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List of possible dwarf planets

It is estimated that there may be 200 dwarf planets in the Kuiper belt of the outer Solar System[1] and possibly more than 10,000 in the region beyond.[2] The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has accepted four: Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake, as well as Ceres in the inner Solar System.

Contents

IAU naming proceduresEdit

In 2008, the IAU modified its naming procedures such that objects considered most likely to be dwarf planets receive differing treatment than others. Objects that have an absolute magnitude (H) less than +1, and hence a minimum diameter of 838 kilometres (521 mi) if the albedo is below 100%,[3] are overseen by two naming committees, one for minor planets and one for planets. Once named, the objects are declared to be dwarf planets. Makemake and Haumea are the only objects to have proceeded through the naming process as presumed dwarf planets; currently there are no other bodies that meet this criterion. All other bodies are named by the minor-planet naming committee alone, and the IAU has not stated how or if they will be accepted as dwarf planets.

Limiting valuesEdit

 
Calculation of the diameter of Ixion depends on the albedo (the fraction of light that it reflects), which is currently unknown.

The qualifying feature of a dwarf planet is that it "has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid-body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape".[4][5][6] Current observations are generally insufficient for a direct determination as to whether a body meets this definition. Also, a dwarf planet may not be the satellite of another body, even though several moons (such as Titan) are larger than the recognized dwarf planets.

Based on a comparison with the icy moons that have been visited by spacecraft, such as Mimas (round at 400 km in diameter) and Proteus (irregular at 410–440 km in diameter), Michael Brown estimated that an icy body relaxes into hydrostatic equilibrium at a diameter somewhere between 200 and 400 km.[1]

Ceres is thought to be the only dwarf planet in the asteroid belt. 4 Vesta, the second-most-massive asteroid, appears to have a fully differentiated interior and was therefore in equilibrium at some point in its history, but it is not today.[7] The third-most massive object, 2 Pallas, has a somewhat irregular surface and is thought to have only a partially differentiated interior. Brown has estimated that, because rocky objects are more rigid than icy objects, rocky objects below 900 kilometres (560 mi) in diameter may not be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus not dwarf planets.[1]

After Brown and Tancredi made their calculations, it was discovered that Iapetus (1,470 km in diameter) and the smaller moons of Saturn down to Mimas with well-determined shapes are not in hydrostatic equilibrium as had been thought. They have a hydrostatic shape that froze in some time ago and that does not match the shape an equilibrium body would have at their current rotation rates.[8] Ceres, at 950 km, is the smallest body for which detailed measurements are consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium.[9] It is not clear whether trans-Neptunian objects would behave more like Ceres or Iapetus; thus, some or all trans-Neptunian dwarf planets smaller than Pluto and Eris might not actually be in equilibrium.[citation needed] The IAU has not addressed the issue since these findings.

Tancredi's assessmentEdit

In 2010, Gonzalo Tancredi presented a report to the IAU evaluating a list of 46 candidates for dwarf-planet status based on light-curve-amplitude analysis and the assumption that the object was more than 450 kilometres (280 mi) in diameter. Some diameters are measured, some are best-fit estimates, and others use an assumed albedo of 0.10. Of these, he identified 15 as dwarf planets by his criteria (including the four accepted by the IAU), with another nine being considered possible. To be cautious, he advised the IAU to "officially" accept as dwarf planets the top three not yet accepted: Sedna, Orcus, and Quaoar.[10] Although the IAU had anticipated Tancredi's recommendations, as of 2013, they have not responded.

Brown's assessmentEdit

Brown's categories Min. Number of objects
nearly certainly >900 km 10
highly likely 600–900 km 16
likely 500–600 km 38
probably 400–500 km 63
possibly 200–400 km 534
Source: Mike Brown,[11] as of Jun 21, 2018. (Summary figures differ on M. Brown's website using a cumulative count).
EarthMoonCharonCharonNixNixKerberosStyxHydraHydraPlutoPlutoDysnomiaDysnomiaErisErisNamakaNamakaHi'iakaHi'iakaHaumeaHaumea2007 OR102007 OR10S/(225088) 1S/(225088) 1MakemakeMakemakeMK2MK2WeywotWeywotQuaoarQuaoarSednaSedna2002 MS42002 MS4VanthVanthOrcusOrcusActaeaActaeaSalaciaSalaciaFile:EightTNOs.png 
Artistic comparison of Pluto, Eris, Haumea, 2007 OR10, Makemake, Quaoar, Sedna, 2002 MS4, Orcus, Salacia, and Earth along with the Moon.

Mike Brown considers a large number of trans-Neptunian bodies, ranked by estimated size, to be "probably" dwarf planets.[11] He did not consider asteroids, stating "In the asteroid belt Ceres, with a diameter of 900 km, is the only object large enough to be round".[11]

The terms for varying degrees of likelihood he split these into:

  • Near certainty: diameter estimated/measured to be over 900 kilometres (560 mi). Sufficient confidence to say these must be in hydrostatic equilibrium, even if predominantly rocky.
  • Highly likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 600 kilometres (370 mi). The size would have to be "grossly in error" or they would have to be primarily rocky to not be dwarf planets.
  • Likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 500 kilometres (310 mi). Uncertainties in measurement mean that some of these will be significantly smaller and thus doubtful.
  • Probably: diameter estimated/measured to be over 400 kilometres (250 mi). Expected to be dwarf planets, if they are icy, and that figure is correct.
  • Possibly: diameter estimated/measured to be over 200 kilometres (120 mi). Icy moons transition from a round to irregular shape in the 200–400 km range, suggesting that the same figure holds true for KBOs. Thus, some of these objects could be dwarf planets.
  • Probably not: diameter estimated/measured to be under 200 km. No icy moon under 200 km is round, suggesting that the same is true for KBOs. The estimated size of these objects would have to be in error for them to be dwarf planets.

Likeliest dwarf planetsEdit

The following trans-Neptunian objects have estimated diameters at least 300 kilometres (190 mi) and so may be dwarf planets. Not all bodies estimated to be this size are included. The list is complicated by bodies such as 47171 Lempo that were at first assumed to be large single objects but later discovered to be binary or triple systems of smaller bodies.[12] The dwarf planet Ceres is added for comparison.

The default sort is per Brown's size estimate. The IAU-recognised dwarf planets have bold names. Brown's diameter estimates are in red when they are based upon an assumed albedo. Explanations and sources for the measured masses and diameters can be found in the corresponding articles linked in column "Designation" of the table.

Designation Per Brown[11] Measured per
measured
Diameter
per assumed albedo
Result
per Tancredi[10]
Category Best[a]
diameter
km
H
Diameter[b]
(km)
Geometric
albedo

(%)
Mass
(1018 kg)
H

[13][14]

Diameter
(km)
Geometric
albedo[c]
(%)
Small
albedo=100%
(km)
Large
albedo=4%
(km)
136199 Eris −1.1 2330 99 16600±200[d] −1.1 2326±12 90 2206 11028 accepted (measured) SDO 2326
134340 Pluto −0.7 2329 64 13030±30 −0.76 2376±3.2 63 1886 9430 accepted (measured) 2:3 resonant 2376
136472 Makemake 0.1 1426 81 −0.2 1430±14 104 1457 7286 accepted cubewano 1430
(225088) 2007 OR10 2 1290 19 1.8 1535+75
−225
14 580 2901 SDO 1535
136108 Haumea 0.4 1252 80 4006±40[d] 0.2 1632±51 55 1212 6060 accepted cubewano 1632
50000 Quaoar 2.7 1092 13 1400±100[d] 2.82 1110±5 11 363 1813 accepted (and recommended) cubewano 1110
90377 Sedna 1.8 1041 32 1.83 995±80 33 572 2861 accepted (and recommended) detached 995
90482 Orcus 2.3 983 23 641±19[d] 2.31 917±25 25 459 2293 accepted (and recommended) 2:3 resonant 917
(307261) 2002 MS4 4 960 5 3.6 934±47 7 253 1266 cubewano 934
1 Ceres 939.3±0.5 3.36 946±2 9 283 1414 asteroid belt 946
120347 Salacia 4.2 921 4 438±16[d] 4.25 854±45 5 188 939 possible cubewano 854
(208996) 2003 AZ84 3.7 747 11 3.74 727+62
−67
11 237 1187 accepted 2:3 resonant 727
2013 FY27 3.5 721 14 3.15 740+90
−85
18 312 1558 SDO 740
(55637) 2002 UX25 3.9 704 11 125±3[d] 3.87 665±29 11 224 1118 3:5 resonant 665
(90568) 2004 GV9 4.2 703 8 4.25 680±34 8 188 939 accepted 3:5 resonant 680
20000 Varuna 4.1 698 9 3.76 668+154
−86
12 235 1176 accepted cubewano 668
(145452) 2005 RN43 3.9 697 11 3.89 679+55
−73
11 222 1108 possible cubewano 679
(55565) 2002 AW197 3.8 693 12 3.3 768+39
−38
14 291 1454 accepted cubewano 768
174567 Varda 3.7 689 13 266.4±6.4[d] 3.61 705+81
−75
13 252 1260 possible cubewano 705
28978 Ixion 3.8 674 12 3.83 617+19
−20
14 228 1139 accepted 2:3 resonant 617
(202421) 2005 UQ513 4 643 11 3.5 498+63
−75
28 265 1326 cubewano 498
2014 UZ224 4 643 11 3.5 635+65
−72
17 265 1326 SDO 635
(523794) 2015 RR245 4.2 615 10 3.8 231 1155 SDO 615
(523692) 2014 EZ51 4.2 615 10 3.8 231 1155 detached 615
2010 RF43 4.2 615 10 3.9 221 1103 SDO 615
(229762) 2007 UK126 3.7 612 17 3.69 614+15
−15
16 243 1215 SDO 614
19521 Chaos 5 612 5 4.8 600+140
−130
6 146 729 cubewano 600
(84522) 2002 TC302 4.2 591 12 3.9 584+106
−88
14 221 1103 2:5 resonant 584
2015 KH162 4.4 587 10 4.1 201 1006 detached 587
(78799) 2002 XW93 5.4 584 4 5.5 106 528 SDO 584
2010 JO179 4.5 574 9 4 211 1053 SDO 574
2010 KZ39 4.5 574 9 4 211 1053 cubewano 574
(523759) 2014 WK509 4.5 574 9 4.4 175 876 detached 574
2012 VP113 4.5 574 9 4 211 1053 detached 574
2017 OF69 4.6 160 799 2:3 resonant 565
2002 XV93 5.4 564 4 5.42 549+22
−23
4 110 548 2:3 resonant 549
(42301) 2001 UR163 4.6 561 9 4.1 201 1006 possible SDO 561
(523639) 2010 RE64 4.6 561 9 4.4 175 876 SDO 561
2004 XR190 4.6 561 9 4.3 183 917 detached 561
(523671) 2013 FZ27 4.6 561 9 4.4 175 876 1:2 resonant 561
2014 AN55 4.6 561 9 4.1 201 1006 SDO 561
2008 ST291 4.6 549 9 4.2 192 960 detached 549
2010 FX86 4.6 549 9 4.7 153 763 cubewano 549
(230965) 2004 XA192 4.6 549 9 4.2 339+120
−95
32 192 960 1:2 resonant 339
(84922) 2003 VS2 4.1 537 15 4.1 523+35
−34
15 201 1006 not accepted 2:3 resonant 523
(455502) 2003 UZ413 4.7 536 8 4.3 183 917 2:3 resonant 536
(120348) 2004 TY364 4.7 536 8 4.52 512+37
−40
10 166 829 not accepted 2:3 resonant 512
2006 QH181 4.7 536 8 4.3 183 917 SDO 536
2014 YA50 4.7 536 8 4.6 160 799 cubewano 536
2015 BP519 4.8 524 8 4.4 175 876 SDO 524
(482824) 2013 XC26 4.8 524 8 4.4 175 876 3:5 resonant 524
(145451) 2005 RM43 4.8 524 8 4.4 175 876 possible SDO 524
(470443) 2007 XV50 4.8 524 8 4.4 175 876 cubewano 524
(470308) 2007 JH43 4.9 513 8 4.5 167 837 2:3 resonant 513
(278361) 2007 JJ43 4.9 513 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 513
(82075) 2000 YW134 4.9 513 8 4.5 167 837 detached 513
(523681) 2014 BV64 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 cubewano 513
2014 FC72 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 detached 513
2014 HA200 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 SDO 513
2015 BZ518 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 cubewano 513
2014 WP509 4.9 513 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 513
(523742) 2014 TZ85 5 501 7 4.8 146 729 4:7 resonant 501
2014 FC69 5 501 7 4.6 160 799 detached 501
2013 AT183 5 501 7 4.6 160 799 SDO 501
(499514) 2010 OO127 5 501 7 4.6 160 799 3:5 resonant 501
(523645) 2010 VK201 5 501 7 5 133 665 cubewano 501
(315530) 2008 AP129 5.1 490 7 4.7 153 763 cubewano 490
(470599) 2008 OG19 5.1 490 7 4.7 153 763 SDO 490
(523635) 2010 DN93 5.1 490 7 4.8 146 729 detached 490
(444030) 2004 NT33 5.1 490 7 4.8 423+87
−80
12 146 729 4:7 resonant 423
2003 QX113 5.1 490 7 4.7 153 763 SDO 490
2003 UA414 5.1 490 7 5 133 665 SDO 490
(119979) 2002 WC19 5.1 490 7 4.7 153 763 1:2 resonant 490
(523693) 2014 FT71 5.1 490 7 5 133 665 4:7 resonant 490
(472271) 2014 UM33 5.1 490 7 4.7 153 763 cubewano 490
(175113) 2004 PF115 4.5 482 12 4.54 406+98
−75
16 164 821 2:3 resonant 406
2011 FW62 5.2 481 7 5 133 665 2:3 resonant 481
(307982) 2004 PG115 5.2 479 7 4.8 146 729 SDO 479
(48639) 1995 TL8 5.2 479 7 4.8 146 729 TNO 479
(523752) 2014 VU37 5.2 479 7 5.1 127 635 cubewano 479
(495603) 2015 AM281 5.2 479 7 4.8 146 729 detached 479
2014 HZ199 5.2 479 7 5 133 665 cubewano 479
2014 BZ57 5.2 479 7 5 133 665 cubewano 479
471143 Dziewanna 3.8 475 25 3.8 470+35
−10
24 231 1155 SDO 470
(26375) 1999 DE9 5.2 474 7 4.9 461±45 9 139 696 possible 2:5 resonant 461
(35671) 1998 SN165 5.7 473 4 5.5 393+39
−38
7 106 528 cubewano 393
(145480) 2005 TB190 4.4 469 15 4.4 464±62 14 175 876 detached 464
2011 WJ157 5.3 468 7 5 133 665 SDO 468
2010 RF188 5.3 468 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 468
(26181) 1996 GQ21 5.3 468 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 468
(119951) 2002 KX14 4.9 468 10 4.86 445±27 10 142 709 2:3 resonant 445
2013 FS28 5.3 468 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 468
2014 JP80 5.3 468 7 5.1 127 635 2:3 resonant 468
2014 JR80 5.3 468 7 5.1 127 635 2:3 resonant 468
2015 AJ281 5.3 468 7 5 133 665 cubewano 468
(523750) 2014 US224 5.3 468 7 5 133 665 cubewano 468
(523757) 2014 WH509 5.3 468 7 5.2 121 606 cubewano 468
(120132) 2003 FY128 5.1 467 8 4.6 460±21 12 160 799 SDO 460
38628 Huya 5 466 8 5.04 406±16 10 130 652 accepted 2:3 resonant 406
(84719) 2002 VR128 5.6 459 5 5.58 449+42
−43
5 102 509 2:3 resonant 449
(307616) 2003 QW90 5.4 457 6 5 133 665 cubewano 457
(469306) 1999 CD158 5.4 457 6 5 133 665 4:7 resonant 457
2010 RF64 5.4 457 6 5.7 96 481 cubewano 457
(523640) 2010 RO64 5.4 457 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 457
2010 TJ 5.4 457 6 5.8 92 460 SDO 457
(523653) 2011 OA60 5.4 457 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 457
(445473) 2010 VZ98 5.4 457 6 4.8 146 729 SDO 457
(308379) 2005 RS43 5.4 457 6 5 133 665 1:2 resonant 457
2010 ER65 5.4 457 6 5.2 121 606 detached 457
(523772) 2014 XR40 5.4 457 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 457
2014 OJ394 5.4 457 6 5.1 127 635 detached 457
2014 QW441 5.4 457 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 457
2014 AM55 5.4 457 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 457
2003 QX111 6.8 453 2 6.6 64 318 2:3 resonant 453
(471137) 2010 ET65 5.5 447 6 5.1 127 635 SDO 447
2010 EL139 5.5 447 6 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 447
(471288) 2011 GM27 5.5 447 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 447
(471165) 2010 HE79 5.5 447 6 5.1 127 635 2:3 resonant 447
2014 CO23 5.5 447 6 5.3 116 579 4:7 resonant 447
(523690) 2014 DN143 5.5 447 6 5.3 116 579 cubewano 447
2013 HV156 5.5 447 6 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 447
2014 FY71 5.5 447 6 5.4 111 553 4:7 resonant 447
(523773) 2014 XS40 5.5 447 6 5.4 111 553 3:5 resonant 447
2014 XY40 5.5 447 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 447
2015 AH281 5.5 447 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 447
(523738) 2014 SH349 5.5 447 6 5.4 111 553 cubewano 447
(469372) 2001 QF298 5.4 421 7 5.43 408+40
−45
7 109 545 2:3 resonant 408
(303775) 2005 QU182 3.8 415 33 3.8 416±73 31 231 1155 SDO 416
(144897) 2004 UX10 4.8 409 14 4.75 361+124
−94
17 149 746 possible 2:3 resonant 361
2015 TG387 5.3 116 579 detached 409
(437915) 2002 GD32 6.1 391 4 5.9 88 439 cubewano 391
(469333) 2000 PE30 6.2 375 4 5.9 88 439 SDO 375
2002 CY248 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 cubewano 373
(523601) 2003 UY413 5.6 373 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 373
2005 CA79 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 373
2008 UA332 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 cubewano 373
(471318) 2011 JF31 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 cubewano 373
(495613) 2015 FG345 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 3:5 resonant 373
(523780) 2015 AN281 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 3:5 resonant 373
2017 FO161 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 SDO 373
2014 SV349 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 SDO 373
(523777) 2014 YF50 5.6 373 8 5.4 111 553 SDO 373
(523769) 2014 WS510 5.6 373 8 5.6 101 504 2:5 resonant 373
2014 WW509 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 3:5 resonant 373
(523763) 2014 WZ509 5.6 373 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 373
2014 GX53 5.6 373 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 373
2014 LO28 5.6 373 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 373
2013 JW63 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 SDO 373
2013 AP183 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 SDO 373
(471921) 2013 FC28 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 cubewano 373
2012 JH67 5.6 373 8 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 373
2010 TR19 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 SDO 367
(168703) 2000 GP183 6.3 359 4 6 84 419 cubewano 359
1999 CL119 6.3 359 4 6 84 419 cubewano 359
2002 PJ149 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
2010 JK124 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
2010 MQ116 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
(471196) 2010 PK66 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
(523659) 2012 HG84 5.7 358 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 358
(471210) 2010 VW11 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 SDO 358
2010 VQ11 5.7 358 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 358
(312645) 2010 EP65 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 1:2 resonant 358
(523617) 2007 PS45 5.7 358 8 5.6 101 504 1:2 resonant 358
(444745) 2007 JF43 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 2:3 resonant 358
(523687) 2014 DF143 5.7 358 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 358
(523688) 2014 DK143 5.7 358 8 5.5 106 528 3:5 resonant 358
2013 HU156 5.7 358 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 358
2014 OD394 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
(523768) 2014 WQ510 5.7 358 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 358
(493480) 2014 YZ49 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 358
2014 YE50 5.7 358 8 5.3 116 579 SDO 358
(523736) 2014 QA442 5.7 358 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 358
(523749) 2014 UR224 5.7 358 8 5.5 106 528 TNO 358
2015 BX518 5.7 358 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 358
2015 VG168 5.6 101 504 SDO 356
2015 DU249 5.6 101 504 SDO 356
2000 CQ105 6.4 344 4 6.1 80 400 SDO 344
(15874) 1996 TL66 5.4 344 11 5.3 339±20 12 116 579 accepted SDO 339
2000 KK4 6.4 344 4 6.1 80 400 cubewano 344
2001 QX322 6.4 344 4 6.1 80 400 SDO 344
2001 QS297 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
2010 VW224 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 4:7 resonant 343
(470596) 2008 NW4 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
2010 RN64 5.7 343 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 343
(523758) 2014 WJ509 5.7 343 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 343
(483002) 2014 QS441 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
2014 UN225 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 SDO 343
(523735) 2014 QX441 5.7 343 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 343
2014 QY441 5.7 343 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 343
2014 EA52 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
2014 GT53 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
(523680) 2013 YJ151 5.7 343 8 5.6 101 504 detached 343
(471954) 2013 RM98 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
2014 DM143 5.7 343 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 343
(523691) 2014 DO143 5.7 343 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 343
(523684) 2014 CQ23 5.7 343 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 343
(523674) 2013 MA12 5.7 343 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 343
(523675) 2013 PV74 5.7 343 8 5.6 101 504 TNO 343
(135182) 2001 QT322 6.4 342 4 6.2 76 382 cubewano 342
(82158) 2001 FP185 6.4 336 5 6.38 332+31
−24
4 70 352 SDO 332
(82155) 2001 FZ173 6.5 330 4 6.1 80 400 SDO 330
(523622) 2007 TG422 6.5 330 4 6.5 67 333 SDO 330
(305543) 2008 QY40 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 329
(523624) 2008 CT190 5.8 329 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 329
(523643) 2010 TY53 5.8 329 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 329
2002 GH32 5.8 329 8 6.7 61 304 3:5 resonant 329
(126154) 2001 YH140 5.8 329 8 5.8 345±45 7 92 460 3:5 resonant 345
2002 XH91 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 4:7 resonant 329
2013 CD223 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 329
2014 DR143 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 329
(523712) 2014 JS80 5.8 329 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 329
(501546) 2014 JJ80 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 329
2014 JM80 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 detached 329
(523722) 2014 LV28 5.8 329 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 329
2014 JW80 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 329
(523723) 2014 MY69 5.8 329 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 329
2014 WG509 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 3:5 resonant 329
(523760) 2014 WQ509 5.8 329 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 329
(487581) 2015 BE519 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 329
2015 KF172 5.8 329 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 329
2015 VJ168 5.8 92 460 SDO 325
2015 GN55 5.8 92 460 2:5 resonant 325
2001 KA77 5.6 324 10 5 133 665 cubewano 324
(307251) 2002 KW14 5.9 322 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 322
2001 QC298 6.6 316 4 6.3 73 365 cubewano 316
(148209) 2000 CR105 6.6 316 4 6.3 73 365 detached 316
2005 SD278 6.6 316 4 6.3 73 365 2:5 resonant 316
(470316) 2007 OC10 5.4 315 13 5 133 665 SDO 315
2007 JF45 5.9 315 8 5.9 88 439 2:3 resonant 315
(523627) 2008 QB43 5.9 315 8 6 84 419 cubewano 315
2010 VR11 5.9 315 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 315
2012 BW154 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 315
2011 HP83 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 SDO 315
(469421) 2001 XD255 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 315
2015 FL345 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 315
2014 WY509 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 315
(523778) 2014 YK50 5.9 315 8 5.9 88 439 SDO 315
2014 UO224 5.9 315 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 315
2014 MH70 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 315
(505624) 2014 GU53 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 4:7 resonant 315
(523696) 2014 GW53 5.9 315 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 315
2014 FJ72 5.9 315 8 5.6 101 504 SDO 315
2014 BX64 5.9 315 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 315
2012 XR157 5.9 315 8 6.3 73 365 1:2 resonant 315
2013 FH28 5.9 315 8 6.5 67 333 cubewano 315
2015 VO166 5.9 88 439 SDO 310
2014 OE394 5 304 20 4.8 146 729 cubewano 304
2004 OJ14 6.7 303 4 6.4 70 349 2:5 resonant 303
(143707) 2003 UY117 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:5 resonant 302
2003 UB292 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
2001 RU143 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 302
(79978) 1999 CC158 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 302
2011 UT410 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 302
(523646) 2010 VL201 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 cubewano 302
(523642) 2010 SS43 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 cubewano 302
2010 PT66 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 SDO 302
2010 PU75 6 302 8 6 84 419 SDO 302
2010 RD188 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
(523629) 2008 SP266 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 cubewano 302
2007 VK305 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 302
(523634) 2010 AH2 6 302 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 302
(471150) 2010 FC49 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 302
(523730) 2014 OH394 6 302 8 6.1 80 400 cubewano 302
2014 OP394 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 302
2014 QZ441 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 3:5 resonant 302
2014 LT28 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
2014 JU80 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 302
(523706) 2014 HF200 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 SDO 302
(523702) 2014 HW199 6 302 8 6 84 419 cubewano 302
2013 PX74 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 302
2012 UB178 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 3:5 resonant 302
2013 EC138 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
2013 EJ154 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
2014 DE143 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
2015 BD519 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 2:5 resonant 302
2015 BT518 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
(523793) 2015 OV79 6 302 8 6 84 419 cubewano 302
(523748) 2014 UP224 6 302 8 6 84 419 cubewano 302
2014 UV224 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 302
2014 WF509 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
(505679) 2014 WT69 6 302 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 302
(523761) 2014 WU509 6 302 8 5.9 88 439 cubewano 302
  1. ^ The measured diameter, else Brown's estimated diameter, else the diameter calculated from H using an assumed albedo of 8%.
  2. ^ Diameters with the text in red indicate that Brown's bot derived them from heuristically expected albedo.
  3. ^ The geometric albedo   is calculated from the measured absolute magnitude   and measured diameter   via the formula:  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Total system mass.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Mike Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  2. ^ "Today we know of more than a dozen dwarf planets in the solar system [and] it is estimated that the ultimate number of dwarf planets we will discover in the Kuiper Belt and beyond may well exceed 10,000".The PI's Perspective
  3. ^ Dan Bruton. "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter for Minor Planets". Department of Physics & Astronomy (Stephen F. Austin State University). Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
  4. ^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes". International Astronomical Union. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-01-03. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
  5. ^ "Dwarf Planets". NASA. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
  6. ^ "Plutoid chosen as name for Solar System objects like Pluto" (Press release).
  7. ^ Savage, Don; Jones, Tammy; Villard, Ray (1995-04-19). "Asteroid or Mini-Planet? Hubble Maps the Ancient Surface of Vesta". Hubble Site News Release STScI-1995-20. Retrieved 2006-10-17.
  8. ^ "Iapetus' peerless equatorial ridge". www.planetary.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  9. ^ "DPS 2015: First reconnaissance of Ceres by Dawn". www.planetary.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  10. ^ a b Tancredi, G. (2010). "Physical and dynamical characteristics of icy "dwarf planets" (plutoids)". Icy Bodies of the Solar System: Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 263, 2009.
  11. ^ a b c d Michael E. Brown. "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  12. ^ "AstDys (47171) 1999TC36 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  13. ^ "List Of Trans-Neptunian Objects". Minor Planet Center.
  14. ^ "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects". Minor Planet Center.

External linksEdit