The Telangana Rebellion (IAST: tělaṃgāṇā věţţi cākiri udyamaṃ, "Telangana Bonded Labour Movement"; alternatively, tělaṃgāṇā raitāṃga sāyudha pōrāţaṃ, "Telangana Peasants Armed Struggle") was a peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and, later, the princely state of Hyderabad, between 1946 and 1951.
Communist Party of India|
Peasants of Hyderabad State
|Commanders and leaders|
|Nizam of Hyderabad||Puchalapalli Sundarayya|
The communists were as surprised as everyone else to see their efforts culminate in a series of successful attempts at organising the rebellion and distribution of land. With the Nizam holding on, even after the proclamation of Indian independence, the communists stepped up their campaign, stating that the flag of the Indian union was also the flag of the people of Hyderabad, much against the wishes of the ruling Asaf Jah dynasty.
The revolt started in 1946 against the oppressive feudal lords and quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts in around 4000 villages. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs), who were ruling the villages known as samsthans. These samsthans were ruled mostly by Deshasthas, Reddys and Velama, known as doralu.
They ruled over the communities in the village and managed the tax collections (revenues) and owned almost all the land in that area. The Nizam had little control over these regions except the capital, Hyderabad. Chakali Ilamma, belonging to the Rajaka caste, had revolted against 'zamindar' Ramachandra Reddy, during the struggle when he tried to take her 4 acres of land. Her revolt inspired many to join the movement.
The agitation led by communists was successful in taking over 3000 villages from the feudal lords and 10,00,000 acres of agriculture land was distributed to landless peasants. Around 4000 peasants lost their lives in the struggle fighting feudal private armies.
It later became a fight against Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII. The initial modest aims were to do away with the illegal and excessive exploitation meted out by these feudal lords in the name of bonded labour. The most strident demand was for the writing off of all debts of the peasants that were manipulated by the feudal lords.
Nizam's resistance to join IndiaEdit
With Hyderabad's administration failing after 1945, the Nizam succumbed to the pressure of the Muslim elite and started the Razzakar Movement. At the same, time the Nizam was resisting the Indian government's efforts to bring the Hyderabad state into the Indian Union. The government sent the army in September 1948 to annex the Hyderabad state into Indian Union. The Communist party had already instigated the peasants to use guerrilla tactics against the Razzakars and around 3000 villages (about 41000 km2) had come under peasant rule. The landlords were either killed or driven out and the land was redistributed. These victorious villages established communes reminiscent of Soviet mirs to administer their region. These community governments were integrated regionally into a central organization. The rebellion was led by the Communist Party of India under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha.
Among the well-known individuals at the forefront of the movement were Ravi Narayana Reddy, Maddikayala Omkar, Maddikayala Lakshmi Omkar, Puchalapalli Sundarayya, Pillaipalli Papireddy, Suddala Hanmanthu, Chandra Rajeswara Rao, Bommagani Dharma Bhiksham, Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Sulaiman Areeb, Hassan Nasir, Manthrala Adi Reddy, Bhimreddy Narasimha Reddy, Nandyala Srinivasa Reddy, Mallu Venkata Narasimha Reddy, Mallu Swarajyam, Lankala Raghava Reddy, Kukudal Jangareddy, Aruthla Ramchandra Reddy, Krishna Murthy, Aruthula Kamaladevi and Bikumalla Sathyam.
The violent phase of the movement ended in 1951, when the last guerilla squads were subdued in the Telangana region.
Annexation of Hyderabad StateEdit
The rebellion and the subsequent police action led to the capture of Hyderabad state from the Nizam's rule on 17 September 1948 and after a temporary military administration, the dominion was eventually merged into the Indian Union. In the process tens of thousands of people lost their lives, the majority that died during the army's movement were Muslims, although the Muslims had previously perpetrated violence against Hindus under the Nizam. According to Sunderlal report which hasn't been officially released estimates that around 50,000 Muslims were massacred. Other estimates by responsible observers run as high as 200,000.. The Communist Party of India, although weak today, still retains strong support in the grassroots of Telangana. Puchchalapalli Sundaraiah went on to become the first leader of opposition in independent India.
The last Nizam Asaf Jah VII was made the Rajpramukh of the Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 to 31 October 1956. The 1952 elections led to the victory of the Congress party in Hyderabad state. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was first Chief Minister of the Hyderabad state from 1952 to 1956. In 1956, Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. It was again separated from Andhra Pradesh to establish the State of Telangana in 2014.
The revolt ensured the victory of the Communist Party in Andhra Pradesh in the 1952 elections. Land reforms were recognised as important and various acts were passed to implement them.
In popular cultureEdit
- Krishan Chander's famous Hindi/Urdu novella Jab Khet Jage was based on the Telangana Rebellion.
- Dasaradhi Rangacharya's famous trilogy Chillara Devullu, Moduga Pulu, Janapadam written to depict before, on and after effects of Telangana Rebellion.
- Filmmaker Gautam Ghose gained acclaim in 1979 when he made his first Telugu feature film Ma Bhoomi.
- Palletoori Pillagaada was a famous song during the rebellion, written by Suddala Hanmanthu.
- Elliot, Carolyn M. (November 1974). "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946-51". Journal of Asian Studies. 34 (1): 24–47. doi:10.2307/2052408. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
- Sanghatana, Stree Shakti (1989). We Were Making History: Life Stories of Women in the Telangana People's Struggle. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-86232-679-6.
- Puchalapalli, Sundarayya (February 1973). "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. Part One: Historical Setting". Social Scientist. Social Scientist. 1 (7): 3–19. doi:10.2307/3516269. JSTOR 3516269.
- Puchalapalli, Sundarayya (March 1973). "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-1951. Part Two: First Phase and Its Lessons". Social Scientist. Social Scientist. 1 (8): 18–42. doi:10.2307/3516214. JSTOR 3516214. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014.
- Puchalapalli, Sundarayya (April 1973). "Telangana People's Armed Struggle, 1946-51. Part Three: Pitted against the Indian Army". Social Scientist. Social Scientist. 1 (9): 23–46. doi:10.2307/3516496. JSTOR 3516496.
- Arutla, Ramachandra Reddy. Telangana Struggle Memoirs,(New Delhi: 1984). people s publishing house. OCLC 832196203.
- Thirumali, Inukonda (2003). Against Dora and Nizam: People's Movement in Telangana. Kanishka Publishers, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7391-579-2.
- P. Sundarayya, Telengana [sic] People's Struggle and Its Lessons, December 1972, Published by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Calcutta-29.
- Telangana Movement Revisited, K. Balagopal, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 18, No. 18 (30 April 1983), pp. 709–712
- The Imperial Crisis in the Deccan, J. F. Richards, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2 (February 1976), pp. 237–256
- The Telangana Armed Struggle, Barry Pavier, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 9, No. 32/34, Special Number (August 1974), pp. 1413+1417-1420
- Anatomy of Rebellion, Claude Emerson Welch, SUNY Press, 1980 ISBN 0-87395-441-6, ISBN 978-0-87395-441-9
- Template:Telangana publishing
- K. Menon, Amarnath (31 December 2007). "The red revolt" (Text). India Today. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946-51". Scribd.com. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012. deletion notice issued for this website
- Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1977). Dimensions of social change in India. Indian Council of Social Science Research,Allied Publishers. p. 288.
- "Demand for installing Chakali Ilamma's statue". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 November 2010.
- "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre". Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Aiyar, SA (25 November 2012). "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre". Times of India. Times of India. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Hyderabad 1948: India's hidden massacre". BBC News. 24 September 2013.