2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2001st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 1st year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2000s decade.

Clockwise from top left: Wikipedia is founded; Dipendra Dev massacred his family and the Nepalese monarchy on 1 June; a T-55 tank and crew in Aračinovo during the Macedonia insurgency; U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom; an earthquake in Gujarat killed 13,805–20,023 people; a major Palestinian uprising against Israel takes place; economic crisis and political instability provoked a period of civil unrest in Argentina; the World Trade Center and the Pentagon are attacked by Islamist terrorists, starting the War on Terror.
Millennium: 3rd millennium
2001 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2001
Ab urbe condita2754
Armenian calendar1450
Assyrian calendar6751
Baháʼí calendar157–158
Balinese saka calendar1922–1923
Bengali calendar1408
Berber calendar2951
British Regnal year49 Eliz. 2 – 50 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2545
Burmese calendar1363
Byzantine calendar7509–7510
Chinese calendar庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
4697 or 4637
    — to —
辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
4698 or 4638
Coptic calendar1717–1718
Discordian calendar3167
Ethiopian calendar1993–1994
Hebrew calendar5761–5762
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2057–2058
 - Shaka Samvat1922–1923
 - Kali Yuga5101–5102
Holocene calendar12001
Igbo calendar1001–1002
Iranian calendar1379–1380
Islamic calendar1421–1422
Japanese calendarHeisei 13
Javanese calendar1933–1934
Juche calendar90
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4334
Minguo calendarROC 90
Nanakshahi calendar533
Thai solar calendar2544
Tibetan calendar阳金龙年
(male Iron-Dragon)
2127 or 1746 or 974
    — to —
(female Iron-Snake)
2128 or 1747 or 975
Unix time978307200 – 1009843199

The year's most prominent event was the September 11 attacks against the United States by Al-Qaeda, which killed 2,977 people and instigated the global war on terror.[1][2] The United States led a multi-national coalition in an invasion of Afghanistan after the Taliban government did not extradite Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

Internal conflicts, political or otherwise, caused shifts in leadership in multiple countries, which included the assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,[3] the Second EDSA Revolution in the Philippines,[4] the massacre of the royal family by the crown prince in Nepal,[5] and civil unrest in Argentina.[6] Other notable political events were an escalation in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict,[7] the storming of the Indonesian parliament,[8] the Hainan Island incident between China and the United States,[9] an insurgency in Macedonia,[10] and a terrorist attack on the Parliament of India that began the 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff.[11]

Space milestones in 2001 were numerous, the most notable being the first spacecraft landing on an asteroid,[12] the deorbit of the Russian station Mir,[13] American entrepreneur Dennis Tito becoming the first space tourist,[14] the discovery of 28978 Ixion in the Kuiper belt,[15] a flyby of Io by the U.S. Galileo probe,[16] and the first discovery of an atmosphere on an exoplanet.[17] In addition, the year witnessed the first sequence of the human genome,[18] the first self-contained artificial heart,[19] and the first clone of a human embryo.[20]

Demographics Edit

The world population on January 1, 2001, was estimated to be 6.190 billion people, and it increased to 6.272 billion people by January 1, 2002.[21] An estimated 133.9 million births and 52.1 million deaths took place in 2001.[21] The average global life expectancy was 66.8 years, an increase of 0.3 years from 2000.[21] The rate of child mortality was 7.32%, a decrease of 0.26pp from 2000.[22] 28.25% of people were living in extreme poverty, a decrease of 0.88pp from 2000.[23] 2001 was designated as International Year of Volunteers by the United Nations.[24]

The number of global refugees in 2001 was approximately 12 million. 500,000 were settled over the course of the year, but the same number of people were displaced in other locations, causing the number of refugees to remain largely unchanged. The largest sources of refugees were from Afghanistan and Macedonia. The number of internally displaced persons decreased from 21.8 million to 19.8 million in 2001, with the most affected areas being Afghanistan, Colombia, and Liberia.[25]

Conflicts Edit

There were 34 active armed conflicts in 28 countries in 2001, the total numbers remaining unchanged from 2000. The majority of these conflicts took place in Africa and Asia: 14 occurred in Africa and 13 occurred in Asia.[26] 15 were classified as "major armed conflicts"[a] by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.[27]: 21  Four new armed conflicts emerged in 2001: the insurgency in Macedonia, the attempted coup in the Central African Republic, the United States invasion of Afghanistan, and the entry of Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front into the RFDG Insurgency in Guinea.[26] The Sierra Leone Civil War was the only conflict that ended in 2001.[27]: 21 

Internal conflicts Edit

The Second Congo War continued with the assassination of President Laurent-Désiré Kabila on January 16.[27]: 29  The 1999 ceasefire was mostly respected by the government and the various rebel groups, and United Nations ceasefire monitors established a presence throughout the year.[27]: 30  The Algerian Civil War, the Angolan Civil War, and the Burundian Civil War all saw continued fighting between governments and rebels in Africa.[27]: 24–29  The latter began the peace process through a provisional government on November 1.[27]: 27  The Second Sudanese Civil War between the ruling National Islamic Front and various other groups escalated in 2001.[27]: 37  This included a sub-conflict, the War of the Peters, which continued into 2001 until a ceasefire was negotiated in August.[28]

Several conflicts continued in Indonesia, though the insurgency in Aceh between the Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement was the only one to see widespread violence in 2001, as the war significantly escalated after the end of a ceasefire and breakdown of peace talks.[27]: 46–47  The New People's Army rebellion saw two ceasefires between the Philippine government and the New People's Army, separated by a brief surge of heavy fighting after the assassination of a member of parliament. A ceasefire was also established with the nation's other insurgent group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front.[27]: 49  In Myanmar, the Karen conflict continued, and the insurgency of the Shan State resumed hostilities after a temporary peace in 1999.[26] The Tamil Tigers declared a ceasefire and requested peace talks during the Eelam War III in Sri Lanka,[27]: 50  but hostilities resumed on April 25, and the Tamil Tigers launched several suicide attacks in July, including the Bandaranaike Airport attack.[27]: 51  The Nepalese Civil War also saw increased hostilities in 2001.[26]

The only major conflict in Europe was the Second Chechen War between the Russian government and the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian forces controlled the republic's population centers, but Chechen forces continued to use guerrilla warfare.[27]: 53  Macedonia saw a smaller scale conflict between the Macedonian government and the National Liberation Army (NLA), which sought reform for the status of Albanian people in Macedonia.[29] The deployment of NATO peacekeeping forces to Macedonia was authorized on August 21.[10] Yugoslavia similarly saw an insurgency by Albanian rebels, but the conflict did not escalate.[27]: 53  The only major conflict in South America was the Colombian conflict between the Colombian government and various far-left and far-right groups.[27]: 58  The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia expanded into Ecuador in 2001 and carried out attacks on Ecuadorian citizens.[27]: 60 

Two failed coup attempts took place in 2001: a group of junior officers sought to overthrow President Pierre Buyoya in Burundi while he was out of the country on April 18,[30]: 218  and André Kolingba, a former president of the Central African Republic, led a military coup against his successor Ange-Félix Patassé on May 28, causing several days of violence.[30]: 249 

International conflicts Edit

The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff was the only notable conflict between two national governments in 2001.[26] The territorial dispute over the region of Kashmir consisted primarily of small scale attacks by militant groups until two attacks on Indian legislature buildings: one in October and one in December. The latter provoked a major escalation of troop deployments with preparations for a major war.[27]: 46 

The Second Intifada continued from the previous year between Israel and Palestine.[27]: 55  It escalated as terrorists affiliated with Hamas carried out attacks on Israeli citizens and the Israeli military responded with strikes against Palestine. Every ceasefire ended within a day of its establishment.[27]: 56 

September 11 attacks and invasion of Afghanistan Edit

The September 11 attacks were carried out by Al-Qaeda when 19 terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes and crashed two of them into the World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon, and one near Stonycreek Township, Pennsylvania. 2,977 people were killed; the attacks and the subsequent global war on terror are widely recognized as events that defined 2001.[1][2][31]

The Afghan Civil War between the de jure Northern Alliance government and the de facto Taliban government continued from previous years.[27]: 39  When the Taliban refused to extradite Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, the United States led a multi-national coalition in an invasion of Afghanistan on 7 October.[27]: 41  The American-led coalition and the Northern Alliance captured Afghan cities until the Taliban surrendered to the Northern Alliance in Kandahar on December 6.[27]: 42  The American-led coalition attacked the Al-Qaeda headquarters in Tora Bora in December, but Al-Qaeda's leadership had gone into hiding. An interim government of Afghanistan led by Hamid Karzai was formed on December 22.[27]: 42–43 

Culture Edit

Architecture and art Edit

New buildings constructed or opened in 2001 include the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria,[32]: 163  the Sendai Mediatheque in Sendai, the DG Bank building in Berlin, the SEG Apartment Tower [de] in Vienna, and Aurora Place in Sydney.[32]: 164  Prominent renovations made in 2001 include the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court in the British Museum[32]: 163  and the entrance wing of the Milwaukee Art Museum.[32]: 164  Preservation efforts were also completed on the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and it reopened to the public on December 15 after 12 years of reconstruction.[33]

Museums that opened in 2001 include the Ghibli Museum in Tokyo, Japan[34] the Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany,[35] and the Leopold Museum in Vienna, Austria.[36] In the United States, the Neue Galerie New York, opened,[37] as did the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, constructed to host the Academy Awards.[38]

Improvements in inkjet printing made high resolution photography more practical. Japanese photographer Hiroshi Sugimoto exhibited his photographs of wax statues of historical figures to provoke questions about the nature of artistic depiction.[32]: 171  Several iconic works of photojournalism were produced during the September 11 attacks, including The Falling Man and Raising the Flag at Ground Zero.[39] The Sphere was the only artwork to be recovered from the site, and the sculpture continued to be displayed in its damaged form as a memorial.[40]

The 49th Venice Biennale shifted from traditional paintings and sculptures in 2001, giving an increased focus to film and architectural sculpture.[32]: 167  Exhibitions were held in honor of visual artists such as Jacob Lawrence, Clyfford Still, Thomas Eakins, Dan Graham, Henri Rousseau, Paul Signac, Gustav Klimt, Marc Chagall, Raymond Hains, Johannes Vermeer, William Blake; architects such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Rudolph Schindler, and Frank Gehry; and photographers such as Walker Evans and August Sander.[32]: 168–170 

The fashion industry saw a decline that was exacerbated by the September 11 attacks. After the attacks and the subsequent war in Afghanistan, styles with military or otherwise violent iconography were phased out.[32]: 219–220 

Media Edit

The highest-grossing films in 2001 were Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, and Monsters, Inc. The highest-grossing non-English film was Studio Ghibli's anime Spirited Away (Japanese), the 15th highest-grossing film of the year.[41] The inaugural entries in the Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings film franchises brought fantasy into mainstream culture, popularizing young adult novels and catering to fandom communities.[42][43]

In music, 3.2 billion units were sold with a value of US$33.7 billion. DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD rose to prominence, with approximately 600 titles available in these formats.[44] Portable music grew in popularity after Apple Inc. released the iTunes media library on January 9[45] and the first iPod music player device on October 23.[46] The music sharing program Napster ended its services after it was accused of facilitating music piracy, but it was replaced by other programs such as FastTrack.[32]: 177  Worldwide, the best-selling albums were Hybrid Theory (2000) by Linkin Park, No Angel (1999) by Dido, and Survivor (2001) by Destiny's Child.[47] The best-selling non-English album was Cieli di Toscana (transl.Tuscan Skies; 2001) by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli, which topped the charts in the Netherlands and Sweden[48] and was the 23rd best-selling album globally.[47]

Three major video game systems were released in 2001: the GameCube and the Game Boy Advance by Nintendo, and the Xbox by Microsoft. Meanwhile, Sega ended its involvement in the market after the failure of the Dreamcast.[32]: 181  The year 2001 is considered important in the video game industry, partly because of the release of many games recognized as classics.[49][50] Many video games released in 2001 defined or redefined their respective genres, including hack and slash game Devil May Cry,[51][52] first-person shooter game Halo: Combat Evolved,[53][54] and open world action-adventure game Grand Theft Auto III, which is regarded as an industry-defining work.[55][56]

Bratz, an American media franchise, released its new line of fashion dolls on May 21.[57]

Sports Edit

NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt, described as the greatest driver in the sport's history, died in a crash during the 2001 Daytona 500 on February 18.[58] The World Wrestling Federation agreed to purchase its largest rival, World Championship Wrestling, on March 23.[59] In April, golf player Tiger Woods became the only player to achieve a "Tiger Slam" after winning the 2001 Masters Tournament, in which he consecutively won all four championship golf titles outside of a single calendar year.[60] The "Thunder in Africa" boxing match ended in a major upset after Hasim Rahman defeated champion Lennox Lewis on April 22. Lewis would go on to win a rematch on November 11.[61]

The world record for largest victory in an international football match was set by Australia in a 0–22 victory against Tonga on April 9. Australia set this record again with a 31–0 victory against American Samoa on April 11.[62] The unbalanced nature of these matches prompted changes to the FIFA qualification process.[63] In Europe, the UEFA Women's Cup began its first season, establishing a continent-wide women's league for association football under the UEFA.[64]

Two major crowd crushes took place at sporting events in 2001. 43 people were killed during the Ellis Park Stadium disaster on April 11 in Johannesburg, South Africa, caused by overcrowding,[65] and 126 people were killed in the Accra Sports Stadium disaster on May 9 in Ghana, during an ongoing sports riot.[66]

Economy Edit

A minor economic decline took place among many developed economies in 2001. The United States saw a recession from March to November after a correction of the dot-com bubble, an over-valued tech industry. Further economic disruption occurred in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.[67] Argentina's years-long economic crisis reached its peak in December when a bank run prompted the freezing of deposits, in turn causing widespread social unrest and the resignation of the President of Argentina.[68] Overall, 2001 marked a decline in international trade by about 1.5%, which was a significant contrast from the 11% increase in 2000. This was the first negative growth in international trade since 1982. IT industries and the dot-com crash are attributed for the decline in trade.[69] E-commerce declined in 2001, with the exception of EBay, which saw significant growth.[32]: 178 

Greece became the 12th country to join the Eurozone on January 1.[70] America Online (AOL), a U.S. online service provider, was at the apex of its popularity and purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner. The deal took effect on January 11, in the largest merger in history at that time.[71] AOL would rapidly shrink thereafter, partly due to the decline of dial-up and rise of broadband, and the deal would fall apart before the end of the decade, which would be regarded as one of the world's greatest business failures.[72][73]

Major businesses that ended operations in 2001 included the American energy company Enron and the national airlines of Belgium and Switzerland (Sabena and Swissair, respectively).[32]: 189  The Enron scandal took place in October 2001 when, Enron was found to be committing fraud, bringing about the criminal conviction of several executives and causing the company to undergo the largest bankruptcy at that point in U.S. history.[74]

Environment and weather Edit

One of the landslides caused by the January 2001 earthquake in El Salvador; About 585 of the deaths are caused by landslides in Santa Tecla and Comasagua.

2001 was the second hottest year on record at the time, exceeded only by 1998.[75] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its Third Assessment Report on July 12.[32]: 213  It warned that climate change in the 21st century could cause decreases in crop yields and an increase in temperature-related ailments and deaths.[76] Droughts occurred in Australia, Central America, Kenya, and the Middle East, the latter continuing from years prior. Hungary, Russia and Southeast Asia experienced significant rains, causing flooding. North Asia underwent a severe winter.[75] La Niña, which had been ongoing since 1998, ended in the east Atlantic by April 2001.[32]: 186 

There were four earthquakes in 2001 that caused significant casualties. El Salvador was struck by two of them: a 7.6-magnitude earthquake on January 13 and a 6.6-magnitude earthquake on February 13, which resulted in the deaths of at least 944 and 315 people respectively.[77][78] The Bhuj earthwuake, a 7.7-magnitude earthquake in Gujarat, India, on January 26 killed between 13,805 and 20,023 people, and destroyed nearly 340,000 buildings.[79][80] An 8.4-magnitude earthquake, then the strongest that had occurred globally since 1965, killed at least 77 people in Peru on June 23.[81] A 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck China with an epicenter near Kokoxili, close to the border between Qinghai and Xinjiang, on November 14, but it occurred in a sparsely populated mountainous region and there were no casualties.[82] Sicily saw the eruption of Mount Etna, beginning on July 17 and continuing into the next month.[32]: 185 

The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was slightly more active than normal, including 15 tropical storms and hurricanes. The deadliest storms were Tropical Storm Allison in June, Hurricane Iris in October, and Hurricane Michelle in November. All three of these storms had their names retired by the World Meteorological Organization. Tropical Storm Allison was the deadliest tropical storm to hit the United States without reaching hurricane strength.[83] The 2001 Pacific typhoon season was slightly larger than average, including 28 tropical storms, 20 typhoons, and 11 intense typhoons. The most powerful storms were Typhoon Podul in October and Typhoon Faxai in December.[84]

Health Edit

The World Health Organization (WHO) began a five-year program to reduce road injury fatalities following a warning of the problem's severity by the Red Cross the previous year.[85] The WHO's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health released a report in 2001 detailing how spending by developed nations could protect health in developing nations but that efforts to do so were impeded by the anti-globalization movement.[86] New drugs developed in 2001 include imatinib to treat cancer, and nateglinide to treat diabetes.[32]: 224  2001 saw the first self-contained artificial heart implanted in a patient.[32]: 25 

Outbreaks of cholera occurred in Chad, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, South Africa, and throughout Western Africa; outbreaks of yellow fever took place in Brazil, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Peru; and outbreaks of meningococcal disease occurred in the African meningitis belt as well as Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia. Other major disease outbreaks included Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever in Kosovo and Pakistan, measles in India and South Korea, Legionnaires' disease in Spain and Norway, dengue fever in Venezuela, and plague in Zambia.[32]: 223  Spain's outbreak of Legionnaires' disease was the largest ever recorded, with 449 confirmed cases and more than 800 suspected ones.[87] An ebola outbreak continued from 2000 in Uganda until the final case was diagnosed on January 16.[88] Another outbreak occurred in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo in October, which continued until July 2002.[89] An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease occurred among livestock in the United Kingdom in 2001, resulting in millions of farm animals being slaughtered to prevent spread.[90][32]: 153–155 

Approximately 400,000 people in New York City were exposed to air pollution by carcinogens and other harmful particles such as asbestos and metals as a result of the September 11 attacks, and many would go on to suffer chronic illness as a result of exposure.[91] A series of anthrax attacks against American government and media figures in October further spurred precautions against bioterrorism.[32]: 222 

Politics Edit

Freedom House recognized 63% of national governments as electoral democracies by the end of 2001, with the Gambia and Mauritania being recognized as democracies following peaceful transfers of power. Peru also saw a significant expansion of civil rights, emerging from the authoritarian rule of Alberto Fujimori. Argentina, Liberia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Zimbabwe underwent significant democratic backsliding in 2001, with Liberia and Zimbabwe recognized as authoritarian governments by the end of the year. 64.65% of the world's population lived in countries that generally respected human rights, while 35.35% lived in countries that denied political rights and civil liberties.[92]

Islamic terrorism became the predominant global political concern amidst the September 11 attacks and the War on Terror. Islamic extremism was identified as a major threat to democracy and human rights, both in the Muslim world through the implementation of Islamism and in the rest of the world through terrorism.[92]

Domestic Edit

Former Argentine president Fernando de la Rúa leaving the Casa Rosada after resigning on December 21

The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the de jure government of Afghanistan in 2001, but for several years it had operated as a government in exile while the Taliban-led Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan held de facto control over most of the country.[93] The Islamic State of Afghanistan was restored to power following the invasion of Afghanistan with the appointment of president Hamid Karzai on December 22.[94]

Joseph Kabila became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo following the assassination of his father, President. Laurent-Désiré Kabila.[95]: 77  President Abdurrahman Wahid of Indonesia was removed from office after thousands of protesters stormed the parliament building, and he was replaced by Vice President Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of former president Sukarno.[8][95]: 77  In Iran, Mohammad Khatami won reelection as president.[95]: 77  Former general Ariel Sharon of Likud was elected prime minister of Israel. The Second EDSA Revolution took place in the Philippines in January when President Joseph Estrada resigned amid an impeachment, and he was succeeded by Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. In the United Kingdom, the Labour Party led by Tony Blair retained power in the 2001 election.[95]: 77  The Argentine great depression escalated with rioting on December 19, prompting President Fernando de la Rúa to resign two days later.[6][96]

Two former heads of government were arrested in 2001: President Slobodan Milošević of Serbia (1997–2000) was arrested for his role in the Srebrenica massacre and other crimes against humanity committed during the Bosnian War,[95]: 77  and President Carlos Menem of Argentina (1989–1999) was arrested on June 7 for arms trafficking.[97]

Civil unrest broke out in Belfast, Ireland, when children were repeatedly targeted and attacked by Protestants and Catholics, resulting in the death of one teenager.[95]: 76 

Ghana underwent its first peaceful transfer of power since 1979 when John Kufuor was sworn in as President of Ghana on January 7.[98] The Netherlands became the first modern country to legalize same-sex marriage on April 1.[99] The royal family of Nepal was killed on June 1 by Crown Prince Dipendra, who effectively became king upon his father's death. King Dipendra fell into a coma after shooting himself, and he died days later. He was succeeded by his uncle Gyanendra.[95]: 72–73  The Constitution of the Comoros was amended on December 24, creating a federal government with a rotating presidency and granting increased autonomy to the three island administrations.[100]

International Edit

Logo of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Two major regional organizations were announced in 2001: the African Union was established on May 26 as a pan-African forum to promote unity between African countries, including cooperation in economic and security issues, and would replace the Organisation of African Unity in 2002.[101] The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation was announced on June 15 to facilitate political and economic cooperation between Asian countries.[102] Three countries joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001: Lithuania on May 31,[103] Moldova on July 26,[104] and China on December 11.[105] The WTO began the Doha Development Round in November to negotiate lower trade barriers between countries and integrate developing nations into the global economy.[106]

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was signed on May 22 to limit the production of persistent organic pollutants.[107] The World Conference against Racism 2001 began on August 31, in Durban, South Africa, under the auspices of the United Nations.[108] Israel and the United States withdrew from the conference on September 3 over objections to a draft resolution document equating Zionism with racism and singling out the Jewish state for war crimes.[109] The Aarhus Convention took effect on October 30, establishing the right to environmental information and environmental justice for European and Central Asian countries.[110] The Convention on Cybercrime, the first international treaty to address cybercrime, was signed on November 23.[111]

The 27th G8 summit was marred by anti-globalist protests in Genoa, Italy. Massive demonstrations, drawing an estimated 200,000 people, are held against the meeting by members of the anti-globalization movement. One demonstrator, Carlo Giuliani, is killed by a policeman, and several others are injured.

A diplomatic incident occurred when an American spy plane and a Chinese fighter plane collided over the South China Sea, with disagreement over who was at fault.[95]: 70–71  A dispute took place between Japan and North Korea when the North Korean leader's son, Kim Jong-nam, attempted to sneak into Tokyo Disneyland.[95]: 76 

Religion Edit

The taller Buddha of Bamiyan before (left) and after destruction (right)

Following the September 11 attacks, inspired by religious extremism, both religious tolerance and religious intolerance came to the fore, with an increase in Islamophobia, particularly in the United States and Europe.[112][113]

On January 22, Pope John Paul II created 37 cardinals, the largest ever created at a single time.[114] The Catholic Church began investigations of sexual abuse cases among its priests in 2001, with 3,000 cases being considered over the following decade.[115] The Taliban government of Afghanistan destroyed the Buddhas of Bamiyan to the protest of the international community.[95]: 76  The Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque in Oman was completed in May. At the time, its chandelier was the largest in the world.[116]

A self-immolation incident took place in Tiananmen Square in central Beijing, China, on January 23. Five members of the Falun Gong, a religious movement banned in mainland China, are alleged to have set themselves on fire, but details surrounding the incident are disputed by Falun Gong sources.[117]

Jediism became a social phenomenon in 2001 after a movement to self-report as Jedi caused it to become the fourth largest religion in the United Kingdom and the second largest religion in New Zealand.[118]

Science and technology Edit

Crew of Soyuz TM-32: (L-R) Dennis Tito, Talgat Musabayev, and Yuri Baturin

The Human Genome Project released the first draft of its human genome sequence on February 12.[18] Several accomplishments were made in the field of cloning in 2001, including the clone of a gaur[119] the clone of a mouflon,[120] and the first clone of a human embryo.[20] The pygmy three-toed sloth was among the animals first described in 2001.[121] In October, the discovery of a prehistoric Sarcosuchus skeleton is announced after digging began the previous year.[95]: 125  Birds discovered include the Mishana tyrannulet, the Chapada flycatcher, the Vanuatu petrel, and the chestnut-eared laughingthrush.[32]: 215  Conversely, the 1993 discovery of pseudonovibos spiralis was determined in February 2001 to be unfounded.[32]: 215  A CT scan performed on Ötzi, a 5,300-year-old mummy, uncovers an arrowhead lodged in his shoulder.[95]: 128 

Several anthropological and archaeological developments were made in 2001, including the extraction of mtDNA from prehistoric skeletons,[32]: 158  Newly described hominids included Sahelanthropus[122] and Ardipithecus, while two additional hominids, Kenyanthropus and Orrorin, were proposed.[32]: 158–159  Archaeological discoveries include rock art in Andros, 40,000-year-old tools in Mamontovaya Kurya, terracotta citizens in a pit adjacent to the Terracotta Army, a walled city at Dholavira, and a 2,900-year-old sweat lodge in Cuello.[32]: 160–162 

The discovery of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field on the Atlantis Massif was formally announced in 2001.[32]: 183 

Achievement tests and stricter penalties against delinquent students became controversial educational practices in several countries.[32]: 206  The University of the Arctic was founded in 2001 as a joint project between several northern countries.[32]: 210 

There were only 57 successful orbital spaceflights in 2001, the fewest since 1963. Eight of these launches were crewed missions. Two failed spaceflights also took place.[123] The NEAR Shoemaker made the first successful landing of a spacecraft on an asteroid on February 12.[12] The Russian Mir space station was deorbited and destroyed on March 23, landing in the Pacific Ocean.[95]: 126  The 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter was launched on April 7 and arrived at Mars on October 24.[124] American entrepreneur Dennis Tito became the first space tourist on April 28 aboard the Russian Soyuz TM-32.[14] 28978 Ixion was discovered on May 22.[15] The Genesis probe was launched on August 8 to collect solar wind samples.[125] Deep Space 1 carried out a flyby of Comet Borrelly on September 22,[126] and Galileo carried out a flyby of Io on October 15.[16] An atmosphere was discovered on an exoplanet for the first time on November 27.[17]

The computer industry saw major decline during the recession in 2001.[32]: 175  Apple Computer Inc. released the Mac OS X operating system for Mac computers on March 24,[32]: 176 [127] and it discontinued the Power Mac G4 Cube.[32]: 176  3G wireless technology first became available on October 1 when it was adopted by Japanese telecommunications company NTT Docomo with its Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access service.[32]: 182  Microsoft released the Windows XP operating system to retail on October 25.[32]: 175 [128] The most powerful supercomputer to that point was designed by IBM for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States. Several malware scares took place in 2001, including the Code Red, Nimda, and Sircam worms.[32]: 180 

Transportation Edit

The crash site of American Airlines Flight 587 on November 13, one day after the crash

Air travel in the United States and worldwide was heavily affected by the September 11 attacks. Commercial flights in the United States were grounded for three days,[129] and air travel then became subject to significantly increased security measures.[130] The deadliest aircraft accidents in 2001 include a Vladivostok Air crash at International Airport Irkutsk, Russia, which killed 145 people on July 4,[131] a collision at Linate Airport in Milan, Italy, which killed 118 people on October 8,[132] and an American Airlines crash in Queens, New York City, which killed 265 people on November 12.[133]

The Incheon International Airport opened in Incheon on March 22. The TGV Mediterranee railway opened in France.[32]: 166 

The deadliest rail accidents in 2001 include a collision that killed at least 30 people at Nvoungouti in the Republic of the Congo on January 12,[134] a train derailment over a bridge that killed 59 people in Kadalundi, India, on June 22,[135] and two accidents in Indonesia: a collision that killed 31 people in Jakarta on September 2,[136] and a collision that killed 42 people at the Ketanggungan Barat railway station on December 25.[137]

The Segway, a self-balancing personal transporter invented by Dean Kamen, was unveiled on December 3 after months of public speculation and media hype,[138] on the ABC News morning program Good Morning America.[139]

The K-141 Kursk nuclear submarine is lifted from the Barents Sea after the Kursk submarine disaster of the previous year.[95]: 74–75 

Events Edit

January Edit

Map of the 2001 insurgency in Macedonia, part of the Yugoslav Wars

February Edit

433 Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft

March Edit

April Edit

Two men marrying in Amsterdam on April 1, the first day in which the possibility to marry was opened to same-sex couples
Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and U.S. President George W. Bush meet at the White House in September 2001.

May Edit

June Edit

Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou at Main Street after Tropical Storm Allison hit Houston, Texas, U.S.

July Edit

Photo session of the G8 leaders in Genoa, 2001: (L-R) Junichiro Koizumi, Tony Blair, George W. Bush, Jacques Chirac, Silvio Berlusconi, Vladimir Putin, Jean Chretien, Gerhard Schroeder, Guy Verhofstadt, and Romano Prodi

August Edit

A Genesis collector array in the clean lab at Johnson Space Center. The hexagons consist of a variety of ultra-pure, semiconductor-grade wafers, including silicon, corundum, gold on sapphire, diamond-like carbon films,[198] and other materials.[199]

September Edit

The World Trade Center and the Statue of Liberty just after the September 11 attacks in New York City

October Edit

Swissair Airbus A321-100 (2001)
First generation iPod

November Edit

Size comparison of HD 209458 b with Jupiter (left)

December Edit

ZPU-2 anti-aircraft gun that was mounted on the North Korean vessel sunk in the Battle of Amami-Ōshima

Nobel Prizes Edit


Births and deaths Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ SIPRI defines a major armed conflict as "the use of armed force between two or more organized armed groups, resulting in the battle-related deaths of at least 1000 people in any single calendar year and in which the incompatibility concerns control of government, territory or communal identity".

References Edit

  1. ^ a b Nadeem, Reem (September 2, 2021). "Two Decades Later, the Enduring Legacy of 9/11". Pew Research Center - U.S. Politics & Policy. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "The United Nations pays tribute to the victims of the 9/11 terrorist attacks at the 9/11 Memorial in New York". United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism. September 20, 2021. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Arthur S Banks; William Overstreet; Thomas Muller (April 15, 2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008. CQ Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-87289-528-7.
  4. ^ a b Paddock, Richard C. (January 20, 2001). "Estrada Quits; New Philippine Leader Installed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "Nepal mourns slain king". BBC News. June 2, 2001. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
  6. ^ a b c Krauss, Clifford (December 21, 2001). "Argentine Leader, His Nation Frayed, Abruptly Resigns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Israel pulls out of Gaza". CNN. April 18, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c "Clashes as 10,000 besiege Indonesian parliament". the Guardian. January 29, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  9. ^ a b Air Forces Monthly, vol. 158, May 2001, p. 4
  10. ^ a b c "Peace support operations in North Macedonia (2001-2003)". NATO. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  11. ^ a b "Terrorist Attack on the Parliament of India". Embassy of India – Washington DC. 18 December 2001. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "NEAR Shoemaker". NASA. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Mir Destroyed in Fiery Descent". CNN. 22 March 2001. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
  14. ^ a b c United States. President. Aeronautics and Space Report of the President. U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. 138.
  15. ^ a b c "28978 Ixion (2001 KX76)". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  16. ^ a b c "Galileo Millennium Mission Status". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. October 16, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  17. ^ a b c "Hubble Makes First Direct Measurements of Atmosphere on World Around another Star". HubbleSite.org. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  18. ^ a b c Wade, Nicholas (February 12, 2001). "Long-Held Beliefs Are Challenged By New Human Genome Analysis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  19. ^ a b Johnson Publishing Company (September 10, 2001). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. p. 22.
  20. ^ a b c "The First Human Cloned Embryo". Scientific American. November 24, 2001. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  21. ^ a b c World Population Prospects 2022 (Report). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2022.
  22. ^ Roser, Max; Ritchie, Hannah; Dadonaite, Bernadeta (May 10, 2013). "Child and Infant Mortality". Our World in Data.
  23. ^ Hasell, Joe; Roser, Max; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Arrigada, Pablo (October 17, 2022). "Poverty". Our World in Data.
  24. ^ "International Year of Volunteers 10th Anniversary". UN Volunteers. December 5, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  25. ^ del Mundo, Fernando (June 18, 2002). "2001 global refugee statistics". UNHCR. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Wallensteen, Peter; Eriksson, Mikael; Sollenberg, Margareta; Strand, Håvard (2002). "Armed Conflict 1946-2001: A New Dataset". Journal of Peace Research. 39 (5): 615–637. doi:10.1177/0022343302039005007. ISSN 0022-3433. S2CID 109206821.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Seybolt, Taylor B. (2002). "Major armed conflicts". SIPRI Yearbook 2002: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. pp. 21–62. ISBN 9780199251766.
  28. ^ a b Rone, Jemera (2003). Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights (Report). Human Rights Watch. p. 77.
  29. ^ a b Marusic, Sinisa Jakov (January 22, 2021). "20 Years On, Armed Conflict's Legacy Endures in North Macedonia". Balkan Insight. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  30. ^ a b Chin, John J.; Wright, Joseph; Carter, David B. (December 13, 2022). Historical Dictionary of Modern Coups D'état. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-2068-2.
  31. ^ "September 11 Terror Attacks Fast Facts". CNN. July 27, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Encyclopædia Britannica: 2001 Year in Review. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. ISBN 9780852298312.
  33. ^ a b "Less leaning tower of Pisa reopens". CNN. December 15, 2001.
  34. ^ Greuner, Tabea (November 12, 2019). "Discover how the Ghibli Museum was created at this new exhibition". Time Out Tokyo. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  35. ^ "Jewish Museum Berlin". Libeskind. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  36. ^ Fox, Margalit (June 30, 2010). "Rudolf Leopold, Art Collector, Dies at 85". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  37. ^ Yarce, Julio (November 9, 2021). "New York's Neue Galerie Celebrates Its 20th Anniversary". Untapped New York. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  38. ^ Swed, Mark (November 12, 2001). "A Tin Ear for Acoustics at New Kodak Theatre". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  39. ^ Almond, Kyle (September 10, 2021). "The 9/11 photos we will never forget". CNN. Retrieved December 8, 2022.
  40. ^ Blackemore, Erin. "The World Trade Center's Only Surviving Art Heads Home". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved December 8, 2022.
  41. ^ "2001 Worldwide Box Office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  42. ^ Grauso, Alisha (August 5, 2020). "How The 'Harry Potter' And 'Lord Of The Rings' Movies Made Being A Bookworm Cool Again". Atom Insider. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  43. ^ Albury, Whitley (December 22, 2021). "20 years ago, Harry Potter and LOTR changed culture". Moviejawn. Retrieved December 5, 2022.
  44. ^ The Recording Industry World Sales (PDF) (Report). 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 19, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  45. ^ a b "Apple Introduces iTunes — World's Best and Easiest To Use Jukebox Software". Apple Newsroom. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  46. ^ a b "Apple Presents iPod". Apple Inc. October 23, 2001. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  47. ^ a b "2000-2005 Top 50 Albums [XLS]". IFPI. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  48. ^ "Cieli di Toscana chart performance". australian-charts.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  49. ^ Kelly, Andy (September 30, 2021). "2001 Was The Best Year Ever For Video Games". TheGamer. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  50. ^ Fillari, Alessandro (February 6, 2021). "Remembering 2001: The Biggest Games That Turn 20 This Year". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  51. ^ Madsen, Hayes (October 17, 2022). "21 years ago, Capcom changed action games forever". Inverse. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  52. ^ Figueiredo, Erick Duarte (October 2, 2022). "Devil May Cry and Ninja Gaiden: The Two Extremes of the Hack-and-Slash Genre". Superjump. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  53. ^ Carnley, Zackery Van (April 19, 2021). "How Halo Has Defined the Shooter Genre". Game Rant. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  54. ^ Plant, Mike. "In the loop: how Halo defined a new decade of first-person shooters". The Register. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  55. ^ Kelly, Andy (October 27, 2021). "Grand Theft Auto 3 Changed Video Games Forever". TheGamer. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  56. ^ Gordon, Jeremy (October 22, 2021). "After 'Grand Theft Auto III,' Open-World Games Were Never (and Always) the Same". The Ringer. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  57. ^ Mcilraith, Brianna (March 25, 2022). "Iconic '90s and 2000s toys, gadgets and games becoming popular on Trade Me". Stuff. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  58. ^ Caldwell, Dave (February 19, 2001). "AUTO RACING; Dale Earnhardt, 49, Racing Star". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  59. ^ "WWF buys World Championship Wrestling". CNN. March 23, 2001. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  60. ^ DiMeglio, Steve (April 5, 2021). "'Greatest golf ever played': Witnesses to Tiger Woods' streak of four major wins look back on an improbable run". Golfweek. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  61. ^ Lancaster, Rob (April 22, 2015). "Thunder in Africa: Recalling Hasim Rahman's Shock Win Over Lennox Lewis". Bleacher Report. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  62. ^ "Samoans lose 31-0 - or was it 32-0?". The Guardian. April 12, 2001. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  63. ^ "How a 31-0 'farce' changed Australia's FIFA World Cup fortunes". Hindustan Times. June 9, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  64. ^ "Women's Champions League switching to group format". Times of Malta. December 4, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
  65. ^ a b "Families mourn 43 killed in football stampede". The Guardian. April 12, 2001. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  66. ^ a b Boateng, Kojo Akoto (May 9, 2017). "May 9 victims remembered 16-yrs on; Herbert Mensah urges discipline". Citi 97.3 FM. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  67. ^ Huddleston, Tom (April 9, 2020). "How many recessions you've actually lived through and what happened in every one". CNBC. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  68. ^ van de Wiel, Iris (August 23, 2013). The Argentine Crisis 2001/2002 (Report). Rabobank. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  69. ^ International trade statistics 2002 (PDF) (Report). World Trade Organization. 2002. ISBN 92-870-1225-3. ISSN 1020-4997. Retrieved November 28, 2022.
  70. ^ a b "Greece joins euro". The Guardian. January 1, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  71. ^ a b "AOL-Time Warner deal gets OK". CNN. January 11, 2001. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  72. ^ Lovelace, Berkeley (June 13, 2018). "Steve Case to AT&T: Learn from my AOL-Time Warner failures". CNBC. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  73. ^ Arango, Tim (January 11, 2010). "How the AOL-Time Warner Merger Went So Wrong". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  74. ^ "How the Enron Scandal Changed American Business Forever". Time. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  75. ^ a b "Annual 2001 Global Climate Report". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  76. ^ Readfearn, Graham (March 31, 2014). "The hellish monotony of 25 years of IPCC climate change warnings". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  77. ^ a b "Consolidado Final de Afectaciones - Terremoto El Salvador 13 de Enero de 2001" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015.
  78. ^ a b c "El Salvador - Earthquakes Final Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 - El Salvador". ReliefWeb. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. September 7, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  79. ^ "Preliminary Earthquake Report". USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. Archived from the original on November 20, 2007. Retrieved November 21, 2007.
  80. ^ Sen, Kavita (January 2001). "Economic consequences of the Gujarat earthquake". Academia.
  81. ^ a b "Initial Report on 23 June 2001 Arequipa, Peru Earthquake" (PDF). eeri.org. July 3, 2001. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  82. ^ a b Van Der Woerd J.; Meriaux, A.S.; Klinger, Y.; Ryerson, F.J.; Gaudemer, Y.; Tapponnier, P. (2002). "The 14 November 2001, Mw 7.8 Kokoxili earthquake in northern Tibet (Qinghai Province, China)" (PDF). Seismological Research Letters. 73 (2): 125–135. Bibcode:2002SeiRL..73..125V. doi:10.1785/gssrl.73.2.125. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 1, 2020.
  83. ^ John L. Beven; Stewart R. Stewart; Miles B. Lawrence; Lixion A. Avila; James L. Franklin; Richard J. Pasch (July 1, 2003). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2001". Monthly Weather Review. 131 (7): 1454–1484. Bibcode:2003MWRv..131.1454B. CiteSeerX doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<1454:ASHSO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. S2CID 123028502.
  84. ^ Rockett, Paul; Saunders, Mark; Roberts, Frank (January 25, 2002). "Summary of 2001 NW Pacific Typhoon Season and Verification of Authors' Seasonal Forecasts" (PDF). Tropical Storm Risk. University College London.
  85. ^ "Ten Great Public Health Achievements --- Worldwide, 2001--2010". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 24, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
  86. ^ "The big events of 2001". British Medical Journal. 324 (7328): 0. January 5, 2002. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1121931.
  87. ^ a b García-Fulgueiras, Ana; Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen (2003). "Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (8): 915–921. doi:10.3201/eid0908.030337. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 3020623. PMID 12967487.
  88. ^ a b Okware, S. I.; Omaswa, F. G.; Zaramba, S.; Opio, A.; Lutwama, J. J.; Kamugisha, J.; Rwaguma, E. B.; Kagwa, P.; Lamunu, M. (2002). "An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda". Tropical Medicine & International Health. 7 (12): 1068–1075. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2002.00944.x. ISSN 1360-2276. PMID 12460399. S2CID 31488443.
  89. ^ a b "Outbreak(s) of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001-July 2002". Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 78 (26): 223–228. June 27, 2003. ISSN 0049-8114. PMID 15571171.
  90. ^ Knight-Jones, T. J.; Rushton, J (2013). "The economic impacts of foot and mouth disease – What are they, how big are they and where do they occur?". Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 112 (3–4): 161–173. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.07.013. PMC 3989032. PMID 23958457.
  91. ^ "Toxins and Health Impacts: Health Effects of 9/11 - WTC Health Program". Centers for Disease Control. September 1, 2022. Retrieved December 8, 2022.
  92. ^ a b Karatnycky, Adrian (2002). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties 2001-2002 (PDF) (Report).
  93. ^ Ibrahimi, S. Yaqub (November 2, 2017). "The Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001): 'War-Making and State-Making' as an Insurgency Strategy". Small Wars & Insurgencies. 28 (6): 947–972. doi:10.1080/09592318.2017.1374598. ISSN 0959-2318. S2CID 148986180.
  94. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (June 20, 2002). "A Buoyant Karzai is Sworn In as Afghanistan's Leader". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 28, 2010.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Time Annual 2002. Time Magazine. 2002. ISBN 9781929049622.
  96. ^ "Argentina in state of siege after deadly riots". CNN. December 20, 2001. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  97. ^ a b "Spokesman: Ex-Argentine president arrested". CNN. June 7, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  98. ^ a b Ghana (PDF) (Report). Center for Systemic Peace. 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2022.
  99. ^ a b Oran Doyle; William Binchy (2007). Committed Relationships and the Law. Four Courts Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-84682-087-8.
  100. ^ a b Comoros (PDF) (Report). Center for Systemic Peace. 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2022.
  101. ^ a b Adeniyi, Olatunbosun; Opara, Ngozi Mercy; Adeyemo, Toyosi; Ekeria, Augustina Irenosen; Faith-Lois, Bolorunduro (2016). "African Union and the Challenges of Development". Journal of African Union Studies. 5 (2/3): 67–89. ISSN 2050-4292. JSTOR 26893815.
  102. ^ a b "About SCO". Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Archived from the original on October 28, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  103. ^ a b "Lithuania marks 20th anniversary of its accession to the World Trade Organization". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. May 31, 2021. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  104. ^ a b "The Republic of Moldova marks 20 years since joining the World Trade Organization". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Moldova. July 26, 2021. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  105. ^ "China and the WTO". World Trade Organization. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  106. ^ a b "Doha Development Agenda". European Commission. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  107. ^ a b "127 Countries Adopt Toxic Chemicals Treaty". Los Angeles Times. May 23, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  108. ^ a b "Racism and Human Rights (World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance - 2001)". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  109. ^ "Anti-Semitism at the UN". Deutsche Welle. April 20, 2009. Archived from the original on November 20, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  110. ^ a b Rodenhoff, Vera (2002). "The Aarhus Convention and its Implications for the 'Institutions' of the European Community". Review of European Community & International Environmental Law. 11 (3): 343–357. doi:10.1111/1467-9388.00332. ISSN 0962-8797.
  111. ^ a b Weber, Amalie M. (2003). "The Council of Europe's Convention on Cybercrime". Berkeley Technology Law Journal. 18 (1): 425–446. ISSN 1086-3818. JSTOR 24120528.
  112. ^ Brown, Andrew (September 10, 2011). "Why 9/11 was good for religion". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  113. ^ Banks, Adelle M. (September 9, 2021). "9/11 became a catalyst for interfaith relations and cooperation". Religion News Service. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  114. ^ Delaney, Sarah; Broadway, Bill (January 22, 2001). "Pope Names 37 Cardinals". The Washington Post.
  115. ^ Lewis, Aidan (May 4, 2010). "Looking behind the Catholic sex abuse scandal". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  116. ^ Al-Shaibany, Saleh (October 1, 2022). "Iconic carpet, chandelier at the Grand Mosque is a big attraction for tourists". Times of Oman.
  117. ^ a b "Tiananmen tense after fiery protests". CNN. January 24, 2001. Archived from the original on February 22, 2007. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  118. ^ Jacobs, Frank (March 3, 2016). "Where Have All the Jedi gone?". Big Think.
  119. ^ "Scientists Clone Endangered Gaur but It Dies". The New York Times. January 13, 2001. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  120. ^ "Endangered sheep cloned". October 1, 2001. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  121. ^ Shields, Fiona; Hilaire, Eric (September 13, 2012). "10 new mammals discovered in past 10 years". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  122. ^ "Sahelanthropus tchadensis". The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  123. ^ "Space Flight 2001 - The Year in Review". NASA. Retrieved November 30, 2022.
  124. ^ a b c "2001 Mars Odyssey". NASA Mars Exploration. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  125. ^ a b "Genesis". NASA. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  126. ^ a b "Deep Space 1". NASA. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  127. ^ Chen, Brian X. "March 24, 2001: Apple Unleashes Mac OS X". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  128. ^ a b "Microsoft Releases Windows XP". Computer History Museum. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  129. ^ Clark, David E.; McGibany, James M.; Myers, Adam (August 31, 2009). "The Effects of 9/11 on the Airline Travel Industry". In Morgan, Matthew J. (ed.). The Impact of 9/11 on Business and Economics: The Business of Terror. Springer. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-230-10006-0.
  130. ^ Martinez, Marta Rodriguez (September 10, 2021). "How have the 9/11 attacks changed life for Europeans?". euronews. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  131. ^ "Russia in mourning after air crash - July 5, 2001". CNN. July 5, 2001. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  132. ^ Willan, Philip (October 9, 2001). "118 killed as jet crashes at Milan airport". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  133. ^ "Vault: Deadly Flight 587 crash stuns NYC 2 months after 9/11". ABC7 New York. November 12, 2021. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  134. ^ a b "30 Killed, Scores Hurt in Train Collision". Los Angeles Times. January 12, 2001. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  135. ^ a b "59 Die in India as Rail Bridge Collapses". The New York Times. June 24, 2001. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  136. ^ a b "31 Killed in Indonesian Train Crash". AP NEWS. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  137. ^ a b Kareem, Abdul (December 24, 2016). "December 25, 2001: Train crash in Indonesia kills 42". Gulf News. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  138. ^ a b "January 26, 2000". The Daily Show. July 26, 2000. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015.
  139. ^ a b Tweney, Dylan. "Wired.com retrospective". Retrieved April 12, 2009.
  140. ^ Kock, N., Jung, Y., & Syn, T. (2016). Wikipedia and e-Collaboration Research: Opportunities and Challenges. Archived September 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine International Journal of e-Collaboration (IJeC), 12(2), 1–8.
  141. ^ "Joseph Kabila Takes Power In Congo". CBS News. January 23, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  142. ^ "President Bush sworn in". January 20, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  143. ^ Japanese Colleges and Universities. Maruzen Company. 1989. p. 88. ISBN 978-4-621-03357-9.
  144. ^ "M7.7 Bhuj " Republic Day " Earthquake, 2001". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  145. ^ Sontag, Deborah (February 7, 2001). "The Sharon Victory: The Overview; Sharon Easily Ousts Barak to Become Israel's Premier; Calls for a Reconciliation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  146. ^ "Marine Accident Brief" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved January 15, 2001.
  147. ^ "Militants massacre 15 villagers in Rajouri". The Times of India. February 11, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  148. ^ "US and British aircraft attack Iraq". The Guardian. February 16, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  149. ^ Morris, Doug (May 30, 2002). "A farmer's negligence". BBC News. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
  150. ^ "Historic trial makes rape war crime". CNN. February 22, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  151. ^ "Witnesses Detail Slaughter Of 118 Madurese on Borneo". Washington Post. February 28, 2001. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  152. ^ "Why the Taliban are destroying Buddhas". Usatoday.com. March 22, 2001. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  153. ^ "Destruction of Giant Buddhas Confirmed". AFP. March 12, 2001. Retrieved January 6, 2008.
  154. ^ "Portugal bridge collapse 'kills 70'". BBC News. March 5, 2001. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  155. ^ "Macedonia: Ethnic Albanian Violence Spreads". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. March 14, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  156. ^ "Battle for Tetovo rages". CNN. August 9, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  157. ^ "China says 108 killed in blasts". BBC. March 17, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  158. ^ Leakey, Meave G.; et al. (2001). "New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages". Nature. 410 (6827): 433–440. Bibcode:2001Natur.410..433L. doi:10.1038/35068500. PMID 11260704. S2CID 4409453.
  159. ^ Chen, Brian X. "March 24, 2001: Apple Unleashes Mac OS X". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  160. ^ Borger, Julian (March 29, 2001). "Bush kills global warming treaty". The Guardian. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  161. ^ Steven Erlanger; Carlotta Gall (April 2, 2001). "Milosevic Surrender: The overview; Milosevic arrest came with pledge for a fair trial". New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  162. ^ Thayer, Carlyle A. (2002). "Vietnam in 2001: The Ninth Party Congress and After". Asian Survey. 42 (1): 81–89. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.1.81. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 10.1525/as.2002.42.1.81.
  163. ^ "Burundi coup foiled, government says". CNN. April 18, 2001. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  164. ^ "Junichiro Koizumi Fast Facts". CNN. December 21, 2021. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  165. ^ Tyler, Patrick E. (April 26, 2001). "Ukrainian Parliament Votes to Oust Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  166. ^ "8 soldiers slain in ambush near Albanian region". Chicago Tribune. April 29, 2001. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  167. ^ Danijel Kovacevic (May 7, 2016). "Historic Bosnian Mosque Reopens amid Heavy Security". Balkan Transitional Justice. Retrieved September 1, 2021.
  168. ^ "Italy – Parliamentary Chamber: Camera dei Deputati". Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  169. ^ "Arabs seek to isolate Israel". May 20, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  170. ^ "Demilitarization Statement (Konculj Agreement)". www.peaceagreements.org. University of Edinburgh. Retrieved November 29, 2022.
  171. ^ "Boy of 15 is youngest to climb Everest Young Sherpa lost five fingers to frostbite in earlier attempt on summit". Herald Scotland. May 25, 2001. Retrieved September 1, 2001.
  172. ^ "Wedding survivors recall night of horror". BBC News. BBC. May 28, 2001. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  173. ^ "Trial for 28 May 2001 coup attempt begins". The New Humanitarian. November 3, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  174. ^ Seppa, Nathan (May 23, 2001). "Genetic flaw found in painful gut disease". Science News. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  175. ^ Fisher, Ian (January 29, 2006). "In Hamas's Overt Hatred, Many Israelis See Hope". The New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  176. ^ "Remembering Tropical Storm Allison". www.noaa.gov. June 5, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  177. ^ "CNN.com - Blair celebrates historic poll win - June 8, 2001". edition.cnn.com.
  178. ^ "Rebels breach Macedonia truce". CNN. June 12, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  179. ^ "After Decades, Thousands of Syrian Troops Leave Beirut". The New York Times. June 20, 2001. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  180. ^ "Germany approves Nazi pay-out". CNN. June 19, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  181. ^ "23 Iraqis Reported Killed". The New York Times. Iraq; Great Britain. June 21, 2001. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
  182. ^ "Hamersley Freight Line". Railway Technology. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  183. ^ Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E. (July 27, 2004). "Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (30): 10878–10883. doi:10.1073/pnas.0404320101. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 491987. PMID 15263069.
  184. ^ "Russians kill Chechen warlord". June 25, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  185. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev Tu-154M RA-85845 Burdakovka". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  186. ^ "Race riots ignite Bradford". The Guardian. July 8, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  187. ^ Longman, Jere (July 13, 2001). "Beijing Is Selected as 2008 Host City". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  188. ^ "Agra summit at a glance". July 17, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  189. ^ Tyler, Patrick E. (July 17, 2001). "Russia and China Sign 'Friendship' Pact". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  190. ^ "G8 summit death shocks leaders". CNN. July 21, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  191. ^ Ningrum, Desi Aditia (October 19, 2019). "Presiden Megawati dan Pelantikan Dalam Sunyi" [President Megawati and the Silent Inauguration]. merdeka.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  192. ^ "Intelligence failures exposed by Tamil Tiger airport attack". Jane's Intelligence Review. 2001. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2006.
  193. ^ "Bulgaria's ex-King swears oath to republic". BBC. July 25, 2001.
  194. ^ "Peru's Toledo swears in as president, vows to fight poverty". CNN. July 28, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  195. ^ "Radislav Krstic becomes the First Person to be Convicted of Genocide at the ICTY and is Sentenced to 46 Years Imprisonment". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. August 1, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  196. ^ "Ultras massacre 17 in Doda". Tribune India. August 4, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  197. ^ Asha Krishnakumar (August 18, 2001). "Deliverance in Erwadi". Frontline. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
  198. ^ Padilla, Michael (February 16, 2009). "Diamond-like Films Help In Study Of Solar Winds" (Press release). Sandia National Laboratories.
  199. ^ Jurewicz, A. J. G.; et al. (January 2003). "The Genesis Solar-Wind Collector Materials". Space Science Reviews. 105 (3–4): 535–560. Bibcode:2003SSRv..105..535J. doi:10.1023/A:1024469927444. S2CID 51768025.
  200. ^ Marusic, Sinisa Jakov; Bosilkovski, Igor (August 8, 2016). "Macedonia Marks Karpalak Ambush Massacre Anniversary". Balkan Insight. Retrieved March 1, 2022.
  201. ^ Nitzan S. Ben-Shaul (2006). A Violent World: TV News Images of Middle Eastern Terror and War. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7425-3798-9.
  202. ^ Landmine Monitor Report 2002: Toward a Mine-free World. Human Rights Watch. 2002. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-56432-277-7.
  203. ^ "Allies attack 3 Iraqi air defense sites". www.cnn.com. August 10, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  204. ^ Rogers, Walter (August 13, 2001). "Q&A: What the deal means for Macedonia -". CNN. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  205. ^ "CRASH OF A CESSNA 402B IN MARSH HARBOUR: 9 KILLED". Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  206. ^ "Israeli troops take positions in West Bank town". CNN. August 27, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  207. ^ "Anti-Semitism at the UN". Deutsche Welle. April 20, 2009. Archived from the original on November 20, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  208. ^ "Tokyo blast kills 44". CNN. September 1, 2001. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  209. ^ Minchakpu, Obed (October 2001). "Religious Riots in Nigeria Leave Hundreds Dead". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  210. ^ "Death of an Afghan icon: 20 years since the assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud". France 24. September 9, 2021. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  211. ^ Paasma, R.; Hovda, K. E.; Tikkerberi, A.; Jacobsen, D. (2007). "Methanol mass poisoning in Estonia: outbreak in 154 patients". Clinical Toxicology. 45 (2): 152–157. doi:10.1080/15563650600956329. ISSN 1556-3650. PMID 17364632. S2CID 2015163.
  212. ^ Dale Anderson (July 2003). The Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001. World Almanac Library. ISBN 978-0-8368-5380-3.
  213. ^ "Timeline: How The Anthrax Terror Unfolded". NPR. February 15, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  214. ^ "Both sides order cease-fires in Mideast". CNN. September 19, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  215. ^ Bruce Hoffman (March 18, 2021). "The War on Terror 20 Years on: Crossroads or Cul-De-Sac?". Tony Blair Institute for global Change. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  216. ^ "Toulouse remembers 31 killed in AZF factory explosion 20 years ago". The Connexion. September 21, 2021. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  217. ^ "Gunman kills 14 in Swiss assembly". BBC News. September 27, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  218. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (October 4, 2001). "Kashmir Mourns 38 Attack Victims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  219. ^ McCarthy, Kieren (October 1, 2001). "World's first 3G network live today". The Register. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  220. ^ Milner, Mark; Harper, Keith; Clark, Andrew (October 3, 2001). "Financial crisis grounds Swissair fleet". The Guardian. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  221. ^ "MH17 crash: History of passenger planes shot down". BBC News. July 20, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
  222. ^ "UN helicopter shot down in Georgia". October 8, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  223. ^ Tyler, Patrick E. (October 8, 2001). "A Nation Challenged: The Attack; U.S. and Britain Strike Afghanistan, Aiming at Bases and Terrorist Camps; Bush warns 'Taliban Will Pay a Price'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  224. ^ "114 die when jet hits plane, then rams building in Milan". Deseret News. (Salt Lake City, Utah, US). Associated Press. October 8, 2001. p. A2.
  225. ^ "Powerful Hurricane Iris slams Belize". Tampa Bay Times. September 10, 2005. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  226. ^ Becker, Elizabeth; Schmitt, Eric (October 27, 2001). "A Nation Challenged: The Bombing; U.S. Planes Bomb a Red Cross Site". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  227. ^ Bennet, James (October 16, 2001). "Right-Wing Israeli Minister Is Killed". The New York Times.
  228. ^ Robert Manne (2005). Left Right Left: Political Essays, 1977-2005. Black Inc. p. 421. ISBN 978-1-86395-142-5.
  229. ^ Mickle, Tripp (May 10, 2022). "Farewell to the iPod". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
  230. ^ "IRA begins disarming". CNN. October 23, 2001. Retrieved December 10, 2022.
  231. ^ Vesperini, Helen (December 31, 2001). "Rwanda unveils new flag and anthem". BBC. Archived from the original on November 5, 2003.
  232. ^ Beven, Jack (January 23, 2002). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Michelle (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  233. ^ Orban, André (November 6, 2021). "Twenty years ago, Sabena was declared bankrupt". Aviation24.be. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  234. ^ "2001 Federal Election | AustralianPolitics.com". australianpolitics.com.
  235. ^ "'Taliban fall' in Mazar-i-Sharif". The Guardian. November 9, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  236. ^ A Nation Challenged; Two French Radio Journalists and a German Are Killed in Taliban Ambush of a Rebel Force Archived April 16, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, November 13, 2001
  237. ^ United States. National Transportation Safety Board (2002). Annual Report to Congress. National Transportation Safety Board. p. 23.
  238. ^ "Alliance halts advance on Kabul, takes Herat". CNN. November 12, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  239. ^ "Northern Alliance takes Kabul". The Guardian. November 13, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  240. ^ "Xbox Arrives in New York Tonight at Toys "R" Us Times Square". Microsoft. June 12, 2013. Archived from the original on June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  241. ^ "Meteor storm provides stellar show". CNN. November 18, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  242. ^ Gall, Carlotta (May 1, 2002). "Study Hints at Mass Killing of the Taliban". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  243. ^ "The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, 2001". Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. December 1, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  244. ^ "Terror strikes in Jerusalem kill 10". CNN. December 1, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  245. ^ Oppel, Richard A.; Sorkin, Andrew Ross (December 3, 2001). "Enron's Collapse: The Overview; Enron Corp. Files Largest U.S. Claim for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  246. ^ "Bus blast kills at least 16 in Haifa, Israel". CNN. December 2, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  247. ^ "Three U.S. Troops Killed by Stray Bomb". ABC News. December 5, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  248. ^ "Taliban Agrees to Surrender Kandahar". ABC News. December 6, 2001. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  249. ^ "Remarks Announcing the United States Withdrawal From the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  250. ^ "Malaysia's king sworn in". BBC. December 13, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  251. ^ Kerry, John F. (November 30, 2009). Rota Bora Revisited: How We Failed to Get bin Laden and Why It Matters Today (Report). Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  252. ^ "World: Highest Sea Level Air Pressure Above 750 meters". Arizona State University. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012.
  253. ^ "Japan announces sunken boat was N. Korean spy ship". BNET. October 7, 2002. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  254. ^ "Japan says 'spy ship' fired rockets". BBC News. December 25, 2001. Retrieved January 29, 2009.
  255. ^ "President Grants Permanent Trade Status to China". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
  256. ^ C.P. Chang; Ching-Hwang Liu; Hung-Chi Kuo (2003). "Typhoon Vamei: An Equatorial Tropical Cyclone Formation". Naval Postgraduate School Department of Meteorology. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012.
  257. ^ Gonzalez, David (January 6, 2002). "Lima Street Vendors Caught Between Police and Poverty". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 3, 2022.

Further reading Edit

External links Edit