List of chief ministers of Kerala

  (Redirected from List of Chief Ministers of Kerala)

The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Kerala state of India. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[2]

Chief Minister of Kerala
Emblem of Kerala state Vector.svg
Pinarayi Vijayan 1.jpg
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan

since 25 May 2016
StyleThe Honourable
StatusHead of Government
Member ofKerala Legislature (Assembly
Cabinet)
ResidenceCliff House, Thiruvananthapuram
SeatKerala Government Secretariat
AppointerGovernor of Kerala
Term lengthAt the Pleasure of the Governor of Kerala[1]
PrecursorPrime Minister of Travancore
Prime Minister of Kingdom of Cochin
Chief Minister of Madras
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin
Inaugural holderE. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)
Formation5 April 1957; 64 years ago (1957-04-05)
WebsiteCMO Kerala
Photograph of Cliff House, a two-storey bungalow with a garden in the foreground
A 15,000 sq. ft building on 4.5 acres of land, Cliff House in Thiruvananthapuram is the official residence of the Chief Minister of Kerala.

Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, the states' monarchs of Travancore and Cochin instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. The Malabar District and Kasaragod region of South Canara, which together constitute more than half of present state of Kerala, had their representatives in the Madras Legislative Assembly.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking regions, by merging Cochin, Malabar, and Travancore regions, and the Kasaragod region of South Canara.[3] The first assembly election in Kerala state was held in February–March 1957.[3] The first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on 5 April 1957. The Assembly had 127 members including a nominated member.[3] Since then, 12 people have served as the Chief Minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The latter party's Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

KeyEdit

PrecursorsEdit

Prime Ministers of Travancore (1948-49)Edit

No.[a] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Monarch)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Pattom Thanu Pillai   24 March 1948 17 October 1948 210 days Indian National Congress Representative

Body

(1948–49)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Maharaja of Travancore
2 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 1 July 1949 253 days

Prime Ministers of Cochin (1947-1949)Edit

No.[b] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Monarch)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Panampilly Govinda Menon   14 August 1947 22 October 1947 51 days Independent Sixth Council

(1945–48)

Kerala Varna VII,

Maharaja of Cochin

2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 20 September 1948 334 days
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier   20 September 1948 30 June 1949 283 days Legislative

Assembly

(1948–49)

Chief Ministers of Madras (1947-1956)Edit

More than half of the present-day state of Kerala was included in the districts of Malabar and South Canara in the erstwhile state of Madras until the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.[3] These regions had their representatives in the legislative assembly of Madras.[3]

No.[c] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Governor)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 O. P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar   23 March 1947[4] 6 April 1949[4] 2 years, 14 days Indian National Congress 1946 Legislative Assembly Governer
2 P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja   6 April 1949 9 April 1952 3 years, 3 days
3 C. Rajagopalachari   10 April 1952 13 April 1954 2 years, 3 days 1952 Legislative Assembly
4 K. Kamaraj   13 April 1954 31 October 1956 2 years, 201 days

Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1949-1956)Edit

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No.[d] Name Portrait Term of Office Party Assembly Appointed

by

(Rajpramukh)

Took office Left office Tenure
1 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 1 March 1951 1 year, 243 days Indian National Congress 1st Assembly

(1949–51)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma,

Maharaja of Travancore

2 C. Kesavan   3 March 1951 12 March 1952 1 year, 11 days
3 Anaparambil Joseph John 12 March 1952 16 March 1954 2 years, 4 days 2nd Assembly

(1952–53)
(1951 election)

4 Pattom Thanu Pillai   16 March 1954 10 February 1955 331 days Praja Socialist Party 3rd Assembly

(1954–56)
(1954 election)

5 Panampilly Govinda Menon   10 February 1955 23 March 1956 1 year, 42 days Indian National Congress
- Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  23 March 1956 31 October 1956 222 days N/A Dissolved N/A

List of Chief Ministers of KeralaEdit

The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern taluks and Sengottai Taluk which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

Chief Ministers of Kerala
No Name

(birth-death)

Portrait Constituency Term of office Party

(Alliance)

Assembly
Took office Left office Duration
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 1 November 1956 5 April 1957 155 days N/A Dissolved
1 Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad
(1909-1998)
  Nileshwaram 5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days Communist Party of India 1st Assembly

(1957–59)
(1957 election)

Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 days N/A Dissolved
2 Pattom Thanu Pillai
(1885-1970)
  Trivandrum II 22 February 1960 26 September 1962 2 years, 216 days Praja Socialist Party 2nd Assembly

(1960–64)
(1960 election)

3 Raman Sankar
(1909-1972)
  Cannanore I 26 September 1962 10 September 1964 1 year, 350 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 10 September 1964 25 March 1965 2 years, 177 days N/A Dissolved
25 March 1965 6 March 1967 2 years, 177 days Dissolved
(1965 election)[f]
(1) Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad
(1909-1998)
  Pattambi 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days;
(total 4 years, 357 days)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Saptakakshi Munnani)
3rd Assembly

(1967–70)
(1967 election)

4 Chelat Achutha Menon
(1913-1991)
  Kottarakkara 1 November 1969 3 August 1970 275 days Communist Party of India
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 4 August 1970 3 October 1970 60 days N/A Dissolved
(4) Chelat Achutha Menon
(1913-1991)
  Kodakara 4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days;

(total 7 years, 80 days)

Communist Party of India
(United Front)
4th Assembly

(1970–77)
(1970 election)

5 Kannoth Karunakaran
(1918-2010)
  Mala 25 March 1977 26 April 1977 32 days Indian National Congress
(United Front)
5th Assembly

(1977–79)
(1977 election)

6 Arackaparambil Kurien Antony
(born 1940)
  Kazhakkuttom 27 April 1977 28 October 1978 1 year, 184 days
7 Padayatt Kesavapillai Vasudevan Nair
(1926-2005)
  Alleppey 29 October 1978 11 October 1979 347 days Communist Party of India
(United Front)
8 Cheriyan Kandi Muhammad Koya
(1927-1983)
  Malappuram 12 October 1979 4 December 1979 53 days Indian Union Muslim League
(United Front)
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 5 December 1979 25 January 1980 51 days N/A Dissolved
9 Erambala Krishnan Nayanar
(1919-2004)
  Malampuzha 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
6th Assembly

(1980–82)
(1980 election)

Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 21 October 1981 28 December 1981 68 days N/A
(5) Kannoth Karunakaran
(1918-2010)
  Mala 28 December 1981 17 March 1982 79 days Indian National Congress (I)
(United Democratic Front)
Vacant[e]
(President's rule)
  N/A 17 March 1982 23 May 1982 67 days N/A Dissolved
(5) Kannoth Karunakaran
(1918-2010)
  Mala 24 May 1982 25 March 1987 4 years, 305 days Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
7th Assembly

(1982–87)
(1982 election)

(9) Erambala Krishnan Nayanar
(1919-2004)
  Trikaripur 26 March 1987 23 June 1991 4 years, 89 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
8th Assembly

(1987–91)
(1987 election)

(5) Kannoth Karunakaran
(1918-2010)
  Mala 24 June 1991 21 March 1995 3 years, 270 days;
(total 8 years, 315 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
9th Assembly

(1991–96)
(1991 election)

(6) Arackaparambil Kurien Antony
(born 1940)
  Thirurangadi 22 March 1995 19 May 1996 1 year, 58 days
(9) Erambala Krishnan Nayanar
(1919-2004)
  Thalassery 20 May 1996 16 May 2001 4 years, 361 days;
(total 10 years, 353 days)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
10th Assembly

(1996–2001)
(1996 election)

(6) Arackaparambil Kurien Antony
(born 1940)
  Cherthala 17 May 2001 30 August 2004 3 years, 105 days;
(total 5 years, 347 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
11th Assembly

(2001–06)
(2001 election)

10 Oommen Chandy
(born 1943)
  Puthuppally 31 August 2004 17 May 2006 1 year, 259 days
11 Velikkakathu Sankaran Achuthanandan
(born 1923)
  Malampuzha 18 May 2006 17 May 2011 4 years, 364 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
12th Assembly

(2006–11)
(2006 election)

(10) Oommen Chandy
(born 1943)
  Puthuppally 18 May 2011 24 May 2016 5 years, 6 days;
(total 6 years, 256 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
13th Assembly

(2011–16)
(2011 election)

12 Pinarayi Vijayan
(born 1945)
  Dharmadam 25 May 2016 19 May 2021 5 years, 22 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
14th Assembly

(2016–21)
(2016 election)

20 May 2021 Incumbent 15th Assembly

(2021- )
(2021 election)

StatisticsEdit

List of Chief Ministers by length of term
No. Name Party Length of term
Longest continuous term Total years of premiership
1 E. K. Nayanar CPI(M) 4 years, 361 days 10 years, 353 days
2 K. Karunakaran INC/INC(I) 4 years, 305 days 8 years, 315 days
3 C. Achutha Menon CPI 6 years, 172 days 7 years, 80 days
4 Oommen Chandy INC 5 years, 6 days 6 years, 256 days
5 A. K. Antony INC 3 years, 105 days 5 years, 347 days
6 Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 5 years, 22 days 5 years, 22 days
7 V. S. Achuthanandan CPI(M) 4 years, 364 days 4 years, 364 days
8 E. M. S. Namboodiripad CPI(M)/CPI 2 years 240 days 4 years 357 days
9 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai PSP 2 years 216 days 2 years 216 days
10 R. Sankar INC 1 year 350 days 1 year 350 days
11 P. K. Vasudevan Nair CPI 347 days 347 days
12 C. H. Mohammed Koya IUML 53 days 53 days


Political parties by total time-span of their member holding CMO (16 June 2021)Edit

No. Political party Number of Chief ministers Total days of holding CMO
1 CPI(M) 4 8925 days
2 INC 4 8,592 days
3 CPI 3 3,558 days
4 PSP 1 946 days
5 IUML 1 53 days

Living former chief ministersEdit

As of 16 June 2021, there are three living former chief ministers of Kerala:

The most recent death of a former chief minister was that of K. Karunakaran on 23 December 2010, aged 92.[6]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  3. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  4. ^ A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  6. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Article 164 in constitution of India".
  2. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  3. ^ a b c d e Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1588-5.
  4. ^ a b Express News Service (25 January 2018). "Tamil Nadu's first CM Omandur P Ramaswamy Reddiyar's birth anniversary to be celebrated on February 1". The New Indian Express.
  5. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  6. ^ Joe A Scaria (23 December 2010). "Karunakaran passes away, bringing curtains down on era in Kerala politics". The Economic Times. Retrieved 20 May 2021.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit