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Hasrat Mohani (1 January 1875 – 13 May 1951) was an Indian activist in the Indian Independence Movement, and a noted poet of the Urdu language.[1] He coined the notable slogan Inquilab Zindabad (that translates to "Long live the revolution!") in 1921.[2][3] Together with Swami Kumaranand, he is regarded as the first person to demand complete independence for India in 1921 at the Ahmedabad Session of the Indian National Congress.[4][3][5]

Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan Hasrat Mohani
Ambedkar and Maulana Hasrat Mohani at Sardar Patel's reception.jpg
Ambedkar and Mohani (left) at Sardar Patel's reception
Born Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan
(1875-10-04)4 October 1875
Mohan, Unnao District, British India
Died 13 May 1951(1951-05-13) (aged 76)
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Pen name Hasrat Mohani
Occupation Poet
Nationality Indian
Period 20th Century
Genre Ghazal
Subject Love and philosophy
Literary movement Indian independence movement

Contents

Short biographyEdit

He was born in 1875 as Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan at Mohan, a town in the Unnao district of United Provinces in British India. Hasrat was his pen name (takhallus) that he used in his Urdu poetry whereas his last name 'Mohani' refers to Mohan, his birthplace.[citation needed]

His ancestors migrated from Nishapur, in Iran.[6][7]

Hasrat Mohani championed the freedom struggle.[8] He also wrote verses expressing deep love for Krishna,[9] and often went to Mathura to celebrate Krishna Janmashtami.[citation needed]

He studied in Aligarh Muslim University, where some of his colleagues were Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali. His teachers in poetry were Tasleem Lucknawi and Naseem Dehlvi.[citation needed]

AcademicEdit

A few of his books are Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani (en. Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry), Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib (en. Explanation of Ghalib's poetry), Nukaat-e-Sukhan (en. Important aspects of poetry), Mushahidaat-e-Zindaan (en. Observations in Prison), etc. A very popular ghazal Chupke Chupke Raat Din sung by Ghulam Ali and Ghazal King Jagjit Singh was penned by him. He was also featured in the film Nikaah of 1982. The famous slogan of Indian freedom fighters Inquilab Zindabad was coined by Mohani in 1921.[10][11][3]

PoliticalEdit

In 1921 Ram Prasad Bismil attended Ahmedabad Congress along with many volunteers from Shahjahanpur and occupied a place on the dais. A senior congressman Prem Krishna Khanna and revolutionary Ashfaqulla Khan was also with him. Bismil played an active role in the Congress with Mohani and got the most debated proposal of Poorn Swaraj passed in the General Body meeting of Congress. Mohandas K. Gandhi, who was not in the favour of this proposal became quite helpless before the overwhelming demand of youths. It was another victory of Bismil against the Liberal Group of Congress.[12] He returned to Shahjahanpur and mobilised the youths of United Province for non-co-operation with the Government. The people of U.P. were so much influenced by the furious speeches and verses of Bismil that they became hostile against British Raj.

Struggle for Indian independenceEdit

Mohani participated in the struggle for Indian Independence (end of British Raj); and was jailed for many years by British authorities. He was the first person in Indian History who demanded 'Complete Independence' (Azadi-e-Kaamil) in 1921 as he presided over an annual session of All India Muslim League. He was a practising Muslim.[citation needed]

Communist movementEdit

He was among the founders of the Communist Party of India.[citation needed] He was also imprisoned for promoting anti-British ideas, especially for publishing an article against British policies in Egypt, in his magazine 'Urdu-e-Mualla'. Afterwards, unlike some Urdu poets like Josh Malihabadi and Nasir Kazmi, and many Muslim leaders, he chose to live in India rather than move to Pakistan after independence (1947) to represent left over Indian Muslims on various platforms. In recognition for his efforts, he was made a member of the constituent assembly which drafted the Indian constitution. But unlike other members, he never signed it.[citation needed]

Death and legacyEdit

Maulana Hasrat Mohani died on 13 May 1951 in Lucknow, India.[citation needed]

Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society was founded by Maulana Nusrat Mohani in 1951. In Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, Hasrat Mohani Memorial Library and Hall Trust, Karachi have been established by Hasrat Mohani Memorial Society (Regd.) Every year, on his death anniversary, a memorial meeting is conducted by this Trust as well as many other organisations in India and Pakistan.[citation needed] Also Hasrat Mohani Colony, at Korangi Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, was named after Maulana Hasrat Mohani. A famous and vast road is named after him in the financial hub of Karachi.[citation needed]

Hasrat Mohani Memorial Girls' Higher Secondary School in Metiabruz, Kolkata, India, is named after him.[citation needed]

CollectionEdit

  • Kulliyat-e-Hasrat Mohani (Collection of Hasrat Mohani's poetry)
  • Sharh-e-Kalam-e-Ghalib (Explanation of Ghalib's poetry)
  • Nukaat-e-Sukhan (Important aspects of poetry)
  • Mushahidaat-e-Zindaan

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chupke chupke raat din…". Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  2. ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India. Published for the proprietors, Bennett, Coleman & Company, Limited, at the Times of India Press. October 1974. 
  3. ^ a b c "India remembers Maulana Hasrat Mohani who gave the revolutionary slogan 'Inquilab Zindabad'". Zee News. 2017-01-02. Retrieved 2018-04-06. 
  4. ^ "Profile: Maulana Hasrat Mohani". www.milligazette.com. Retrieved 2018-04-06. 
  5. ^ "70 years of Independence: How Communists kept pestering the British throughout the freedom struggle". The Indian Express. 2017-08-18. Retrieved 2018-04-06. 
  6. ^ Gulam Ali Allana, Muslim political thought through the ages: 1562–1947, Royal Book Company (1988), p. 215
  7. ^ Avril Ann Powell, Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India, Routledge (2013), p.181
  8. ^ Jinnah and Tilak, Comrades in the Freedom Struggle by A. G. Noorani
  9. ^ http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?279545 an article of C.M.Naim on Hasrat Mohani
  10. ^ Pandya, Prashant H. (2014-03-01). Indian Philately Digest. Indian Philatelists' Forum. 
  11. ^ "LITERACY NOTES: Hasrat Mohani – a unique poet & politician". Business Recorder. June 18, 2005. Archived from the original on April 6, 2018. Retrieved April 6, 2018. 
  12. ^ 'Krant'/Man Ki Lahar/page 95

External linksEdit