Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed on 22 May 2001 in Stockholm and effective from 17 May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).[2]

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
The logo of the Stockholm Convention Secretariat
TypeUnited Nations treaty
Signed22 May 2001
LocationStockholm, Sweden
Effective17 May 2004
ConditionNinety days after the ratification by at least 50 signatory states
DepositarySecretary-General of the United Nations
LanguagesArabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
  State parties to the Stockholm Convention as of 2022

History edit

In 1995, the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) called for global action to be taken on POPs, which it defined as "chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment".

Following this, the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) prepared an assessment of the 12 worst offenders, known as the dirty dozen.

The INC met five times between June 1998 and December 2000 to elaborate the convention, and delegates adopted the Stockholm Convention on POPs at the Conference of the Plenipotentiaries convened from 22 to 23 May 2001 in Stockholm, Sweden. The negotiations for the convention were completed on 23 May 2001 in Stockholm. The convention entered into force on 17 May 2004 with ratification by an initial 128 parties and 151 signatories. Co-signatories agree to outlaw nine of the dirty dozen chemicals, limit the use of DDT to malaria control, and curtail inadvertent production of dioxins and furans.

Parties to the convention have agreed to a process by which persistent toxic compounds can be reviewed and added to the convention, if they meet certain criteria for persistence and transboundary threat. The first set of new chemicals to be added to the convention were agreed at a conference in Geneva on 8 May 2009.

As of September 2022, there are 186 parties to the convention (185 states and the European Union).[1] Notable non-ratifying states include the United States, Israel, and Malaysia.

The Stockholm Convention was adopted to EU legislation in Regulation (EC) No 850/2004.[3] In 2019, the latter was replaced by Regulation (EU) 2019/1021.[4]

Summary of provisions edit

Key elements of the Convention include the requirement that developed countries provide new and additional financial resources and measures to eliminate production and use of intentionally produced POPs, eliminate unintentionally produced POPs where feasible, and manage and dispose of POPs wastes in an environmentally sound manner. Precaution is exercised throughout the Stockholm Convention, with specific references in the preamble, the objective, and the provision on identifying new POPs.

Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee edit

When adopting the convention, provision was made for a procedure to identify additional POPs and the criteria to be considered in doing so. At the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP1), held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, from 2–6 May 2005, the POPRC was established to consider additional candidates nominated for listing under the convention.

The committee is composed of 31 experts nominated by parties from the five United Nations regional groups and reviews nominated chemicals in three stages. The Committee first determines whether the substance fulfills POP screening criteria detailed in Annex D of the convention, relating to its persistence, bioaccumulation, potential for long-range environmental transport (LRET), and toxicity. If a substance is deemed to fulfill these requirements, the Committee then drafts a risk profile according to Annex E to evaluate whether the substance is likely, as a result of its LRET, to lead to significant adverse human health and/or environmental effects and therefore warrants global action. Finally, if the POPRC finds that global action is warranted, it develops a risk management evaluation, according to Annex F, reflecting socioeconomic considerations associated with possible control measures. Based on this, the POPRC decides to recommend that the COP list the substance under one or more of the annexes to the convention. The POPRC has met annually in Geneva, Switzerland, since its establishment.

The seventh meeting of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC-7) of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) took place from 10 to 14 October 2011 in Geneva. POPRC-8 was held from 15 to 19 October 2012 in Geneva, POPRC-9 to POPRC-15 were held in Rome, while POPRC-16 needed to be held online.

Listed substances edit

There were initially twelve distinct chemicals ("dirty dozen") listed in three categories. Two chemicals, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, were listed in both categories A and C.[5] Currently, five chemicals are listed in both categories.

Annex Chemical CAS number Year of listing decision Specific exemptions or acceptable purposes
Production Use
A: Elimination Aldrin 309-00-2 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination α-Hexachlorocyclohexane 319-84-6 2009[7] none none
A: Elimination β-Hexachlorocyclohexane 319-85-7 2009[7] none none
A: Elimination Chlordane 57-74-9 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination Chlordecone 143-50-0 2009[7] none none
A: Elimination Decabromodiphenyl ether 1163-19-5 2017[8] As allowed for the parties listed in the register of specific exemptions Vehicles, aircraft, textile, additives in plastic housings etc., polyurethane foam for building insulation
A: Elimination Dechlorane plus 13560-89-9, 135821-03-3, 135821-74-8 2023[9] none
B: Restriction DDT 50-29-3 2001[6] Production for the specified uses Disease vector control
A: Elimination Dicofol 115-32-2 2019[10] none none
A: Elimination Dieldrin 60-57-1 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination Endosulfan 115-29-7, 959-98-8, 33213-65-9 2011[11] As allowed for the parties listed in the register of specific exemptions Crop-pest complexes
A: Elimination Endrin 72-20-8 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination Heptachlor 76-44-8 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination Hexabromobiphenyl 36355-01-8 2009[7] none none
A: Elimination Hexabromocyclododecane 25637-99-4, 3194-55-6, 134237-50-6, 134237-51-7, 134237-52-8 2013[12] As allowed for the parties listed in the register of specific exemptions Expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene in buildings
A: Elimination Hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether various 2009[7] none Recycling under certain conditions
A: Elimination
C: Unintentional production
Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination
C: Unintentional production
Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 2015[13] none none
A: Elimination Lindane 58-89-9 2009[7] none Human health pharmaceutical for control of head lice and scabies as second line treatment
A: Elimination Methoxychlor 2023[9] none none
A: Elimination Mirex 2385-85-5 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination
C: Unintentional production
Pentachlorobenzene 608-93-5 2009[7] none none
A: Elimination Pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters various 2015[13] Production for the specified uses Utility poles and cross-arms

A: Elimination Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), its salts and PFHxS-related compounds various 2022[14] none none
A: Elimination Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds various 2019[10] Production for the specified uses, with the exception of fire-fighting foams various
B: Restriction Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride various 2009[7] Production for the specified uses Hard metal plating, insect baits for control of leaf-cutting ants, fire-fighting foams
A: Elimination
C: Unintentional production
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) various 2001[6] none none
C: Unintentional production Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) various 2001[6]
A: Elimination
C: Unintentional production
Polychlorinated naphthalenes various 2015[13] Production for the specified uses Production of polyfluorinated naphthalenes, including octafluoronaphthalene
A: Elimination Tetrabromodiphenyl ether and pentabromodiphenyl ether various 2009[7] none Recycling under certain conditions
A: Elimination Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (C10–13; chlorine content > 48%) 85535-84-8, 68920-70-7, 71011-12-6, 85536-22-7, 85681-73-8, 108171-26-2 2017[8] Production for the specified uses Additives in transmission belts, rubber conveyor belts, leather, lubricant additives, tubes for outdoor decoration bulbs, paints, adhesives, metal processing, plasticizers
A: Elimination Toxaphene 8001-35-2 2001[6] none none
A: Elimination UV-328 25973-55-1 2023[9] As allowed for the parties listed in the register of specific exemptions

Chemicals newly proposed for inclusion in Annexes A, B, C edit

POPRC-7 considered three proposals for listing in Annexes A, B and/or C of the convention: chlorinated naphthalenes (CNs), hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), its salts and esters. The proposal is the first stage of the POPRC's work in assessing a substance, and requires the POPRC to assess whether the proposed chemical satisfies the criteria in Annex D of the convention. The criteria for forwarding a proposed chemical to the risk profile preparation stage are persistence, bioaccumulation, potential for long-range environmental transport (LRET), and adverse effects.

POPRC-8 proposed hexabromocyclododecane for listing in Annex A, with specific exemptions for production and use in expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene in buildings. This proposal was agreed at the sixth Conference of Parties on 28 April-10 May 2013.[15][16]

POPRC-9 proposed di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octa-chlorinated napthalenes, and hexachlorobutadiene for listing in Annexes A and C. It also set up further work on pentachlorophenol, its salts and esters, and decabromodiphenyl ether, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl chloride.[17]

POPRC-15 proposed PFHxS for listing in Annex A without specific exemptions.[18]

Currently, chlorpyrifos, long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins are under review.[19]

Controversies edit

Although some critics have alleged that the treaty is responsible for the continuing death toll from malaria, in reality the treaty specifically permits the public health use of DDT for the control of mosquitoes (the malaria vector).[20][21][22] There are also ways to prevent high amounts of DDT consumed by using other malaria controls such as window screens. As long as there are specific measures taken, such as use of DDT indoors, then the limited amount of DDT can be used in a regulated fashion.[23] From a developing country perspective, a lack of data and information about the sources, releases, and environmental levels of POPs hampers negotiations on specific compounds, and indicates a strong need for research.[24][25]

Another controversy would be certain POPs (which are continually active, specifically in the Arctic Biota) that were mentioned in the Stockholm Convention, but were not part of the Dirty Dozen such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS).[26] PFOS have many general uses such as stain repellents but have many properties which can make it a dangerous due to the fact that PFOS can be highly resistant to environmental breakdown. PFOS can be toxic in terms of increased offspring death, decrease in body weight, and the disruption of neurological systems. What makes this compound controversial is the economic and political impact it can have among various countries and businesses.[27]

Related conventions and other ongoing negotiations regarding pollution edit

Ongoing negotiations edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c United Nations Treaty Collection: CHAPTER XXVII – ENVIRONMENT – 15. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
  2. ^ Lallas, Peter L. (2001). "The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants". American Journal of International Law. 95 (3): 692–708. doi:10.2307/2668517. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2668517. S2CID 144521094.
  3. ^ "REGULATION (EC) No 850/2004 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 April 2004 on persistent organic pollutants and amending Directive 79/117/EEC". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  4. ^ "REGULATION (EU) 2019/1021 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 20 June 2019 on persistent organic pollutants (recast)". Europa (web portal). 25 June 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  5. ^ Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention. "Measures to reduce or eliminate POPs" (PDF). Geneva. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The 12 initial POPs under the Stockholm Convention
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Governments unite to step-up reduction on global DDT reliance and add nine new chemicals under international treaty, Pressecommuniqué, 8 May 2009.
  8. ^ a b Reference: C.N.766.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (Depositary Notification)
  9. ^ a b c "Summary report 1–12 May 2023". IISD Earth Negotiations Bulletin. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  10. ^ a b 2019 Meetings of the Conferences of the Parties to the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, 13 May 2019.
  11. ^ United Nations targets widely-used pesticide endosulfan for phase out, Pressecommuniqué, 3 May 2011.
  12. ^ "HBCD". Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  13. ^ a b c Secretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions: Countries move forward on important issues for sustainable management of chemicals and waste, press release, 16 May 2015.
  14. ^ "Report of main proceedings for 9 June 2022".
  15. ^ Convention, Stockholm. "HBCD Recommendation". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  16. ^ Decision SC-6/13 – C.N.934.2013.TREATIES-XXVII.15 (Depositary Notification), 2013
  17. ^ Convention, Stockholm. "Stockholm Convention > The Convention > POPs Review Committee > Meetings > POPRC 9 > Documents". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  18. ^ "UN experts recommend elimination of additional hazardous chemicals to protect human health and the environment". BRSMeas. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Chemicals proposed for listing under the Convention". Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  20. ^ Curtis, C. F. (2002), "Should the use of DDT be revived for malaria vector control?", Biomedica, 22 (4): 455–61, doi:10.7705/biomedica.v22i4.1171, PMID 12596442.
  21. ^ 10 Things You Need to Know about DDT Use under The Stockholm Convention (PDF), World Health Organization, 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  22. ^ Bouwman, H. (2003), "POPs in southern Africa", Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 3O: Persistent Organic Pollutants, pp. 297–320, archived from the original on 10 October 2007.
  23. ^ World Health Organization. Global Malaria Programme (2011). "The use of DDT in malaria vector control : WHO position statement". Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  24. ^ Bouwman, H. (2004), "South Africa and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants", S. Afr. J. Sci., 100 (7/8): 323–28
  25. ^ Porta M.; Zumeta E (2002). "Implementing the Stockholm treaty on POPs [Editorial]". Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 59 (10): 651–652. doi:10.1136/oem.59.10.651. PMC 1740221. PMID 12356922.
  26. ^ Godduhn, Anna; Duffy, Lawrence K. (August 2003). "Multi-generation health risks of persistent organic pollution in the far north: use of the precautionary approach in the Stockholm Convention". Environmental Science and Policy. 6 (4): 341–353. doi:10.1016/S1462-9011(03)00061-3.
  27. ^ Wang, Thanh; Wang, Yawei; Liao, Chunyang; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin (15 July 2009). "Perspectives on the Inclusion of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 1". Environmental Science & Technology. 43 (14): 5171–5175. Bibcode:2009EnST...43.5171W. doi:10.1021/es900464a. PMID 19708337.

Further reading edit

  • Chasek, Pam, David L. Downie, and J.W. Brown (2013). Global Environmental Politics, 6th Edition, Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Downie, D., Krueger, J. and Selin, H. (2005). "Global Policy for Toxic Chemicals", in R. Axelrod, D. Downie and N. Vig (eds.) The Global Environment: Institutions, Law & Policy, 2nd Edition, Washington: CQ Press.
  • Downie, David and Jessica Templeton (2013). "Persistent Organic Pollutants." The Routledge Handbook of Global Environmental Politics. New York: Routledge.
  • Selin, Henrik; Eckley, Noelle (2003). "Science, Politics, and Persistent Organic Pollutants: The Role of Scientific Assessments in International Environmental Co-operation". International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics. 3 (1): 17–42. doi:10.1023/A:1021355802732. S2CID 3033517.
  • Kohler P.; Ashton M. (2010). "Paying for POPs: Negotiating the Implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Developing Countries". International Negotiation. 15 (3): 459–484. doi:10.1163/157180610x529636.
  • Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs (May 2008). "Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: The international experience". Environment International. 34 (4): 546–561. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2007.10.004. PMID 18054079.
  • Porta, M., Gasull, M., López, T., Pumarega, J. Distribution of blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in representative samples of the general population. United Nations Environment Programme – Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production (CP/RAC) Annual Technical Publication 2010, vol. 9, pp. 24–31 (PDF).
  • Selin, H. (2010). Global Governance of Hazardous Chemicals: Challenges of Multilevel Management, Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Wang, Zhanyun; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Diamond, Miriam L.; Guardans, Ramon; Harner, Tom; Harte, Agustín; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Klánová, Jana; Liu, Jianguo; Moreira, Estefania Gastaldello; Muir, Derek C. G.; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Pinas, Victorine; Seppälä, Timo; Weber, Roland; Yuan, Bo (1 March 2022). "Enhancing Scientific Support for the Stockholm Convention's Implementation: An Analysis of Policy Needs for Scientific Evidence". Environmental Science & Technology. 56 (5): 2936–2949. Bibcode:2022EnST...56.2936W. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c06120. hdl:20.500.11850/537552. PMID 35167273. S2CID 246866809.

External links edit