|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2020 day arrangement
- 1770 – Lexell's Comet approached Earth at a distance of 0.015 AU (2.2 million km; 1.4 million mi), closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history.
- 1916 – First World War: The first day of the Battle of Albert, the opening phase of the Battle of the Somme, became the bloodiest day in the British Army's history, with 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 deaths.
- 1960 – Ghana became a republic, with Kwame Nkrumah (pictured) as its first president.
- 2002 – Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937 and DHL Flight 611 collided in mid-air over Überlingen, Germany, killing all 71 people aboard both aircraft.
- 1298 – Duke Albert I's army defeated the forces of the deposed Adolf of Germany in the Battle of Göllheim following Albert's election to replace Adolf as king.
- 1644 – The combined forces of Scottish Covenanters and English Parliamentarians defeated Royalist troops at the Battle of Marston Moor (depicted), one of the decisive encounters of the English Civil War.
- 1917 – Amidst weeks of race riots in East St. Louis, Illinois, white residents burned sections of the city and shot black inhabitants as they escaped the flames.
- 1976 – More than a year after the end of the Vietnam War, North and South Vietnam officially merged under communist rule to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
- 324 – Roman emperor Constantine the Great defeated his former colleague Licinius at the Battle of Adrianople.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: Loyalists and Iroquois killed over 300 Patriots at the Battle of Wyoming in Pennsylvania.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy attacked the French fleet (ship pictured), fearing that the ships would fall into Axis hands after the French–German armistice.
- 1970 – The Troubles: The British Army began the Falls Curfew in Belfast, Northern Ireland, which resulted in greater Irish republican resistance.
- 1054 – Chinese astronomers recorded the sudden appearance of a "guest star", later identified as the supernova that created the Crab Nebula.
- 1945 – The Brazilian cruiser Bahia was accidentally sunk by one of its own crewmen, killing more than 300.
- 1976 – Israeli forces raided Uganda's Entebbe International Airport to free hostages taken by hijackers on Air France Flight 139.
- 2005 – The impactor of the NASA space probe Deep Impact collided with the comet Tempel 1 (pictured), excavating interior material to study its composition.
- 1775 – The Second Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies adopted the Olive Branch Petition in the hopes of avoiding war with Great Britain.
- 1841 – Thomas Cook (pictured), founder of the travel company Thomas Cook & Son, organised his first excursion, escorting about 500 people from Leicester to Loughborough.
- 1950 – Korean War: In the first encounter between North Korean and American forces, an unprepared and undisciplined U.S. Army task force was routed at the Battle of Osan.
- 2009 – A series of violent riots broke out in Ürümqi, the capital city of Xinjiang in China.
- 1253 – Mindaugas, the first known grand duke of Lithuania, was crowned king, becoming the only person ever to hold that title.
- 1801 – French Revolutionary Wars: A Royal Navy squadron attempted to eliminate a smaller French Navy squadron at Algeciras before they could join their Spanish allies.
- 1940 – The Story Bridge (pictured) in Brisbane, the longest cantilever bridge in Australia, was opened by Sir Leslie Wilson, Governor of Queensland.
- 2013 – In the first fatal accident involving a Boeing 777 airliner, Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashed on final approach to San Francisco International Airport, resulting in three deaths.
- 1456 – Joan of Arc was declared innocent of heresy in a retrial twenty-five years after her death.
- 1798 – Outraged by the XYZ Affair, the United States rescinded its treaties with France, resulting in the undeclared Quasi-War, fought entirely at sea.
- 1911 – Four countries signed the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention, which banned the open-water hunting of seals (example pictured).
- 1963 – The secret police of Ngô Đình Nhu, brother and chief political adviser of South Vietnamese president Ngô Đình Diệm, attacked a group of American journalists who were covering a protest during the Buddhist crisis.
- 1990 – The Three Tenors performed together for the first time in a concert at the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, watched by a global television audience of around 800 million, on the eve of the 1990 FIFA World Cup Final.
- 1709 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces under Charles XII (pictured) were defeated at the Battle of Poltava, effectively ending the country's role as a major power in Europe.
- 1758 – French and Indian War: French forces defeated the British at Fort Carillon on the shore of Lake Champlain in the British colony of New York.
- 1962 – Following student protests at Rangoon University, Burmese general Ne Win ordered the demolition of the historic students' union building.
- 2014 – In response to the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli teenagers, Israel launched a military operation into the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
- 551 – At least 30,000 people died when a massive earthquake struck the Roman province of Phoenice (now Lebanon).
- 1745 – War of the Austrian Succession: The French victory at the Battle of Melle enabled their subsequent capture of Ghent.
- 1877 – The inaugural Wimbledon Championship, the world's oldest tennis tournament, began in London.
- 1955 – Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell (pictured) and nine other preeminent intellectuals and scientists issued the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, calling for a conference to assess the dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction.
- 1995 – Sri Lankan Civil War: After having advised civilians to take shelter in places of worship, the Sri Lanka Air Force bombed a church in Navaly, killing at least 147 people.
- 1519 – Zhu Chenhao declared Ming emperor Zhengde (portrait shown) to be a usurper, beginning the Prince of Ning rebellion.
- 1800 – Lord Wellesley, Governor-General of India, founded Fort William College in Calcutta.
- 1921 – Irish War of Independence: One day after a truce between the Irish Republican Army and British forces was agreed, violence broke out between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Battle of Britain, in which the Royal Air Force defended the UK from attacks by the German Luftwaffe, began.
- 1973 – John Paul Getty III, grandson of American oil magnate J. Paul Getty, was kidnapped in Rome.
- 1801 – French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons co-discovered the first of his 37 comets, more than any other person in history.
- 1848 – London Waterloo station, Britain's busiest railway station by passenger usage, was opened by the London and South Western Railway.
- 1936 – New York City's Triborough Bridge, the "biggest traffic machine ever built", opened to traffic.
- 1960 – To Kill a Mockingbird, a novel by Harper Lee (pictured) featuring themes of racial injustice and the loss of innocence in the Deep South of America, was published.
- 2010 – The Islamist militia group Al-Shabaab carried out multiple suicide bombings in Kampala, Uganda, killing 74 people and injuring 85 others.
- 1561 – Saint Basil's Cathedral (pictured), located in Red Square, Moscow, was consecrated.
- 1843 – According to Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, he received a revelation recommending plural marriage.
- 1920 – The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty was signed, with Soviet Russia agreeing to recognize an independent Lithuania.
- 1962 – The English rock band the Rolling Stones played their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London.
- 1986 – The Homosexual Law Reform Act became law in New Zealand, decriminalising consensual homosexual sex.
- 1260 – Livonian Crusade: Samogitian forces decisively defeated Teutonic knights and the Livonian Order at the Battle of Durbe.
- 1831 – Wallachian officials adopted Regulamentul Organic (cover shown), which engendered a period of unprecedented reforms that provided for the Westernization of the local society.
- 1942 – World War II: The 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment was converted from a battalion to accommodate a larger number of volunteers spurred on by the Japanese invasion of the Philippines.
- 2003 – French DGSE personnel aborted an operation to rescue Colombian politician Íngrid Betancourt from FARC guerrillas, later causing a political scandal when details were leaked to the press.
- 1791 – The Priestley Riots (depicted), targeting religious dissenters such as Joseph Priestley, began in Birmingham, England.
- 1798 – The Sedition Act became law, making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the U.S. government.
- 1874 – A fire in Chicago destroyed 812 structures and killed 20 people, leading to reforms in the city's fire prevention and firefighting efforts.
- 1987 – More than 100 mm (3.9 in) of rain fell in a two-and-a-half-hour period in Montreal, causing severe flooding and over C$220 million in damage.
- 2016 – A man deliberately drove a truck into crowds in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people.
- 1799 – French soldiers uncovered the Rosetta Stone (pictured) in Fort Julien, near the Egyptian port city of Rashid.
- 1815 – Aboard HMS Bellerophon, Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland of the Royal Navy, concluding the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1966 – Vietnam War: The United States and South Vietnam began Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.
- 1983 – Armenian extremist organization ASALA bombed the Turkish Airlines check-in counter at Orly Airport, killing 8 and injuring 55, as part of its campaign for the recognition of and reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
- 2016 – Organized as the Peace at Home Council, a faction in the Turkish Armed Forces attempted a coup d'état against the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
- 1377 – The ten-year-old Richard II was crowned King of England.
- 1769 – Spanish friar Junípero Serra founded Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first Franciscan mission in the Alta California region of New Spain.
- 1931 – Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (pictured) signed the nation's first constitution, intended to officially replace the Fetha Nagast, which had been the supreme law since the Middle Ages.
- 1950 – Korean War: A Korean People's Army unit massacred thirty-one U.S. Army prisoners of war.
- 2007 – An earthquake of magnitude 6.6 MW struck Niigata Prefecture, Japan, causing a leak of radioactive gases from the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant.
- 1048 – Damasus II began his 23-day-long papacy, one of the shortest in history.
- 1453 – The Battle of Castillon (depicted), the last conflict of the Hundred Years' War, ended with the English losing all landholdings in France except Calais.
- 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resumed as British forces led by General Duncan Cameron began the Invasion of the Waikato.
- 1918 – RMS Carpathia, which had rescued survivors of the 1912 Titanic sinking, was sunk by a German U-boat with the loss of five crew.
- 2014 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down over eastern Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board.
- 1290 – Edward I issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.
- 1863 – American Civil War: Led by Union Army colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, the first formal African-American military unit, spearheaded an assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina.
- 1936 – Nationalist rebels attempted a coup d'état against the Second Spanish Republic, sparking the Spanish Civil War.
- 1984 – Parts of the dismembered body of Swedish prostitute Catrine da Costa were found in Stockholm.
- 2014 – The conviction of former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi (pictured), who had been found guilty of paying for an underage prostitute, was overturned on appeal.
- 1545 – The English warship Mary Rose sank just outside Portsmouth during the Battle of the Solent.
- 1845 – The last major fire to affect Manhattan destroyed 345 buildings, killed 30 people, and caused at least $5 million in damage.
- 1919 – Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of the First World War, English ex-servicemen who were unhappy with unemployment and other grievances rioted and burned down Luton Town Hall (pictured).
- 1997 – The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army announced it would resume its ceasefire, ending its 28-year campaign against British rule in Northern Ireland.
- 2014 – Unidentified gunmen perpetrated an armed assault against an Egyptian military checkpoint in the Libyan Desert, killing 22 border guards.
- 1333 – Second War of Scottish Independence: The Scottish-held town of Berwick-upon-Tweed surrendered to English forces, ending a siege led by Edward III of England (depicted).
- 1807 – French brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce received a patent for their Pyréolophore, one of the world's first internal combustion engines.
- 1968 – The first games of the Special Olympics, for athletes with intellectual disabilities, were held at Soldier Field in Chicago.
- 1999 – The Chinese Communist Party launched a persecution campaign against the Falun Gong spiritual movement, beginning the arrests of thousands of practitioners nationwide.
- 2015 – A suicide attack in Suruç, Turkey, for which ISIL claimed responsibility, killed 34 people and injured 104 others.
- 1774 – The victorious Russian Empire and the defeated Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, officially ending the Russo-Turkish War.
- 1831 – Following the Belgian Revolution, Leopold I was inaugurated as the first king of the Belgians at the Place Royale in Brussels.
- 1918 – World War I: An Imperial German U-boat opened fire on a small convoy of barges and defending aircraft near the American town of Orleans, Massachusetts.
- 1960 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike (pictured) was elected the prime minister of Ceylon, becoming the world's first democratically elected female head of government.
- 1990 – Taiwanese military police ordered the deportation of 76 illegal immigrants from mainland China in sealed boat holds, causing 25 deaths due to suffocation.
- 1209 – In the first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade, a crusader army captured Béziers, France, and slaughtered the inhabitants.
- 1691 – Williamite War: The forces of William III of England defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Aughrim in Ireland.
- 1894 – Jules-Albert de Dion (pictured) finished first in the world's first motor race, but did not win as his steam-powered car was against the rules.
- 1944 – World War II: In opposition to the London-based government-in-exile, the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed to govern territory recaptured from Nazi Germany.
- 1997 – Written and illustrated by Eiichiro Oda, One Piece, the best-selling manga series in history, debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump.
- 1829 – William Austin Burt was awarded a patent for the typographer (replica pictured), the first practical typewriting machine.
- 1860 – The Eastbourne manslaughter trial began, which later became an important legal precedent in the United Kingdom for discussions of corporal punishment in schools.
- 1940 – Sumner Welles, U.S. Under Secretary of State, issued a declaration that the U.S. government would not recognize the Soviet Union's annexation of the Baltic states.
- 1968 – A shootout between police and a Black Power group began in Cleveland, Ohio, sparking three days of rioting.
- 1995 – Hale–Bopp, one of the most widely observed comets of the 20th century, was independently discovered by astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp.
- 1411 – Scottish clansmen led by Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles, and Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, fought the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie, Scotland.
- 1923 – The Treaty of Lausanne was signed to settle the Anatolian part of the partition of the Ottoman Empire, establishing the boundaries of modern Turkey.
- 1967 – During a speech in Montreal, French president Charles de Gaulle (pictured) declared "Long live free Quebec!", a statement that was interpreted as support for Quebec independence from Canada.
- 1974 – Following the collapse of the Greek military junta, the Metapolitefsi period began as the country transitioned to a democratic government.
- 1980 – At the Moscow Olympics, Australia's swimming team, nicknamed the Quietly Confident Quartet, won the men's 4 × 100 metre medley relay, the only time that the United States, which boycotted the games, has not won the event at the Olympics.
- 1261 – Nicaean–Latin wars: Alexios Strategopoulos led Nicaean forces to recapture Constantinople, leading to the re-establishment of the Byzantine Empire and the end of the Latin Empire.
- 1788 – Mozart completed his Symphony No. 40, one of his two extant minor-key symphonies.
- 1893 – The Corinth Canal (pictured), which bisects Greece's narrow Isthmus of Corinth, was formally opened, connecting the Ionian Sea's Gulf of Corinth with the Aegean Sea's Saronic Gulf.
- 2000 – Air France Flight 4590, a Concorde en route from Paris to New York, crashed in Gonesse, France, killing all 109 passengers on board and four people on the ground.
- 2010 – WikiLeaks published 75,000 classified documents about the War in Afghanistan in one of the largest leaks in U.S. military history.
- 1882 – Boer mercenaries declared their independence from the Transvaal Republic and established the Republic of Stellaland.
- 1887 – L. L. Zamenhof (pictured) published Unua Libro, the first publication to describe Esperanto, a constructed international language.
- 1953 – The Battle of the Samichon River, the last engagement of the Korean War, ended only a few hours before the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed.
- 1968 – After coming second to Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in a rigged presidential election in 1967, Trương Đình Dzu was jailed by a South Vietnamese military court for illicit currency transactions.
- 2016 – In one of the deadliest crimes in modern Japanese history, a former employee carried out a mass stabbing at a care home for disabled people in Sagamihara, killing 19 people and wounding 26 others.
- 1689 – First Jacobite rising: Scottish and Irish Jacobites defeated Williamite forces at Killiecrankie, Scotland.
- 1778 – The Battle of Ushant, the first encounter between the French and British fleets in the American Revolutionary War, ended indecisively and led to political disputes in both countries.
- 1916 – First World War: British mariner Charles Fryatt (pictured) was executed in Bruges, Belgium, after a German court-martial found him guilty of being a franc-tireur.
- 1955 – After straying into Bulgarian airspace, El Al Flight 402 was shot down by two MiG-15 fighter jets, resulting in the deaths of all 58 on board.
- 1990 – Jamaat al Muslimeen, a radical Islamic group, began a coup attempt against the government of Trinidad and Tobago by taking hostages, including Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson, before surrendering five days later.
- 1821 – Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru from the Spanish Empire.
- 1939 – During the excavation of a 7th-century ship burial at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England, archaeologists discovered a helmet (pictured) that probably belonged to King Rædwald of East Anglia.
- 1945 – A B-25 bomber crashed into the Empire State Building in New York City, killing 14 people and causing an estimated $1 million in damage.
- 1995 – Two followers of Rajneesh were convicted of conspiring to assassinate Charles Turner, the U.S. attorney for the District of Oregon.
- 2005 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army announced the formal end of its armed campaign to overthrow British rule in Northern Ireland and create a united Ireland.
- 1693 – Nine Years' War: French troops defeated Allied forces led by William III of England at the Battle of Landen in present-day Neerwinden, Belgium.
- 1818 – French physicist Augustin Fresnel (pictured) submitted a memoir on the diffraction of light to the Royal Academy of Sciences, which provided strong support for the wave theory of light.
- 1900 – Italian-American anarchist Gaetano Bresci assassinated King Umberto I of Italy in Monza.
- 1950 – Korean War: U.S. forces concluded a four-day massacre of hundreds of civilians through shootings and air attacks near the village of Nogeun-ri, sparked by fears that North Korean soldiers were infiltrating refugee columns.
- 1676 – Rebelling colonists led by Nathaniel Bacon issued the Declaration of the People against the rule of Governor William Berkeley in Virginia.
- 1865 – Off the coast of Crescent City, California, the steamship Brother Jonathan (depicted) struck an uncharted rock and sank, killing 225 people; its cargo of gold coins was not retrieved until 1996.
- 1930 – Uruguay defeated Argentina at Estadio Centenario in Montevideo to win the inaugural FIFA World Cup.
- 1950 – At the height of the political crisis known as the Royal Question, four workers were shot dead by the Belgian Gendarmerie at a strike in Grâce-Berleur.
- 2006 – Lebanon War: The Israeli Air Force attacked a three-story building near the Southern Lebanese village of Qana, killing at least 28 civilians, including 16 children.
- 1200 or 1201 – John Komnenos the Fat briefly seized the throne of the Byzantine Empire from Alexios III Angelos, but was captured and executed that night.
- 1667 – The Second Anglo-Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda.
- 1917 – First World War: The Battle of Passchendaele began near Ypres, Belgium, with the Allies aiming to force German troops to withdraw from the Channel Ports.
- 1954 – A team of Italian climbers became the first to reach the summit of K2 (pictured), the world's second-highest mountain.
- 2007 – The Troubles: Operation Banner, the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland, ended after 38 years with a military stalemate and ceasefire.