In video games, an open world is a virtual world in which the player can explore and approach objectives freely, as opposed to a world with more linear and structured gameplay. While games have used open-world designs since the 1980s, the implementation in Grand Theft Auto III (2001) set a standard that has been used since.
Games with open or free-roaming worlds typically lack the invisible walls (an invisible blockade that stops the player from venturing further) and loading screens common in linear level designs. Generally, open-world games still enforce many restrictions in the game environment, either because of absolute technical limitations or in-game limitations imposed by a game's linearity. Examples of high level of autonomy in computer games can be found in massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) or in single-player games adhering to the open-world concept such as the Fallout series. The main appeal of open-world gameplay is that they provide a simulated reality and allow players to develop their character and its behaviour in the direction and the pace of their own choosing. In these cases, there is often no concrete goal or end to the game, although there may be the main storyline, such as with games like The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim.
Gameplay and designEdit
An open world is a level or game designed as nonlinear, open areas with many ways to reach an objective. Some games are designed with both traditional and open-world levels. An open world facilitates greater exploration than a series of smaller levels, or a level with more linear challenges. Reviewers have judged the quality of an open world based on whether there are interesting ways for the player to interact with the broader level when they ignore their main objective. Some games actually use real settings to model an open world, such as New York City.
A major design challenge is to balance the freedom of an open world with the structure of a dramatic storyline. Since players may perform actions that the game designer did not expect, the game's writers must find creative ways to impose a storyline on the player without interfering with their freedom. As such, games with open worlds will sometimes break the game's story into a series of missions, or have a much simpler storyline altogether. Other games instead offer side-missions to the player that do not disrupt the main storyline. Most open-world games make the character a blank slate that players can project their own thoughts onto, although several games such as Landstalker: The Treasures of King Nole offer more character development and dialogue. Writing in 2005, David Braben described the narrative structure of current videogames as "little different to the stories of those Harold Lloyd films of the 1920s", and considered genuinely open-ended stories to be the "Holy Grail we are looking for in fifth generation gaming". Gameplay designer Manveer Heir, who worked on Mass Effect 3 and Mass Effect Andromeda for Electronic Arts, said that there are difficulties in the design of an open-world game since it is difficult to predict how players will approach solving gameplay challenges offered by a design, in contrast to a linear progression, and needs to be a factor in the game's development from its onset. Heir opined that some of the critical failings of Andromeda were due to the open world being added late in development.
Some open-world games, to guide the player towards major story events, do not provide the world's entire map at the start of the game, but require the player to complete a task to obtain part of that map, often identifying missions and points of interest when they view the map. This has been derogatorily referred to as "Ubisoft towers", as this mechanic was promoted in Ubisoft's Assassin's Creed series (the player climbing a large tower as to observe the landscape around it and identify waypoints nearby) and reused in other Ubisoft games, including Far Cry, Might & Magic X: Legacy and Watch Dogs. Other games that use this approach include Middle-Earth: Shadow of Mordor and The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild.
Games with open worlds typically give players infinite lives or continues, although some force the player to start from the beginning should they die too many times. There is also a risk that players may get lost as they explore an open world; thus designers sometimes try to break the open world into manageable sections.
Procedural generation and emergenceEdit
Procedural generation refers to content generated algorithmically rather than manually, and is often used to generate game levels and other content. While procedural generation does not guarantee that a game or sequence of levels is nonlinear, it is an important factor in reducing game development time and opens up avenues making it possible to generate larger and more or less unique seamless game worlds on the fly and using fewer resources. This kind of procedural generation is known as worldbuilding, in which general rules are used to construct a believable world.
Most 4X and roguelike games make use of procedural generation to some extent to generate game levels. SpeedTree is an example of a developer-oriented tool used in the development of The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion and aimed at speeding up the level design process. Procedural generation also made it possible for the developers of Elite, David Braben and Ian Bell, to fit the entire game—including thousands of planets, dozens of trade commodities, multiple ship types and a plausible economic system—into less than 22 kilobytes of memory.
Emergence refers to complex situations in a video game that emerge (either expectedly or unexpectedly) from the interaction of relatively simple game mechanics. According to Peter Molyneux, emergent gameplay appears wherever a game has a good simulation system that allows players to play in the world and have it respond realistically to their actions. It is what made SimCity and The Sims compelling to players. Similarly, being able to freely interact with the city's inhabitants in Grand Theft Auto added an extra dimension to the series.
In recent years game designers have attempted to encourage emergent play by providing players with tools to expand games through their own actions. Examples include in-game web browsers in EVE Online and The Matrix Online; XML integration tools and programming languages in Second Life; shifting exchange rates in Entropia Universe; and the complex object-and-grammar system used to solve puzzles in Scribblenauts. Other examples of emergence include interactions between physics and artificial intelligence. One challenge that remains to be solved, however, is how to tell a compelling story using only emergent technology.
In an op-ed piece for BBC News, David Braben, co-creator of Elite, called truly open-ended game design "The Holy Grail" of modern video gaming, citing games like Elite and the Grand Theft Auto series as early steps in that direction. Peter Molyneux has also stated that he believes emergence (or emergent gameplay) is where video game development is headed in the future. He has attempted to implement open-world gameplay to a great extent in some of his games, particularly Black & White and Fable.
There is no consensus on what the earliest open world game is, due to differing definitions of how large or open a world needs to be. Ars Technica traces the concept back to the free-roaming exploration of 1976 text adventure game Colossal Cave Adventure, which inspired the free-roaming exploration of Adventure (1980), but notes that it was not until 1984 that what "we now know as open-world gaming" took on a "definite shape" with 1984 space simulator Elite, considered a pioneer of the open world; Gamasutra argues that its open-ended sandbox style is rooted in flight simulators, such as SubLOGIC's Flight Simulator (1979/1980), noting most flight sims "offer a 'free flight' mode that allows players to simply pilot the aircraft and explore the virtual world". Others trace the concept back to 1981 CRPG Ultima, which had a free-roaming overworld map inspired by tabletop RPG Dungeons & Dragons. The overworld maps of the first five Ultima games, released up to 1988, lacked a single, unified scale, with towns and other places represented as icons; this style was adopted by the first three Dragon Quest games, released from 1986 to 1988 in Japan.
Early examples of open-world gameplay in adventure games include The Portopia Serial Murder Case (1983) and The Lords of Midnight (1984), with open-world elements also found in The Hobbit (1982) and Valhalla (1983). The strategy video game, The Seven Cities of Gold (1984), is also cited as an early open-world game, influencing Sid Meier's Pirates! (1987). Eurogamer also cites British computer games such as Ant Attack (1983) and Sabre Wulf (1984) as early examples.
According to Game Informer's Kyle Hilliard, Hydlide (1984) and The Legend of Zelda (1986) were among the first open-world games, along with Ultima. IGN traces the roots of open-world game design to The Legend of Zelda, which it argues is "the first really good game based on exploration", while noting that it was anticipated by Hydlide, which it argues is "the first RPG that rewarded exploration". According to GameSpot, never "had a game so open-ended, nonlinear, and liberating been released for the mainstream market" with The Legend of Zelda. According to The Escapist, The Legend of Zelda was an early example of open-world, nonlinear gameplay, with an expansive and cohesive world, inspiring many games to adopt a similar open-world design.
Mercenary (1985) has been cited as the first open world 3D action-adventure game. There were also other open-world games in the 1980s, such as Back to Skool (1985), Turbo Esprit (1986) and Alternate Reality: The City (1985). Wasteland, released in 1988, is also considered an open-world game. The early 1990s saw open-world games such as The Terminator (1990), The Adventures of Robin Hood (1991), and Hunter (1991), which IGN describes as the first sandbox game to feature full 3D, third-person graphics, and Ars Technica argues "has one of the strongest claims to the title of GTA forebear". Sierra On-Line's 1992 adventure game King's Quest VI has an open world; almost half of the quests are optional, many have multiple solutions, and players can solve most in any order. Quarantine (1994) is an example of an open-world driving game from this period, while Iron Soldier (1994) is an open-world mech game.
IGN considers Nintendo's Super Mario 64 (1996) revolutionary for its 3D open-ended free-roaming worlds, which had rarely been seen in 3D games before, along with its analog stick controls and camera control. Other 3D examples include Mystical Ninja Starring Goemon (1997), Ocarina of Time (1998), the DMA Design (Rockstar North) game Body Harvest (1998), the Angel Studios (Rockstar San Diego) games Midtown Madness (1999) and Midnight Club: Street Racing (2000), the Reflections Interactive (Ubisoft Reflections) game Driver (1999), and the Rareware games Banjo-Kazooie (1998), Donkey Kong 64 (1999), and Banjo-Tooie (2000).
1UP considers Sega's adventure Shenmue (1999) the originator of the "open city" subgenre, touted as a "FREE" ("Full Reactive Eyes Entertainment") game giving players the freedom to explore an expansive sandbox city with its own day-night cycles, changing weather, and fully voiced non-player characters going about their daily routines. The game's large interactive environments, wealth of options, level of detail and the scope of its urban sandbox exploration has been compared to later sandbox games like Grand Theft Auto III and its sequels, Sega's own Yakuza series, Fallout 3, and Deadly Premonition.
Grand Theft Auto has had over 200 million sales. Creative director Gary Penn, who previously worked on Frontier: Elite II, cited Elite as a key influence, calling it "basically Elite in a city", and mentioned other team members being influenced by Syndicate and Mercenary. Grand Theft Auto III combined elements from previous games, and fused them together into a new immersive 3D experience that helped define open-world games for a new generation. Executive producer Sam Houser described it as "Zelda meets Goodfellas", while producer Dan Houser also cited The Legend of Zelda and Super Mario 64 as influences. Radio stations had been implemented earlier in games such as Maxis' SimCopter (1996), the ability to beat or kill non-player characters date back to titles such Portopia (1983), and Valhalla (1983) and the way in which players run over pedestrians and get chased by police has been compared to Pac-Man (1980). After the release of Grand Theft Auto III, many games which employed a 3D open world, such as Ubisoft's Watch Dogs and Deep Silver's Saints Row series, were labeled, often disparagingly, as Grand Theft Auto clones, much as how many early first-person shooters were called "Doom clones".
The Assassin's Creed series, which began in 2007, players explore historic open-world settings. These include the Holy Land during the Crusades, Renaissance Rome, New England during the American Revolution, the Caribbean during the Golden Age of Piracy, Paris during the French Revolution, London at the height of the Industrial Revolution, Ancient Egypt and Greece during the Peloponnesian War. The series intertwines factual history with a fictional storyline. In the fictional storyline, the Templars and the Assassins have been mortal enemies for all of known history. Their conflict stems from the Templars' desire to have peace through control, which directly contrasts the Assassins' wish for peace with free will. Their fighting influences much of history, as the sides often back real historical forces. For example, during the American Revolution depicted in Assassin's Creed 3, the Templars support the British, while the Assassins side with the American colonists.
S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl was developed by GSC Game World in 2007, followed by two other games, a prequel and a sequel. The free world style of the zone was divided into huge maps, like sectors, and the player can go from one sector to another, depending on required quests or just by choice.
In 2011, Dan Ryckert of Game Informer wrote that open-world crime games were "a major force" in the gaming industry for the preceding decade.
Another popular open-world sandbox game is Minecraft, which has sold over 122 million copies worldwide on multiple platforms by February 2017. Minecraft's procedurally generated overworlds cover a virtual 100 billion square kilometers.
The Outerra Engine is a world rendering engine in development since 2008 that is capable of seamlessly rendering whole planets from space down to ground level. Anteworld is a world-building game and free tech-demo of the Outerra Engine that builds upon real-world data to render planet Earth realistically on a true-to-life scale.
No Man's Sky, released in 2016, is an open-world game set in a virtually infinite universe. According to the developers, through procedural generation, the game is able to produce more than 18 quintillion (18*10^15 or 18,000,000,000,000,000) planets to explore. Several critics found that the nature of the game can become repetitive and monotonous, with the survival gameplay elements being lackluster and tedious. Jake Swearingen in New York said, "You can procedurally generate 18.6 quintillion unique planets, but you can’t procedurally generate 18.6 quintillion unique things to do." Subsequent updates made post-release have since aimed to address these criticisms.
In 2017, the open-world design of The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild has been described by critics as being revolutionary, and by developers as a paradigm shift for open-world design. In contrast to the more structured approach of most open-world games, Breath of the Wild features a large and fully interactive world that is generally unstructured and rewards the exploration and manipulation of its world. Inspired by the original 1986 Legend of Zelda, the open world of Breath of the Wild integrates multiplicative gameplay, where "objects react to the player's actions and the objects themselves also influence each other." Along with a physics engine, the game's open-world also integrates a chemistry engine, "which governs the physical properties of certain objects and how they relate to each other," rewarding experimentation. Nintendo has described the game's approach to open-world design as "open-air".
- Booker, Logan (2008-07-14). "Pandemic Working On New 'Open World / Sandbox' IP". Kotaku. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- "The complete history of open-world games (part 2)". Computer and Video Games. May 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- Muncy, Jake (December 3, 2015). "Open-World Games Are Changing the Way We Play". Wired. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Harris, John (September 26, 2007). "Game Design Essentials: 20 Open World Games". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- Kohler, Chris (2008-01-04). "Assassin's Creed And The Future Of Sandbox Games". Wired. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Harris, John (September 26, 2007). "Game Design Essentials: 20 Open World Games - Air Fortress". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- Kohler, Chris (2007-11-23). "Review: Why Assassin's Creed Fails". Wired.
- James Ransom-Wiley (2007-08-10). "Sierra unveils Prototype, not the first sandbox adventure". Joystiq. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Poole, Steven (2000). Trigger Happy. Arcade Publishing. p. 101.
- Bishop, Stuart (March 5, 2003). "Interview: Freelancer". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
- Chris Remo; Brandon Sheffield. "Redefining Game Narrative: Ubisoft's Patrick Redding On Far Cry 2". GamaSutra. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- Plante, Chris (2008-05-12). "Opinion: 'All The World's A Sandbox'". GamaSutra. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- Braben, David (31 December 2005). "Towards games with the wow factor". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-12-27.
- Purchase, Robert (October 23, 2017). ""I've seen people literally spend $15,000 on Mass Effect multiplayer cards"". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
- Williams, Mike (March 27, 2017). "Exploring and Uncovering the Dreaded Ubisoft Tower". US Gamer. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Maxwell, Ben (June 28, 2017). "How Far Cry 5 is shaking itself free from Ubisoft's open-world template". PCGamesN. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Meikleham, Dave (January 21, 2017). "How collectibles, stealth and climbing came to define the Ubisoft open world game". PC Gamer. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Carter, Chris. "Here's a tip for easily descrambling Spider-Man PS4's towers". Destructoid. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- O'Luanaigh, Patrick (2006). Game Design Complete. Paraglyph Press. pp. 203, 218.
- Shoemaker, Richie (August 14, 2002). "Games that changed the world: Elite". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Le Gameplay emergent". jeuxvideo.com (in French).
- Kosak, Dave (2004-03-07). "The Future of Games from a Design Perspective". gamespy.com. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009.
- Neltz, András. "The Four-Decade History of Open World Games". Kotaku.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Moss, Richard (March 25, 2017). "Roam free: A history of open-world gaming". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
Amazingly, open-world games can be traced back to the days of mainframes—namely, to the 1976 text-only game Colossal Cave Adventure for the PDP-10. Adventure at its core wasn't much different to the GTAs, Elites, and Minecrafts of today: you could explore, freely, in any direction, and your only goals were to find treasure (which is scattered throughout the cave) and to escape with your life.
- Harris, John (September 26, 2007). "Game Design Essentials: 20 Open World Games". Gamasutra. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Moss, Richard (March 25, 2017). "Roam free: A history of open-world gaming". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
Colossal Cave Adventure was a direct inspiration on 1980 Atari 2600 game Adventure. Its open world may have been sparse and populated by little more than dragon-ducks and simple geometric shapes, but its relative vastness enabled players to imagine magnificent adventures of their own making.
- Moss, Richard (March 25, 2017). "Roam free: A history of open-world gaming". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- Sefton, Jamie (July 11, 2007). "The roots of open-world games". GamesRadar. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- Barton, Matt; Bill Loguidice (April 7, 2009). "The History of Elite: Space, the Endless Frontier". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2009-12-27.
- Whitehead, Dan (February 4, 2008). "Born Free: the History of the Openworld Game". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- "The complete history of open-world games (part 1)". Computer and Video Games. May 24, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
- "10 Biggest Open-World Video Games - Hexapolis". HEXAPOLIS. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Open World Origins. YouTube. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Kaiser, Rowan. "Ultima: Most. Important. Game Series. Ever". Engadget.com. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- Kalata, Kurt (February 4, 2008). "The History of Dragon Quest". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Peter Tieryas (April 5, 2015), "THE MURDER MYSTERY FROM THE CREATOR OF DRAGON QUEST", Entropy
- "Megal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain". Official Xbox Magazine. Christmas 2015.
- Mason, Graeme (April 9, 2017). "10 games that defined the ZX Spectrum". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
Lords Of Midnight's wonderful storyline (inspired, unsurprisingly, by The Lord Of The Rings), open-world gameplay and elegant graphics were one thing - its seemingly effortless welding of the traditional adventure game to these features set a new standard for software that remains an amazing feat over 30 years later.
- McCasker, Toby (March 31, 2016). "Revisiting the gloriously weird games of Australia's golden age". Kill Screen. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
The game’s design even proved to be a precursor to key elements of modern day open world games like BioWare’s Dragon Age, Mass Effect, and Baldur’s Gate series.
- Jankiewicz, Joshua (July 22, 2016). "Valhalla". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
Still, for a pre-King's Quest graphic adventure, Valhalla remains pretty unique with its open-world aspects. Being able to kill anyone and anything can be great fun, and seeing what weird things the NPCs will do on autopilot is strangely endearing.
- Suellentrop, Chris (May 8, 2017). "'Civilization' Creator Sid Meier: 'I Didn't Really Expect to be a Game Designer'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
Pirates! was probably the second open-world game after Seven Cities of Gold.
- Koon, David (February 8, 2012). "Dani Bunten changed video games forever". Arkansas Times. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
'Seven Cities of Gold,' an Ozark Softscape title produced for EA in 1984 that eventually became the best-selling game of Bunten's career, was one of the first video games to take a stab at an 'open world' concept, allowing players to explore a virtual continent and set their own path rather than follow a regimented series of events..
- Bailey, Kat (March 9, 2012). "These games inspired Cliff Bleszinski, John Romero, Will Wright, and Sid Meier". Engadget. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
Seven Cities of Gold was one of the first games with randomized maps and an open world...
- Hilliard, Kyle (2017). Big Book of Zelda: The Unofficial Guide to Breath of the Wild and The Legend of Zelda. Triumph Books. p. 27. ISBN 9781633199569.
Zelda, alongside games like Ultima and Hydlide, are among the first to be considered open world.
- "IGN India discusses game design: Combat in open world games". IGN. 2 November 2015.
- "15 Most Influential Games of All Time: The Legend of Zelda". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2010-05-15. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "How The Legend of Zelda Changed Video Games".
- "Origins of the Open World: Mercenary". USGAMER. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "The First Opem World, Part One". ELECTRONDANCE. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- GameCentral (September 11, 2015). "Retro console battle: Sinclair ZX Spectrum Vega vs. The Recreated Sinclair ZX Spectrum – plus the 10 best Spectrum games ever". Metro.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
The sequel to Skool Daze is even better than the first and a prime example of the ’80s approach to open world adventure.
- Rignall, Jaz (February 8, 2017). "Open World Games Make me Drive Like an Idiot". USGamer. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
While [Turbo Esprit] sounds like a racing game, this quite revolutionary release is actually a very early example of an open-world driving game.
- "First open-world driving videogame". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
The first game to feature an open-world environment was the 1986 Turbo Esprit for the ZX Spectrum.
- Davison, Pete (July 7, 2013). "Origins of the Open World: Alternate Reality". USGamer. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
- "Original Wasteland released on Steam and GOG". Eurogamer. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
Wasteland, which launched in 1988, spawned the Fallout series and won plaudits for its open-world design.
- Cobbett, Richard (December 31, 2011). "Saturday Crapshoot: The Terminator". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
With nothing but 1990s 3D technology, it presented an open world action game set in modern-day Los Angeles...
- Fahs, Travis (2008-03-24). The Leif Ericson Awards, IGN, Retrieved on 2009-07-16
- Miller, Chuck (January 1993). "King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow". Computer Gaming World. p. 12. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- O'Connor, Alice (January 15, 2015). "Have You Played… Quarantine?". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
An open-world taxi game set in a hyperviolent dystopian futurecity, 1994’s Quarantine is hugely exciting in my foggy memory.
- "The History Of: Iron Soldier". Retro Gamer (165). Future Publishing. March 2017. p. 79.
Sean Patten was on board to produce and Atari was adamant that the game be open world. 'Those were the three pillars that formed Iron soldier,” explains Marc, “heavy property damage, a mech theme and a game that was open world and not on rails.'
- Crigger, Lara (2008). "Chasing D&D: A History of RPGs". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- Thomas, Lucas M. (10 January 2007). "Super Mario 64 VC Review". IGN.
- "Mystical Ninja Starring Goemon". IGN64.COM. Imagine Media. Archived from the original on 16 April 1998.
- "Import Arena - Ganbare Goeman". N64 Magazine. Future Publishing (7): 56. October 1997. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Guzman, Hector (2006-03-20). "GameSpy: Driver: Parallel Lines - Page 1". GameSpy. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- Sharkey, Scott. "Top 5 Underappreciated Innovators: Five genre-defining games that didn't get their due". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- Brendan Main, Lost in Yokosuka, The Escapist
- Shenmue: Creator Yu Suzuki Speaks Out Archived 2011-01-02 at the Wayback Machine, GamesTM
- "Yu Suzuki". IGN. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "The Disappearance of Yu Suzuki: Part 1,". 1up.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Makuch, Eddie. "Grand Theft Auto shipments reach 125 million". Gamespot.com. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Donovan, Tristan (31 January 2011). "The Replay Interviews: Gary Penn". Gamasutra.
- Staff, I. G. N. (10 September 2001). "Rockstar's Sam Houser Mouths Off".
- Houser, Dan (November 9, 2012). "Americana at Its Most Felonious: Q. and A.: Rockstar's Dan Houser on Grand Theft Auto V". The New York Times (Interview). Interviewed by Chris Suellentrop. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- Szczepaniak, John (February 2011). "Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken". Retro Gamer. Retrieved 2011-03-16. (Reprinted at Szczepaniak, John. "Retro Gamer 85". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2011-03-16.)
- Ashcraft, Brian (July 16, 2009). "Grand Theft Auto And Pac-Man? "The Same"". Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- Doom, Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed Feb 25, 2009
- Ryckert, Dan (April 2011). "Embracing the Crazy". Game Informer. GameStop (216): 49.
- Sarkar, Samit (February 27, 2017). "Minecraft sales hit 122M copies". Polygon. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
- "Just how big is a Minecraft world? Big, as it turns out". Pcgamesn.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Kemen, Brano. "Outerra Tech Demo - Free tech demo, upgradable to the Anteworld sandbox game (alpha)".
- Hiranand, Ravi (18 June 2015). "18 quintillion planets: The video game that imagines an entire galaxy". CNN. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Why Everyone Should Play No Man's Sky — Even If It's Not a Great Game". Retrieved 2016-08-19.
- Kamen, Matt. "Zelda: Breath of the Wild review: an epic masterpiece". Wired.co.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "How Breath of the Wild dunks on most open-world games". Destructoid.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Gerardi, Matt. "Is The Legend Of Zelda: Breath Of The Wild one of the best games of all time?". Games.avclub.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "How will The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild change the open-world paradigm?". Gamesindustry.biz. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "Why Breath of the Wild is the future of blockbuster games". Theverge.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Dornbush, Jonathon (1 March 2017). "GDC 2017: Breath of the Wild Team-Built 2D Zelda Prototype to Test Gameplay". Ign.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Gray, Kate (30 May 2017). "Is The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild the best-designed game ever?". Theguardian.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- "The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild's open-air concept is the new standard, producer says - Gematsu". Gematsu.com. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
- Moss, Richard (March 25, 2017). "Roam free: A history of open-world gaming". Ars Technica. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- Michael Llewellyn: 15 Open World Games More Mature Than Grand Theft Auto V. thegamer.com. April 24, 2017