23 0 117 2017
Rajasthan 42 0 200 2018
Telangana 3 0 119 2018
Tamil Nadu 6 2 234 2021
Tripura 1 0 60 2018
Uttar Pradesh 68 0 403 2017
Uttarakhand 4 0 70 2017
West Bengal 10 0 294 2021

Results from the Election Commission of India website. Results do not deal with partitions of states (Bihar was bifurcated after the 2000 election, creating Jharkhand), defections and by-elections during the mandate period.

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-199-97489-4.
  2. ^ a b "Brief History of CPI - CPI". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Manipur: CPI State Secretary, Blogger Arrested over CAA Protests". The Wire. Retrieved 24 December 2019. "India's election results were more than a 'Modi wave'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2019. Klaus Voll, Doreen Beierlein, ed. (2006). Rising India - Europe's Partner?: Foreign and Security Policy, Politics, Economics, Human Rights and Social Issues, Media, Civil Society and Intercultural Dimensions. University of Michigan: Mosaic Books. p. 387. ISBN 978-3-899-98098-1.
  4. ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  5. ^ "Recognized National Parties". Election Commission of India.
  6. ^ "Foundation of the Communist Party of India (CPI) in 1925: product of (...) - Mainstream". www.mainstreamweekly.net.
  7. ^ NOORANI, A. G. "Origins of Indian communism". Frontline.
  8. ^ a b Ralhan, O.P. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Political Parties New Delhi: Anmol Publications p. 336, Rao. p. 89-91.
  9. ^ "Historical Moments in Kanpur". Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  10. ^ M.V. S. Koteswara Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 92-93
  11. ^ M.V. S. Koteshwar Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 111
  12. ^ a b Saha, Murari Mohan (ed.), Documents of the Revolutionary Socialist Party: Volume One 1938–1947. Agartala: Lokayata Chetana Bikash Society, 2001. p. 21-25
  13. ^ M.V. S. Koteswara Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 47-48
  14. ^ M.V. S. Koteswara Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 97-98, 111–112
  15. ^ Ralhan, O.P. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties – India – Pakistan – Bangladesh – National -Regional – Local. Vol. 23. Revolutionary Movements (1930–1946). New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2002. p. 689-691
  16. ^ M.V. S. Koteswara Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 96
  17. ^ a b E.M.S. Namboodiripad. The Communist Party in Kerala – Six Decades of Struggle and Advance. New Delhi: National Book Centre, 1994. p. 7
  18. ^ Surjeet, Harkishan Surjeet. March of the Communist Movement in India – An Introduction to the Documents of the History of the Communist Movement in India. Calcutta: National Book Agency, 1998. p. 25
  19. ^ Roy Subodh, Communism in India – Unpublished Documents 1925-1934. Calcutta: National Book Agency, 1998. p. 338-339, 359-360
  20. ^ a b Roy, Samaren. M.N. Roy: A Political Biography. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1998. p. 113, 115
  21. ^ Thiruvananthapuram, R. KRISHNAKUMAR in. "A man and a movement". Frontline.
  22. ^ "Founders". CPIM Kerala.
  23. ^ E.M.S. Namboodiripad. The Communist Party in Kerala – Six Decades of Struggle and Advance. New Delhi: National Book Centre, 1994. p. 6
  24. ^ E.M.S. Namboodiripad. The Communist Party in Kerala – Six Decades of Struggle and Advance. New Delhi: National Book Centre, 1994. p. 44
  25. ^ E.M.S. Namboodiripad. The Communist Party in Kerala – Six Decades of Struggle and Advance. New Delhi: National Book Centre, 1994. p. 45
  26. ^ Ralhan, O.P. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Political Parties – India – Pakistan – Bangladesh – National -Regional – Local. Vol. 24. Socialist Movement in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1997. p. 82
  27. ^ Surjeet, Harkishan Surjeet. March of the Communist Movement in India – An Introduction to the Documents of the History of the Communist Movement in India. Calcutta: National Book Agency, 1998. p. 55
  28. ^ M.V. S. Koteswara Rao. Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad: Prajasakti Book House, 2003. p. 207.
  29. ^ Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2009). Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-01823-9. As a protest against Partition, the Hindu Mahasabha and the Communist Party of India (CPI) did not participate in the celebrations of 15 August.
  30. ^ Chandra, Bipan & others (2000). India after Independence 1947–2000, New Delhi:Penguin, ISBN 0-14-027825-7, p.204
  31. ^ "Page d'accueil - Sciences Po CERI" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
  32. ^ "The Telegraph - Calcutta : Northeast". Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
  33. ^ E.M.S. Namboodiripad. The Communist Party in Kerala – Six Decades of Struggle and Advance. New Delhi: National Book Centre, 1994. p. 273
  34. ^ "History of Kerala Legislature". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  35. ^ Basu, Pradip. Towards Naxalbari (1953–1967) – An Account of Inner-Party Ideological Struggle. Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 2000. p. 32.
  36. ^ https://www.newsclick.in/Revisiting-Goa-Liberation-Story-59th-Independence-Day
  37. ^ https://mainstreamweekly.net/article3273.html
  38. ^ "BSP, CPI, NCP get to retain national status, for now - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  39. ^ "CPM may lose national party status - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  40. ^ "BSP, NCP and CPI may lose national party status". hindustantimes.com/. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  41. ^ "Reprieve for BSP, CPI as EC amends rules". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 23 August 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 November 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)
  42. ^ "EC might strip national party status from BSP, NCP, CPI". oneindia.com. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  43. ^ "The Hindu News Update Service". 1 August 2008. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  44. ^ a b "Leadership". CPI Official Copy.
  45. ^ PTI (26 August 2020). "CPI, CPI(M) to forge electoral tie-up with Grand Alliance in Bihar". The Week. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  46. ^ "Mutharasan, CPI State secretary". The Hindu. 1 March 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  47. ^ "Mutharasan Elected as the CPI State Secretary". The New Indian Express. 1 March 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  48. ^ https://eci.gov.in/files/file/4927-communist-party-of-india/
  49. ^ "20th Party Congress, Hyderabad". newageweekly.in. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  50. ^ "Sudhakar Reddy steps into Bardhan's shoes as CPI general secretary". thehindu.com.
  51. ^ "Sudhakar Reddy is CPI general secretary again". thehindu.com.
  52. ^ "Sudhakar Reddy unanimously re-elected CPI general secretary". business-standard.com.
  53. ^ "D. Raja takes over as CPI general secretary". The Hindu. 21 July 2019.
  54. ^ "Kanpur in History | Genie For Kanpur". Genie for City. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  55. ^ "The First Party Congress – 1943 | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  56. ^ Balakrishna, Sandeep. "The Calcutta Line of the Communist Party of India and the Train of its Continuing Treachery". The Dharma Dispatch.
  57. ^ "Third Party Congress – An Attempt towards Course Correction | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  58. ^ "The Fourth Congress: Inner-party Struggle Begins | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  59. ^ "Party Congress". cpimkerala.org.
  60. ^ "Seventh Congress of the CPI". newageweekly.in.
  61. ^ "20th Party Congress, Hyderabad". newageweekly.in. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  62. ^ "CPI attacks Govt on economic policies". outlookindia.com.
  63. ^ "CPI to discuss UPA policies at its 20th National Congress in Hyderabad". oneindia.com. 23 March 2008.
  64. ^ "CPI party congress calls for Left unity | Patna News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  65. ^ "Hyderabad to Patna - XXI CONGRESS".
  66. ^ Sivaraman, R. (13 October 2014). "CPI to hold congress in Puducherry" – via www.thehindu.com.
  67. ^ "CPI party congress in Kollam". 17 October 2017 – via www.thehindu.com.
  68. ^ "Kerala Niyamasabha EMS Namboodiripad". stateofkerala.in.
  69. ^ "60 years of Kerala model: Boon and bane of remittances". Deccan Chronicle. 11 November 2016.
  70. ^ "Veteran CPI leader 'PKV' passes on". outlookindia.com.
  71. ^ "Communist Party of India | political party, India". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  72. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1951 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 70. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  73. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1957 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  74. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1962 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 75. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  75. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1967 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  76. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1971 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  77. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1977 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 89. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  78. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1980 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  79. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1984 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  80. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1985 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  81. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1989 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  82. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1991 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 58. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  83. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1992 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  84. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1996 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 93. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  85. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1998 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 93. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  86. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1999 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 92. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  87. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 2004 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 101. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  88. ^ "LS 2009 : Performance of National Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  89. ^ "LS 2014 : List of successful candidates" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 93. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  90. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2009" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2013.
  91. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2014" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2016.
  92. ^ "Ali Akbar K.: Ali Akbar K. CPI from LAKSHADWEEP in Lok Sabha Elections | Ali Akbar K. News, images and videos". The Economic Times.
  93. ^ "6. State Wise Candidate data Summary". Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  94. ^ "Seventh Lok Sabha elections (1980)". Indian Express. Indian Express. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  95. ^ "Assembly Election Results 2017: A Journey Through The Campaigning In Gujarat And Himachal Pradesh". NDTV.com. 18 December 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2020.

Further readingEdit

  • Chakrabarty, Bidyut. Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies (Oxford University Press, 2014).
  • Devika, J. "Egalitarian developmentalism, communist mobilization, and the question of caste in Kerala State, India." Journal of Asian Studies (2010): 799-820. online
  • D'mello, Vineet Kaitan. "The United Socialist Front: The Congress Socialist Party and the Communist Party of India." Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Vol. 73. (2012) online.
  • Haithcox, John Patrick. Communism and Nationalism in India (Princeton UP, 2015).
  • Kautsky, John H. Moscow and the Communist Party of India: A Study in the Postwar Evolution of International Communist Strategy. (MIT Press, 1956).
  • Kohli, Atul. "Communist Reformers in West Bengal: Origins, Features, and Relations with New Delhi." in State Politics in Contemporary India (Routledge, 2019) pp. 81-102.
  • Lockwood, David. The communist party of India and the Indian emergency (SAGE Publications India, 2016).
  • Lovell, Julia. Maoism: A Global History (2019)
  • Masani, M.R. The Communist Party of India: A Short History. (Macmillan, 1954). online
  • Overstreet, Gene D., and Marshall Windmiller. Communism in India (U of California Press, 2020)
  • Paul, Santosh, ed. The Maoist Movement in India: perspectives and counterperspectives (Taylor & Francis, 2020).
  • Pons, Silvio and Robert Service, eds. A Dictionary of 20th-Century Communism (Princeton UP, 2010) pp 180–182.
  • Singer, Wendy. "Peasants and the Peoples of the East: Indians and the Rhetoric of the Comintern," in Tim Rees and Andrew Thorpe, International Communism and the Communist International, 1919-43. (Manchester University Press, 1998).
  • Steur, Luisa. "Adivasis, Communists, and the rise of indigenism in Kerala." Dialectical Anthropology 35.1 (2011): 59-76. online
  • N.E. Balaram, A Short History of the Communist Party of India. Kozikkode, Cannanore, India: Prabhath Book House, 1967.
  • Samaren Roy, The Twice-Born Heretic: M.N. Roy and the Comintern. Calcutta: Firma KLM Private, 1986.

Primary sourcesEdit

  • G. Adhikari (ed.), Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India: Volume One, 1917-1922. New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1971.
  • G. Adhikari (ed.), Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India: Volume Two, 1923-1925. New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1974.
  • V.B. Karnick (ed.), Indian Communist Party Documents, 1930-1956. Bombay: Democratic Research Service/Institute of Public Relations, 1957.
  • Rao, M. B., Ed. Documents Of The History Of The Communist Party Of India(1948-1950), Vol. 7 (1960) online

External linksEdit