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The Heisei era (Japanese: 平成) refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Akihito from 8 January 1989 until his abdication on 30 April 2019. The Heisei era started on 8 January 1989, the day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito, when his son, Akihito, acceded to the throne as the 125th Emperor. In accordance with Japanese customs, Hirohito was posthumously renamed "Emperor Shōwa" on 31 January 1989. Heisei translates as "peace everywhere".

Thus, 1989 corresponds to Shōwa 64 until 7 January, and Heisei 1 (平成元年, Heisei gannen, gannen means "first year") from 8 January. The Heisei era ended on 30 April 2019 (Heisei 31), with the abdication of Akihito from the Chrysanthemum Throne. It was succeeded by the Reiwa era as Crown Prince Naruhito ascended the throne on 1 May midnight local time.[1]

History and meaningEdit

 
Keizō Obuchi attended the press conference to announce the new era name "Heisei". (7 January 1989)

On January 7, 1989, at 07:55 AM JST, the Grand Steward of Japan's Imperial Household Agency, Shōichi Fujimori, announced Emperor Hirohito's death at 6:33 AM JST, and revealed details about his cancer for the first time. Shortly after the death of the Emperor, Keizō Obuchi, then Chief Cabinet Secretary and later Prime Minister of Japan, announced the end of the Shōwa era, and heralded the new era name "Heisei" for the new Emperor, and explained its meaning.

According to Obuchi, the name "Heisei" was taken from two Chinese history and philosophy books, namely Records of the Grand Historian (史記) and the Book of Documents (書経). In the Records of the Grand Historian, a sentence appears in a section honoring the wise rule of the legendary Chinese Emperor Shun, reading "内平外成" (Kanbun: 内平かに外成る, Uchi tairaka ni soto naru). In the Book of Documents, the sentence "地平天成" (Kanbun: 地平かに天成る, Chi tairaka ni ten naru, "peace on the heaven and earth") appears. By combining both meanings, Heisei is intended to mean "peace everywhere".[2] The Heisei era went into effect immediately upon the day after Emperor Akihito's succession to the throne on January 7, 1989.

In August 2016, Emperor Akihito gave a televised address to the nation, in which he expressed concern that his age would one day stop him from fulfilling his official duties. This was an implication of his wish to retire.[1] The Japanese Diet passed a law in June 2017 to allow the throne to pass to Akihito's son, Naruhito.[1] After meeting with members of the Imperial House Council, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced that April 30, 2019 would be the date set for Akihito's abdication.[1] The Era of Naruhito's reign began the next day.[3]

EventsEdit

 
Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko with family (2013)

1989 marked the culmination of one of the most rapid economic growth spurts in Japanese history. With a dramatically strengthened yen after the 1985 Plaza Accord, the Bank of Japan kept interest rates low, sparking an investment boom that drove Tokyo property values up 60 percent within that year. Shortly before New Year's Day, the Tokyo Stock Market index, Nikkei 225, reached its record high of 38,957. By 1992, it had fallen to 15,000, signifying the end of Japan's famed "bubble economy". Subsequently, Japan experienced the "Lost Decade", which actually consisted of more than ten years of price deflation and largely stagnant GDP as Japan's banks struggled to resolve their bad debts and companies in other sectors struggled to restructure.

The Recruit scandal of 1988 had already eroded public confidence in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which had controlled the Japanese government for 38 years. In 1993, the LDP was ousted by a coalition led by Morihiro Hosokawa. However, the coalition collapsed as parties had gathered only to overthrow LDP, and lacked a unified position on almost every social issue. The LDP returned to the government in 1994, when it helped to elect Japan Socialist (later Social Democrat) Tomiichi Murayama as prime minister.

The 1990s had an "anime boom" period marked by increased popularity of anime and anime conventions. Several anime media franchises gained global popularity such as Pokémon, Hello Kitty, Gundam, Fist of the North Star, Dragon Ball, Yu-Gi-Oh and Evangelion.[4]

In 1995, there was a large 6.8 earthquake in Kobe, Hyōgo and sarin gas terrorist attacks were carried out on the Tokyo Metro by the doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo. Failure of the Japanese government to react to these events promptly led to the formation of non-government organisations which have been playing an increasingly important role in Japanese politics since.

On 11 December 1997, the international treaty called the Kyoto Protocol to regulate greenhouse gas emissions was adopted by 192 parties in Kyoto, Japan.[5]

During this era, Japan reemerged as a military power. In 1991, Japan made a financial contribution of $10 billion and sent military hardware for the Gulf War.[6] However, Article 9 of the Constitution prevented a participation in the actual war, leading Iran to criticize Japan for just pledging money and did not appreciate the way Japan co-operated in the Gulf War. However, after the war, from April 26 till October 1991 6 JMSDF minesweeper vessels were sent and removed 34 sea mines in the Persian Gulf to improve the safety of ships.[7]

Following the Iraq War, in 2003, Prime Minister Junichirō Koizumi's Cabinet approved a plan to send about 1,000 soldiers of the Japan Self-Defense Forces to help in Iraq's reconstruction, the biggest overseas troop deployment since World War II without the sanction of the UN. The mission lasted until February 2009.[7]

The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the first FIFA World Cup to be held in Asia, the first to be held outside of the Americas or Europe, as well as the first to be jointly-hosted by more than one nation. This world championship for men's national football teams was jointly hosted by Japan and South-Korea to improve relations.[8]

On October 23, 2004, the Heisei 16 Niigata Prefecture Earthquakes rocked the Hokuriku region, killing 52 and injuring hundreds (see 2004 Chūetsu earthquake).

In November 2005, The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)'s robotic spacecraft Hayabusa landed on an asteroid and collected samples in the form of tiny grains of asteroidal material, which were returned to Earth aboard the spacecraft on 13 June 2010. It was the first spacecraft in history designed to deliberately land on an asteroid and then take off again. The Hayabusa mission was the first to return an asteroid sample to Earth for analysis.[9]

After an election defeat, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe resigned suddenly, and in Autumn 2007 Yasuo Fukuda became Prime Minister. Fukuda in turn resigned on September 2008 citing political failings, and Tarō Asō was selected by his party.

In 2008, Greater Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world with a total GDP (nominal) of approximately $2 trillion (¥165 trillion).[10] Greater Tokyo also has the largest metropolitan population in the world with an estimated 35 million.

In August 2009, for the first time, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won 308 seats in the lower house election, which ended 50 years of political domination by the LDP. As a result of the election, Tarō Asō resigned as leader of the LDP, and Yukio Hatoyama, president of DPJ became Prime Minister on 16 September 2009. However, DPJ soon became mired in party financing scandals, particularly involving aides close to Ichirō Ozawa. Naoto Kan was chosen by the DPJ as the next Prime Minister, but he soon lost a working majority in the House of Councillors election, and the 2010 Senkaku boat collision incident caused increased tension between Japan and China. The 2009–2010 Toyota vehicle recalls also took place during this time.

The population of Japan peaked at 128 million in 2010. This was Japan's biggest population in history.[11] It declined due to a low birthrate in the following years.

In July 2010, The JSDF's first postwar overseas base was established in Djibouti, Somalia.[12]

In December 2010, Japan's 2010 National Defense Program Guidelines changed its defense policy from a focus on the former Soviet Union to China.[13]

In 2011, the economy of China became the second largest in the world. Japan's economy descended to the world's third largest by nominal GDP.

In 2011, a sumo tournament was cancelled for the first time in 65 years over a match fixing scandal.

In March 2011, the Tokyo Skytree 634.0 metres (2,080 ft) became the tallest tower in the world.[14][15] and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa.

On March 11, 2011 at 2:46 p.m., Japan suffered from the strongest recorded earthquake in its history, affecting places in the three regions of Tohoku, Chubu and Kanto in the northeast of Honshu, including the Tokyo area.[16] The quake's magnitude of 9.0[17] approached that of the severe December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in South and Southeast Asia, and also the severe January 2010 Haiti earthquake and with the severe February 2011 New Zealand's Christchurch earthquake. A tsunami with waves of up to 10 meters (32.5 feet) flooded inland areas several kilometers from shore,[18] causing a large number of considerable fires. The epicenter of the quake lay so close to coastal villages and towns that thousands could not flee in time, despite a tsunami warning system.[19] At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and three other nuclear power plants, serious problems occurred with the cooling systems,[20] ultimately leading to the most serious case of radioactive contamination since the Chernobyl disaster (see Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster), as well as ongoing electric power shortages. Following the earthquake, for the first time, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast.

In August 2011, Naoto Kan resigned, and Yoshihiko Noda became Prime Minister. Later that year Olympus Corporation admitted major accounting irregularities. (See Tobashi scheme.) Noda pushed for Japan to consider joining the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, but was defeated in an election in 2012, being replaced by Shinzō Abe.

In December 2012, Abenomics policies are enacted to handle the consequences of the Lost Decade and Japan's aging demographic crisis.

In the first half of 2014, The Toyota became the biggest automaker in the world selling 5.1 million vehicles in the six months ending June 30, 2014, an increase of 3.8% on the same period the previous year. Volkswagen AG recorded sales of 5.07 million vehicles.[21]

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe sought to end deflation, but Japan entered recession again in 2014 largely due to a rise in sales tax to 8%. Abe called an election in December, and promised to delay further sales tax hikes to 2018. He won the election.

On 18 September 2015, the National Diet enacted the 2015 Japanese military legislation that allows the Japan Self-Defense Forces to collective self-defense of allies in combat for the first time under the 1947 constitution.[22]

In October 2015, The Japan Self-Defense Forces ranked as the world's fourth most-powerful military in conventional capabilities in a Credit Suisse report.[23]

A United Nations report confirmed that Greater Tokyo is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with an estimated total population of 38,140,000 in 2016.[24]

In 2018, Pokémon became the highest-grossing media franchise of all time with an estimated $90 billion revenue. Pokémon surpassed the number 2 Hello Kitty ($80 billion) and the number 5 Star Wars ($65 billion).

In 2018 a record number of 31,191,929 foreign tourists visited Japan in 2018. This is a 33% increase over 2015 (19.73 million).[25] In 2017, 3 out of 4 foreign tourists came from South Korea, China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, according to the Japan National Tourism Organization.[26]

Japan activated the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade, its first marine unit since World War II, on April 7, 2018. They're trained to counter invaders from occupying Japanese islands.[27]

In September 2018, Naomi Osaka is the first Japanese woman to contest a Grand Slam singles final and the first Japanese Grand Slam singles champion. Naomi Osaka is the winner of the 2018 US Open Women's Singles.[28][29]

In 2018, extraordinarily heavy rainfall in Western Japan led to many deaths in Hiroshima and Okayama. Also, an earthquake struck Hokkaido, killing 41 and causing a region-wide blackout.[30]

The first JSDF dispatch to a peacekeeping operation that was not led by the United Nations was approved in April 2019. Two JGSDF officers will monitor a cease-fire between Israel and Egypt at the Multinational Force and Observers command in the Sinai peninsula from 19 April till 30 November 2019.[31]

EconomyEdit

The bubble economy having continued from around the end of the Shōwa era collapsed.

Top 10 by market capitalization
Rank First year of Heisei (1989) Last year of Heisei (2019)
1   NTT
US$163.8 billion
  Microsoft
US$940.8 billion
2   Industrial Bank of Japan
US$71.5 billion
  Apple Inc.
US$895.6 billion
3   The Sumitomo Bank
US$69.5 billion
  Amazon.com
US$874.7 billion
4   Fuji Bank
US$67.0 billion
  Alphabet Inc.
US$818.1 billion
5   Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank
US$66.0 billion
  Berkshire Hathaway
US$493.7 billion
6   IBM
US$64.6 billion
  Facebook
US$475.7 billion
7   Mitsubishi Bank
US$59.2 billion
  Alibaba Group
US$472.9 billion
8   Ericsson
US$54.9 billion
  Tencent
US$440.9 billion
9   Tokyo Electric Power Company
US$54.4 billion
  Johnson & Johnson
US$372.2 billion
10    Royal Dutch Shell
US$54.3 billion
  ExxonMobil
US$342.1 billion

Conversion tableEdit

 
A rail pass valid during the year Heisei 18 (which means 2006)

To convert any Gregorian calendar year between 1989 and 2019 to Japanese calendar year in Heisei era, 1988 needs to be subtracted from the year in question.

Heisei 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
AD 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Heisei 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
AD 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Japan's emperor to abdicate on April 30, 2019: gov't source". english.kyodonews.net. Kyodo News. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  2. ^ 「明治」の由来は何ですか? (in Japanese). Meiji Shrine. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  3. ^ Kyodo, Jiji (3 December 2017). "Japan's publishers wait in suspense for next era name". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  4. ^ Poitras, Gilles (2000). Anime Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know. Stone Bridge Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-880656-53-2.
  5. ^ "7 .a Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". UN Treaty Database. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  6. ^ Freedman, Lawrence, and Efraim Karsh. The Gulf Conflict 1990–1991: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993. Print.
  7. ^ a b "Two Decades of International Cooperation: A Look Back on 20 Years of JSDF Activities Abroad". Japan Ministry of Defense. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018.
  8. ^ Jones, Grahame L. (1 June 1996). "A Political Football Lands in Japan and South Korea". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  9. ^ Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. "Hayabusa Landed on and Took Off from Itokawa successfully – Detailed Analysis Revealed / Topics". ISAS. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  10. ^ 平成19年度県民経済計算 Archived 2010-12-20 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Population Projections for Japan (January 2012): 2011 to 2060, table 1-1 (National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, retrieved 13 January 2016).
  12. ^ Narusawa, Muneo (28 July 2014). "The Overseas Dispatch of Japan's Self-Defense Forces and U.S. War Preparations 自衛隊海外派遣と米国の戦争準備". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018.
  13. ^ Fackler, Martin (16 December 2010). "Japan Announces Defense Policy to Counter China". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  14. ^ "Japan Finishes World's Tallest Communications Tower". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  15. ^ "Tokyo Sky Tree". Emporis. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  16. ^ Martin Fackler, Kevin Drew: Devastation as Tsunami Crashes Into Japan. The New York Times, March 11, 2011
  17. ^ "USGS analysis as of 12 March 2011". U.S. Geological Survey. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  18. ^ Massive tsunami caused by quake’s shallow focus. The Hamilton Spectator, March 12, 2011
  19. ^ Japan's catastrophes—Nature strikes back—Can fragile Japan endure this hydra-headed disaster? The Economist, March 17, 2011
  20. ^ K.N.C., H.T., A.N.: Containing the nuclear crisis
  21. ^ "World biggest carmaker tag retained by Toyota". The Japan News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  22. ^ Slavin, Erik (18 September 2015). "Japan enacts major changes to its self-defense laws". Stars and Stripes. Tokyo. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018.
  23. ^ O’Sullivan, Michael; Subramanian, Krithika (17 October 2015). The End of Globalization or a more Multipolar World? (Report). Credit Suisse AG. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  24. ^ United Nations (12 March 2017). "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations.
  25. ^ "Tourism Statistics". JTB Tourism Research & Consulting Co.
  26. ^ "Japan Tourism Agency aims to draw more Western tourists amid boom in Asian visitors". Japan National Tourism Organization. 6 February 2018. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019.
  27. ^ Kubo, Nobuhiro Japan activates first marines since WW2 to bolster defenses against China. April 7, 2018. Reuters. Retrieved August 2, 2018
  28. ^ Newman, Paul (7 September 2018). "Naomi Osaka becomes first Japanese woman to reach a Grand Slam final". Evening Standard. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  29. ^ Kane, David. "Osaka stuns Serena, captures first Grand Slam title at US Open". WTA Tennis. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  30. ^ 平成30年北海道胆振東部地震による被害及び消防機関等の対応状況(第25報) (PDF) (in Japanese). Fire and Disaster Management Agency. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  31. ^ "Japan approves plan to send JSDF officers to Sinai, on first non-U.N. peacekeeping mission". The Mainichi. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.

Further readingEdit

  • Flath, David. The Japanese Economy (2nd ed. 2005) excerpt and text search
  • Hanson, Marta E. The Routledge Handbook of Japanese Politics (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Koo, Richard C. The Holy Grail of Macroeconomics: Lessons from Japan's Great Recession (2nd ed. 2009) excerpt and text search
  • Pascua, Arthur. Devastation in Japan: An Economic Analysis (2012) excerpt and text search, on 2011 Tsunami
  • Schoppa, Leonard J. The Evolution of Japan's Party System: Politics and Policy in an Era of Institutional Change (University of Toronto Press; 2012) 232 pages; Argues that changes starting in the 1990s set the stage for the 2009 victory of the Democratic Party
Preceded by
Shōwa (昭和)
Era of Japan
Heisei

January 8, 1989 – April 30, 2019
Succeeded by
Reiwa