Republic Day

Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics.

Frecce tricolori at the Festa della Repubblica in Italy, 2nd of June 2005.

ListEdit

Legend
  Ceased to be republic
  Transition during or following World War I (1914-1923)
  Transition during or following World War II (1939-1950)
  Transition in pre or post world war era
Country Date of
Transition
Remarks
Netherlands 26 July 1581 The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declared its independence from King Philip II of Spain on 26 July 1581 with the Act of Abjuration, and became the Batavian Republic in 1795. The Kingdom of Holland was formed on 5 June 1806.
Switzerland 24 October 1648 Switzerland became independent from the Holy Roman Empire by the Treaty of Westphalia
England 19 May 1649 The Commonwealth of England, later known as the Protectorate, was established on 19 May 1649 following the execution of King Charles I. At its height, it ruled over all the British Isles. The monarchy was restored on 29 May 1660.
United States 4 July 1776 Went de facto independent from Great Britain with adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence
Paraguay 15 May 1811 Independence from Spain[dubious ]
Argentina 9 July 1816 Independence won from the Spanish Empire. Republican governments established from 1811 onwards. Republican constitutions of 1819 and 1826 led to the adoption of the 1853 text
Chile 12 February 1818 Independence declared from the Spanish Empire. Between 1810 and 1814 there were Republican governments although nominally remained loyal to the Spanish monarchy. In 1817 there was re-established the independentist government and established a republican system in different constitutional texts.
Venezuela 15 August 1819 Venezuelan constitution of 1819 adopted
Colombia 17 December 1819 Republic of Colombia declared during Congress of Angostura
Panama
Ecuador 24 May 1822 Incorporated into Republic of Colombia, end of Royal Audiencia of Quito
Costa Rica 1 July 1823 Independence of United Provinces of Central America
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Nicaragua
Peru 9 December 1824 Treaty signed after Battle of Ayacucho
Bolivia 6 August 1825 Constitutional congress declared Bolivia a republic
Uruguay 4 October 1828 Ratification of Treaty of Montevideo
Liberia 26 July 1847 Independent Republic of Liberia created
Haiti 15 January 1859 Abdication of Emperor Faustin
Dominican Republic 25 March 1865 Adoption of new constitution near end of Dominican Restoration War
Mexico 15 July 1867 Emperor Maxmilian executed; Federal Republic officially restored
France 4 September 1870 Emperor Napoleon III deposed and French Third Republic proclaimed as a result of the Franco-Prussian War
Algeria Republican government instituted when French mother country became a republic
Ivory Coast
Mauritania
Senegal
Brazil 15 November 1889 Emperor Pedro II deposed and Brazilian Republic proclaimed by Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca
Hawaii 4 July 1894 Queen Liliʻuokalani deposed and republic proclaimed following a provisional government
Madagascar 28 February 1897 End of Merina Kingdom
Philippines 23 January 1899 First Philippine Republic.[a]
Cuba 11 April 1899 Official end of Spanish–American War
Portugal 5 October 1910 King Manuel II deposed and Portuguese First Republic proclaimed as a result of the 1910 revolution
Angola Republican government instituted when Portuguese mother country became a republic
Cape Verde
East Timor
Guinea-Bissau
Mozambique
São Tomé and Príncipe
China 10 October 1911 Republic of China (ROC) proclaimed as a result of the Xinhai Revolution. The ROC was initially in control of mainland China but later relocated to Taiwan. It is now commonly known as "Taiwan".
The People's Republic of China was proclaimed on 1 October 1949 and is now in control of mainland China. It is commonly known as "China".
Comoros 1912 End of last of indigenous sultanates
Armenia 14 September 1917 Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicated as a result of the February Revolution and Russia was proclaimed a republic
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Estonia
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Russia
Ukraine
Czech Republic 18 October 1918 Czechoslovak Republic proclaimed
Slovakia
Lithuania 2 November 1918 King Mindaugas II deposed and Republic of Lithuania proclaimed
Germany 9 November 1918 Emperor William II abdicated as a result of the German Revolution
Austria 12 November 1918 Republic of German Austria proclaimed following the dethronement of Emperor Charles
Poland 14 November 1918 Power transferred from the Regency Council to Chief of State Józef Piłsudski
Finland 14 December 1918 King Frederic Charles renounced the throne
Turkmenistan 26 April 1920 Khan Sayid Abdullah deposed and Khorezm People's Soviet Republic proclaimed
Lebanon 23 July 1920 French Mandate of Syria established after the Battle of Maysalun
Syria
Tajikistan 8 October 1920 Emir Mohammed Alim Khan deposed and Bukharan People's Republic proclaimed
Uzbekistan
Togo 20 July 1922 Formal beginning of French Togoland League of Nations Mandate
Turkey 29 October 1923 Republic of Turkey was proclaimed after the Turkish War of Independence, succeeding the Ottoman Empire
Mongolia 26 November 1924 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed
Spain 14 April 1931 The Second Spanish Republic came to power on 14 April 1931 following the economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash. The Republic lost power after the Spanish Civil War. Francisco Franco then led Spain until his death on 20 November 1975 when democracy was restored.
Moldova 2 August 1940 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed following the annexation of Romanian Moldavia by the Soviet Union
Iceland 17 June 1944 Republic of Iceland established after a referendum
North Korea 15 August 1945 Korea liberated from Japan and the People's Republic of Korea established, divided into North Korea and South Korea a month later.
South Korea
Indonesia 17 August 1945 Republic of Indonesia's proclamation of independence triggering the Indonesian National Revolution
Vietnam 25 August 1945 Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed
Taiwan 25 October 1945 Taiwan and Penghu Islands transferred to the Republic of China. Since 1949, the ROC only controls Taiwan and the surrounding islands.
Bosnia and Herzegovina 29 November 1945 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia proclaimed while King Peter II was in exile
Croatia
Macedonia
Montenegro
Serbia
Slovenia
Albania 1 January 1946 People's Republic of Albania proclaimed while King Zog was in exile
Hungary 1 February 1946 Second Hungarian Republic proclaimed
Italy 12 June 1946 King Umberto II renounced the throne and the Italian Republic was established after a referendum
Bulgaria 15 September 1946 Tsar Simeon II deposed and People's Republic of Bulgaria proclaimed after a referendum
Marshall Islands 18 July 1947 end of South Pacific Mandate and beginning of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Palau
Romania 30 December 1947 King Michael abdicated and the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed
Myanmar 4 January 1948 Burmese independence declared
Israel 14 May 1948 State of Israel proclaimed
Ireland 18 April 1949 Republic of Ireland Act came into force
India 26 January 1950 Constitution of India came into effect
Egypt 18 June 1953 Republic proclaimed after revolution in 1952
South Sudan 1 January 1956 Independence of Republic of Sudan
Sudan
Pakistan 23 March 1956 Constitution of Pakistan came into effect and Governor General Iskander Mirza became President. Three coups in 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1977 and in 1999 respectively before restoration of civil electorate in 2008.
Tunisia 25 July 1957 King Muhammad VIII al-Amin deposed
Iraq 14 July 1958 Faisal II deposed/killed in 14 July Revolution
Somalia 26 June 1960 Independence of State of Somaliland, which was united with the Trust Territory of Somalia on 1 July to form the Somali Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo 30 June 1960 Gained independence as a republic
Ghana 1 July 1960 Constitutional change after referendum on 27 April
Cyprus 16 August 1960 Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus adopted
South Africa 31 May 1961 Republican constitution adopted
Cameroon 1 October 1961 End of British Trusteeship in Southern Cameroons, union with rest of Cameroon
Rwanda 1 July 1962 Independence as a republic following monarchy referendum in 1961
Yemen 27 September 1962 King Muhammad al-Badr deposed and Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) proclaimed
Tanganyika 9 December 1962 Republican constitution adopted
Nigeria 1 October 1963 Constitutional amendment
Uganda 9 October 1963 Constitutional amendment
Zanzibar 12 January 1964 Sultanate overthrown in Zanzibar Revolution
Zambia 24 October 1964 Gained independence as a republic
Kenya 12 December 1964 Republican constitution adopted
Singapore 9 August 1965 Ousted from the Federation of Malaysia
Malawi 6 July 1966 Republican constitution adopted
Botswana 30 September 1966 Gained independence as a republic
Burundi 28 November 1966 Republic declared after army coup d'état
South Yemen 30 November 1967 Independence of People's Republic of South Yemen
Nauru 31 January 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 Gained independence as a republic
Maldives 11 November 1968 Sultan Muhammad Fareed Didi deposed and Maldivian Second Republic established after a referendum
Libya 1 September 1969 King Idris I deposed by Muammar Gaddafi's coup d'état
Guyana 23 February 1970 Co-operative Republic of Guyana proclaimed
Cambodia 18 March 1970 The Khmer Republic (later known as Democratic Kampuchea, then the People's Republic of Kampuchea, and finally the State of Cambodia) was declared in 1970 when Prince Norodom Sihanouk was deposed. The monarchy was restored in 1993.
The Gambia 24 April 1970 Republic proclaimed following constitutional referendum
Sierra Leone 19 April 1971 Republican constitution adopted
Sri Lanka 22 May 1972 Sri Lankan constitution adopted
Bangladesh 16 December 1972 Constitution came into effect after a year of formation of state in 1972. Three coups followed in 1975 and 1982.
Afghanistan 17 July 1973 King Mohammed Zahir Shah abdicated after Mohammed Daoud Khan's coup d'état
Greece 8 December 1974 Final abolition of monarchy; referendum
Malta 13 December 1974 Republic of Malta proclaimed
Eritrea 21 March 1975 Monarchy of Ethiopian Empire finally abolished
Ethiopia
Suriname 25 November 1975 Gained independence as a republic
Laos 2 December 1975 King Savang Vatthana abdicated as a result of a communist revolution
Seychelles 29 June 1976 Gained independence as a republic
Trinidad and Tobago 1 August 1976 Republican constitution adopted
Dominica 3 November 1978 Gained independence as a republic
Iran 11 February 1979 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi deposed and Islamic Republic of Iran (a theocratic republic) proclaimed as a result of the Iranian Revolution
Kiribati 12 July 1979 Gained independence as a republic
Central African Republic 21 September 1979 Emperor Bokassa I deposed in a coup d'état
Zimbabwe 17 April 1980 Full independence of Zimbabwe
Fiji 6 October 1987 Fiji Republic proclaimed as a result of the coup d'état of Sitiveni Rabuka
Mauritius 12 March 1992 Republic of Mauritius proclaimed as a result of constitutional changes
Samoa 11 May 2007 Upon the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II, Samoa changed to a parliamentary republic.
Nepal 28 May 2008 Abolition of monarchy
Barbados 30 November 2021 Republic of Barbados to be declared effective 30 November 2021.

JanuaryEdit

1 January in Slovak republicEdit

The day of creation of Slovak republic. A national holiday since 1993. Officially called The day of establishment of Slovak republic.

9 January in Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina)Edit

After Yugoslavia fell apart, Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina wanted to stay with Serbia and Montenegro. Croats and Bosniaks, on the other hand, wanted to create an independent state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 9 January 1992, Bosnian Serb authorities declared the creation of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, now called Republika Srpska ("Serb Republic", not to be confused with the Republic of Serbia) as a state within the country of Bosnia of Herzegovina. Republika Srpska now celebrates Republic Day on the anniversary of the state's creation.

26 January in IndiaEdit

 
Soldiers of the Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Parade in 2004.

The Constitution of India came into force, and India declared itself a Republic on 26 January 1950, a day thereafter celebrated annually as Republic Day in India. The Constitution had been drafted by the Constituent Assembly headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar which was set up when India gained its independence from the British in 1947. This, in fact, was a deliberate act: The 26 January was initially India's "Independence Day", one of Mahatma Gandhi's many symbolic acts during India's struggle for freedom against British colonial rule, and the adoption of the Constitution on this date was felt able to strengthen its initial meaning, one calling for Indians of all ages to declare their freedom from the British Raj by Mahatama Gandhi. It is one of three national holidays in India, the other two being the nation's Independence Day on 15 August (since 1947) and the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 2 October. And so, after the disposal of the Empire of India, King George VI was the last and only "Emperor" of modern India.

To mark this occasion, a grand parade is held near Rajpath in New Delhi, the capital of India, beginning from Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), along the Rajpath, past India Gate and on to the historic Red Fort in the old quarter of the city. Different infantry, cavalry and mechanized regiments of the Indian Army, the Indian Marines and the Indian Air Force march in formation, decked in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India, who is also the Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, relishes the salute. The Chief Guest of the parade is the Head of State or Head of Government of another nation. The parade also includes many traditional dance troupes, to symbolize the cultural heritage of India. It traditionally ends with a colourful flypast by Indian Air Force jets in a tiranga formation. Similar parades are held in the capitals of all the states of India, where the Governors of the respective states take the salute. The official conclusion of republic day festivities is much later on 30 January, four days after the Republic day.

FebruaryEdit

1 February in HungaryEdit

On 1 February 1946 Hungary commemorates the proclamation of Republic of Hungary. Since 2004, this day is national commemoration day, without being public or national Holiday.

MarchEdit

23 March in PakistanEdit

In Pakistan this day marks the passing of the Lahore Resolution. Republic Day of Pakistan was first observed in 1956 when Pakistan officially became a Republic and shunned the former status of Dominion. The main events of this day include a full military parade and the awarding of honours at the Presidency (Presidential Palace) by the President. Every year, on 23 March, the Pakistani people commemorate their National Day in remembrance of "The Pakistan Resolution" passed on 23 March 1940, in the historic city of Lahore which is also the day the country was declared a republic.

MayEdit

28 May in Armenia, Azerbaijan and NepalEdit

On 28 May 1918 Armenia and Azerbaijan declared independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, thus forming the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. It was the first sovereign republic in the history of both countries and Azerbaijan the first democratic parliamentary republic in the Muslim world.. However the holiday was not celebrated during Soviet times, and it only achieved consistency after the collapse of the USSR.

A decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic on 28 May 2008.

31 May in South Africa (1961–1994)Edit

Between 1961 and 1994, 31 May was celebrated in South Africa as Republic Day. This practice was discontinued in 1995 following the attainment of majority rule and the reorganisation of public holidays as a consequence. On the last Republic Day, in 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.

JuneEdit

2 June in ItalyEdit

The Festa della Repubblica is celebrated on the second day of June, and it commemorates the institutional referendum of 1946 when (by universal suffrage) the Italian population was called to decide what form of government (monarchy or republic) to give to the country after World War II and the fall of Fascism.

After 85 years of monarchy, with 12,717,923 votes for and 10,719,284 votes against, Italy became a Republic, and the monarchs of the House of Savoy were deposed and exiled. This is one of the most important Italian public holidays which, like 14 July in France and 4 July in the USA, celebrates the birth of the nation. A grand military parade is held in central Rome.

JulyEdit

1 July in GhanaEdit

Ghana's republican day.

14 July in IraqEdit

14 July 1958 is the day the Hashemite monarchy was overthrown in Iraq by popular forces lead by Abdul Karim Kassem, who became the nation's new leader. The event was commemorated in Baghdad with a statue in 14 July Square.

25 July in TunisiaEdit

It's the day monarchy was abolished by the National Assembly and Republic was proclaimed. Habib Bourguiba was chosen to be the first President.

OctoberEdit

5 October in PortugalEdit

5 October in Portugal is known as Implantação da República. It celebrates the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.

10 October in Republic of ChinaEdit

10 October in Taiwan is a national holiday commemorating the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, the symbolic start of the Chinese revolution with the Wuchang uprising. It is also known as the Double Ten Day.

24 October in Rhodesia (1970-1979)Edit

Although the government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a republic on 2 March 1970, it was officially commemorated on 24 October. Following independence in 1980, the holiday was abolished.

25 October in KazakhstanEdit

In the waning days of Soviet rule, individual republics of the Soviet Union sought greater autonomy. The Soviet Union agreed in early 1990 to give up its monopoly of political power. Following the lead of Lithuanian SSR, Russian SFSR and others, Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on 25 October 1990, and Kazakhstan subsequently became independent on 16 December 1991 as the Soviet Union collapsed. 25 October, the anniversary of the adoption of the "Declaration on State Sovereignty of Kazakh SSR" by the Kazakh legislature in 1990, is now commemorated as Republic Day (Kazakh: Республика күні, romanized: Respwblïka küni), a public holiday in Kazakhstan.

29 October in TurkeyEdit

On 29 October 1923, the Turkish constitution was amended and Turkey became a republic. This formally declared the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Republic Day (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is celebrated throughout Turkey and Northern Cyprus every year. Commemorative events usually begin in the afternoon on the previous day. In observance of the holiday, government offices and schools close for a day. Also, there are fireworks shows in all cities of Turkey.That day everyone commemorates Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

NovemberEdit

11 November in the MaldivesEdit

On 11 November 1968, Maldives the then existing monarchy was abolished and replaced by a republic.

15 November in BrazilEdit

On 15 November 1889, in the city of Rio de Janeiro (the Brazilian capital at that time), a military coup led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca overthrew Emperor Pedro II and declared Brazil a republic.

29 November in former Yugoslavia (1945–1990)Edit

On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia established the foundations of post-war Yugoslavia as a socialist republic, which was officially proclaimed on the same date in 1945. Republic Day (local name: Dan Republike or Дан Републике) marked the occasion two consecutive days, 29 and 30 November, and was likely the most important holiday (the other two-day holidays were New Year and May Day).

In elementary schools first graders were inducted into the Pioneer Movement on or around Republic Day. Employees merged the holiday with weekends and extra days off to form 3-, 4- or even 5-day weekends. Urban dwellers took the occasion to visit their relatives in the country, who marked the event with pig slaughter and the ensuing feast.

In 1980s, as central and Communist Party authority eroded, dissenters targeted Republic Day celebrations for criticism. In 1987 Bosnian garage rock band Zabranjeno pušenje published a song entitled Dan Republike, in which they criticized the state of the economy and protested the general indifference to the ideals behind the holiday. The band had to change some of the lyrics before being allowed to air the song.

In 1989, Slovenia and Croatia were the first federal republics to cease observing the holiday. Other seceded republics followed suit as Yugoslavia dissolved. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept the holiday until 2002.

The date "29.XI.1943" figured prominently on the Yugoslav coat of arms.

DecemberEdit

13 December in MaltaEdit

On 13 December 1974, the constitution of Malta was substantially revised, transforming the former British colony from a Commonwealth Realm into a republic within the Commonwealth. The British Monarch stopped being called Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) and the new Head of State was President Sir Anthony Mamo. This occasion is marked every year as Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika) in Malta. The monument of Republic Day is at Marsa.

18 December in NigerEdit

18 December 1958 is commemorated in the Republic of Niger as Republic Day, the national holiday. Although not the date of formal, complete independence from France, 18 December marks the founding of the Republic and creation of the Presidency of the Republic of Niger, following the constitutional changes of the French Fifth Republic, and the elections of 4 December 1958 held across The French Colonial possessions. Nigeriens consider this date to be the founding of their nation. Between 18 December 1958 and 5 August 1964, Niger remained a semi-autonomous Republic within the French Community.

The 16th is celebrated in Niger with official festivals and appearances of political leaders, as well as public parties and festivities. The 50th anniversary celebrations were held in 2006, centered not in the capitol, but in the regional center of Tillabéry, and surrounded by sports, musical and arts competitions, the opening of new buildings, a National Youth Festival, and other public festivities.[1]

Republic Day in other countriesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The First Philippine Republic was a nascent revolutionary government established on 23 January 1899, during the period following the end of the Spanish–American War. That war had concluded with the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain, and the Philippines was under U.S. military government at the time. Hostilities which erupted between the Philippine Revolutionary Army and U.S. forces on 4 February 1899 quickly developed into the Philippine–American War, which led to the dissolution of that nascent government.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Commémoration du 18 décembre à Tillabéri : Sons et lumières à la cité des Maïga. Assane Soumana, Sahel Dimanche. 12 December 2008
  2. ^ "Republic Day in Central African Republic in 2021". Office Holidays. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Republic Day in Congo in 2021". Office Holidays. Retrieved 4 January 2021.