Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of person cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality.
Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants; it is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of 2021. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and (more recently) pluripotent stem cell induction. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues.
Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policymakers began to take the prospect seriously in 1969. J. B. S. Haldane was the first to introduce the idea of human cloning, for which he used the terms "clone" and "cloning", which had been used in agriculture since the early 20th century. In his speech on "Biological Possibilities for the Human Species of the Next Ten Thousand Years" at the Ciba Foundation Symposium on Man and his Future in 1963, he said:
It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition. Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World... Assuming that cloning is possible, I expect that most clones would be made from people aged at least fifty, except for athletes and dancers, who would be cloned younger. They would be made from people who were held to have excelled in a socially acceptable accomplishment.
Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. He sparked a debate with conservative bioethicist Leon Kass, who wrote at the time that "the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him." Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971.
With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic. Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. The first hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT; a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured and developed into an embryo. The embryo was destroyed after 12 days.
In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using SCNT techniques. Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patient-specific stem cell lines. This would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning. However, in 2006 Science retracted both of his articles on clear evidence that much of his data from the experiments was fabricated.
In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. The embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. Members of the lab said that their next set of experiments would aim to generate embryonic stem cell lines; these are the "holy grail" that would be useful for therapeutic or reproductive cloning.
In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning.
In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. All four lines were derived using oocytes from the same donor, ensuring that all mitochondrial DNA inherited was identical. A year later, a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)Edit
In somatic cell nuclear transfer ("SCNT"), the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed previously, making it an enucleated egg. After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte with a micropipette, the somatic cell genetic material is fused with the egg using an electric current. Once the two cells have fused, the new cell can be permitted to grow in a surrogate or artificially. This is the process that was used to successfully clone Dolly the sheep (see section on History in this article). The technique, now refined, has indicated that it was possible to replicate cells and reestablish pluripotency-"the potential of an embryonic cell to grow into any one of the numerous different types of mature body cells that make up a complete organism"
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)Edit
Creating induced pluripotent stem cells ("iPSCs") is a long and inefficient process. Pluripotency refers to a stem cell that has the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers: endoderm (interior stomach lining, gastrointestinal tract, the lungs), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood, urogenital), or ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous tissue). A specific set of genes, often called "reprogramming factors", are introduced into a specific adult cell type. These factors send signals in the mature cell that cause the cell to become a pluripotent stem cell. This process is highly studied and new techniques are being discovered frequently on how to better this induction process.
Depending on the method used, reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs for implantation could have severe limitations in humans. If a virus is used as a reprogramming factor for the cell, cancer-causing genes called oncogenes may be activated. These cells would appear as rapidly dividing cancer cells that do not respond to the body's natural cell signaling process. However, in 2008 scientists discovered a technique that could remove the presence of these oncogenes after pluripotency induction, thereby increasing the potential use of iPSC in humans.
Comparing SCNT to reprogrammingEdit
Both the processes of SCNT and iPSCs have benefits and deficiencies. Historically, reprogramming methods were better studied than SCNT derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, more recent studies have put more emphasis on developing new procedures for SCNT-ESCs. The major advantage of SCNT over iPSCs at this time is the speed with which cells can be produced. iPSCs derivation takes several months while SCNT would take a much shorter time, which could be important for medical applications. New studies are working to improve the process of iPSC in terms of both speed and efficiency with the discovery of new reprogramming factors in oocytes. Another advantage SCNT could have over iPSCs is its potential to treat mitochondrial disease, as it utilizes a donor oocyte. No other advantages are known at this time in using stem cells derived from one method over stem cells derived from the other.
Uses, actual and potentialEdit
Work on cloning techniques has advanced our basic understanding of developmental biology in humans. Observing human pluripotent stem cells grown in culture provides great insight into human embryo development, which otherwise cannot be seen. Scientists are now able to better define steps of early human development. Studying signal transduction along with genetic manipulation within the early human embryo has the potential to provide answers to many developmental diseases and defects. Many human-specific signaling pathways have been discovered by studying human embryonic stem cells. Studying developmental pathways in humans has given developmental biologists more evidence toward the hypothesis that developmental pathways are conserved throughout species.
Cells produced with SCNT, or iPSCs could eventually be used in stem cell therapy, or to create organs to be used in transplantation, known as regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplantation is a widely used form of stem cell therapy. No other forms of stem cell therapy are in clinical use at this time. Research is underway to potentially use stem cell therapy to treat heart disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injuries. Regenerative medicine is not in clinical practice, but is heavily researched for its potential uses. This type of medicine would allow for autologous transplantation, thus removing the risk of organ transplant rejection by the recipient. For instance, a person with liver disease could potentially have a new liver grown using their same genetic material and transplanted to remove the damaged liver. In current research, human pluripotent stem cells have been promised as a reliable source for generating human neurons, showing the potential for regenerative medicine in brain and neural injuries.
In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. While many of these views are religious in origin, for instance relating to Christian views of procreation and personhood, the questions raised by cloning engage secular perspectives as well.
Advocates support development of therapeutic cloning in order to generate tissues and whole organs to treat patients who otherwise cannot obtain transplants, to avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs, and to stave off the effects of aging. Advocates for reproductive cloning believe that parents who cannot otherwise procreate should have access to the technology.
Some opponents of reproductive cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe – for example, the position of the American Association for the Advancement of Science as of 2014[update], while others emphasize that reproductive cloning could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans whose organs and tissues would be harvested), and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. Some opponents[who?] will raise questions on whether clones have rights. "Cloning's Future" raises serious questions as to whether the embryos have any rights or if the right to life of an embryo is superseded by the will of the donor.
Members of religious groups are divided. Some Christian theologians perceive the technology as usurping God's role in creation and, to the extent embryos are used, destroying a human life; others see no inconsistency between Christian tenets and cloning's positive and potentially life-saving benefits.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2021)
In 2018 it was reported that about 70 countries had banned human cloning.
|Argentina||Illegal||Human cloning is banned by the Presidential Decree 200/97 of 7 March 1997.|
|Australia||Some forms legal||Australia has prohibited human cloning, though as of December 2006[update], a bill legalizing therapeutic cloning and the creation of human embryos for stem cell research passed the House of Representatives. Within certain regulatory limits, and subject to the effect of state legislation, therapeutic cloning is now legal in some parts of Australia.|
|Canada||Illegal||Canadian law prohibits the following: cloning humans, cloning stem cells, growing human embryos for research purposes, and buying or selling of embryos, sperm, eggs or other human reproductive material. It also bans making changes to human DNA that would pass from one generation to the next, including use of animal DNA in humans. Surrogate mothers are legally allowed, as is donation of sperm or eggs for reproductive purposes. Human embryos and stem cells are also permitted to be donated for research.|
There have been consistent calls in Canada to ban human reproductive cloning since the 1993 Report of the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Polls have indicated that an overwhelming majority of Canadians oppose human reproductive cloning, though the regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity.
|Colombia||Illegal||Human cloning is prohibited in Article 133 of the Colombian Penal Code.|
|Council of Europe||Illegal||The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine prohibits human cloning in one of its additional protocols, this protocol has been ratified by 25 states.|
|European Union||Some forms legal||The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union explicitly prohibits reproductive human cloning. The charter is legally binding for the institutions of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon and for some member countries of the Union implementing EU regulations.[a]|
|India||Some forms legal||India does not have specific laws regarding cloning but has guidelines prohibiting whole human cloning or reproductive cloning. India allows therapeutic cloning and the use of embryonic stem cells for research purposes. There are legal implications in this case.|
India has already succeeded in mammalian cloning. From a cultural and religious perspective it is interesting to note that Hinduism is replete with instances of reproductive biotechnological interventions.
|Pakistan||Some forms legal||Pakistan's Council of Islamic Ideology has declared human cloning as an un-Islamic act. According to Pakistan's Council of Islamic Ideology, research and thinking are not banned in Islam; new innovations are allowed, but within the limits of the religion.|
|Poland||Illegal||Human cloning forbidden by article 87 of Act of 25 June 2015.|
|Russia||Illegal||The Federal Assembly of Russia introduced the Federal Law N 54-FZ "On the temporary ban on human cloning" on April 19, 2002. On May 20, 2002, President Vladimir Putin signed this moratorium on the implementation of human cloning. On March 29, 2010, The Federal Assembly introduced second revision of this law without time limit.|
|Serbia||Illegal||Human cloning is explicitly prohibited in Article 24, "Right to Life" of the 2006 Constitution of Serbia.|
|Singapore||Some forms legal||Section 5 of the Human Cloning and Other Prohibited Practices Act 2004 prohibits placing human embryo clone in body of human or animal.|
|South Africa||Illegal||In terms of section 39A of the Human Tissue Act 65 of 1983, genetic manipulation of gametes or zygotes outside the human body is absolutely prohibited. A zygote is the cell resulting from the fusion of two gametes; thus the fertilised ovum. Section 39A thus prohibits human cloning.|
|United Kingdom||Some forms legal||On January 14, 2001, the British government passed The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001 to amend the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 by extending allowable reasons for embryo research to permit research around stem cells and cell nuclear replacement, thus allowing therapeutic cloning. However, on November 15, 2001, a pro-life group won a High Court legal challenge, which struck down the regulation and effectively left all forms of cloning unregulated in the UK. Their hope was that Parliament would fill this gap by passing prohibitive legislation. Parliament was quick to pass the Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001 which explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning. The remaining gap with regard to therapeutic cloning was closed when the appeals courts reversed the previous decision of the High Court.|
The first license was granted on August 11, 2004, to researchers at the University of Newcastle to allow them to investigate treatments for diabetes, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, a major review of fertility legislation, repealed the 2001 Cloning Act by making amendments of similar effect to the 1990 Act. The 2008 Act also allows experiments on hybrid human-animal embryos.
|United Nations||Illegal||On December 13, 2001, the United Nations General Assembly began elaborating an international convention against the reproductive cloning of humans. A broad coalition of states, including Spain, Italy, the Philippines, the United States, Costa Rica, and the Holy See sought to extend the debate to ban all forms of human cloning, noting that, in their view, therapeutic human cloning violates human dignity. Costa Rica proposed the adoption of an international convention to ban all forms of human cloning. Unable to reach a consensus on a binding convention, in March 2005 a non-binding United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning, calling for the ban of all forms of human cloning contrary to human dignity, was adopted.|
|United States||Some forms legal||The Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress) aims to promote stem cell research, using cells that are "ethically obtained", that could contribute to a better understanding of diseases and therapies, as well as promote the "derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines without the creation of human embryos".|
In 1998, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2009, the United States Congress voted whether to ban all human cloning, both reproductive and therapeutic (Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act). Divisions in the Senate, or an eventual veto from the sitting President (George W. Bush in 2005 and 2007), over therapeutic cloning prevented either competing proposal (a ban on both forms or on reproductive cloning only) from being passed into law. On March 10, 2010, a bill (HR 4808) was introduced with a section banning federal funding for human cloning. Such a law, if passed, would not have prevented research from occurring in private institutions (such as universities) that have both private and federal funding. However, the 2010 law was not passed.
There are currently no federal laws in the United States which ban cloning completely. Fifteen American states (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Virginia) ban reproductive cloning and three states (Arizona, Maryland and Missouri) prohibit use of public funds for such activities.
Ten states, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey and Rhode Island, have "clone and kill" laws that prevent cloned embryo implantation for childbirth, but allow embryos to be destroyed.
In popular cultureEdit
Science fiction has used cloning, most commonly and specifically human cloning, due to the fact that it brings up controversial questions of identity. Humorous fiction, such as Multiplicity (1996) and the Maxwell Smart feature The Nude Bomb (1980), have featured human cloning. A recurring sub-theme of cloning fiction is the use of clones as a supply of organs for transplantation. Robin Cook's 1997 novel Chromosome 6 and Michael Bay's The Island are examples of this; Chromosome 6 also features genetic manipulation and xenotransplantation. The series Orphan Black follows human clones' stories and experiences as they deal with issues and react to being the property of a chain of scientific institutions. In the 2019 horror film Us, the entirety of the United States' population is secretly cloned. Years later, these clones (known as The Tethered) reveal themselves to the world by successfully pulling off a mass genocide of their counterparts.
- Thomas, Isabel (2013). Should scientists pursue cloning?. London: Raintree. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4062-3391-9.
- Haldane, J.B.S. (1963). "Biological Possibilities for the Human Species in the Next Ten Thousand Years". In Wolstenholme, Gordon (ed.). Man and his future. Novartis Foundation Symposia. London: J. & A. Churchill. pp. 337–361. doi:10.1002/9780470715291.ch22. ISBN 978-0-470-71479-9.
- Lederberg Joshua (1966). "Experimental Genetics and Human Evolution". The American Naturalist. 100 (915): 519–531. Bibcode:1966BuAtS..22h...4L. doi:10.1086/282446. S2CID 222323744.
- Watson, James. "Moving Toward a Clonal Man: Is This What We Want?" The Atlantic Monthly (1971).
- Park, Alice (April 17, 2014). "Researchers Clone Cells From Two Adult Men". Time. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- "Details of hybrid clone revealed". BBC News. June 18, 1999. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Fischbak, Ruth L., John D. Loike, Janet Mindes, and Columbia Center for New Media Teaching & Learning. The Cloning Scandal of Hwang Woo-Suk, part of the online course, Stem Cells: Biology, Ethics, and Applications
- Kennedy D (2006). "Responding to fraud". Science. 314 (5804): 1353. doi:10.1126/science.1137840. PMID 17138870. S2CID 37403975.
- , Rick Weiss for the Washington Post January 18, 2008 Mature Human Embryos Created From Adult Skin Cells
- French, Andrew J.; Adams, Catharine A.; Anderson, Linda S.; Kitchen, John R.; Hughes, Marcus R.; Wood, Samuel H. (February 2008). "Development of Human Cloned Blastocysts Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer with Adult Fibroblasts". Stem Cells. 26 (2): 485–493. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2007-0252. PMID 18202077. S2CID 21251761.
- Trounson A, DeWitt ND (2013). "Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6): 636–8. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.05.022. PMID 23746970.
- Noggle S, Fung HL, Gore A, Martinez H, Satriani KC, Prosser R, Oum K, Paull D, Druckenmiller S, Freeby M, Greenberg E, Zhang K, Goland R, Sauer MV, Leibel RL, Egli D (2011). "Human oocytes reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state". Nature. 478 (7367): 70–5. Bibcode:2011Natur.478...70N. doi:10.1038/nature10397. PMID 21979046. S2CID 4370078.
- Daley GQ, Solbakk JH (2011). "Stem cells: Triple genomes go far". Nature. 478 (7367): 40–1. Bibcode:2011Natur.478...40D. doi:10.1038/478040a. PMID 21979039. S2CID 203897553.
- Chung YG, Eum JH, Lee JE, Shim SH, Sepilian V, Hong SW, Lee Y, Treff NR, Choi YH, Kimbrel EA, Dittman RE, Lanza R, Lee DR (2014). "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777–80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID 24746675.
- Liu, Zhen; et al. (24 January 2018). "Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer". Cell. 172 (4): 881–887.e7. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. PMID 29395327. S2CID 206567964.
- *Normile, Dennis (24 January 2018). "These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aat1066. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). "First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep – Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease". Nature. 553 (7689): 387–388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. PMID 29368720. S2CID 4391482.
- Maron, Dina Fine (24 January 2018). "First Primate Clones Produced Using the "Dolly" Method – The success with monkeys could ignite new ethical debates and medical research". Scientific American. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Briggs, Helen (24 January 2018). "First monkey clones created in Chinese laboratory". BBC News. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Kolata, Gina (24 January 2018). "Yes, They've Cloned Monkeys in China. That Doesn't Mean You're Next". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Gilbert, Scott F. (2013-06-30). Developmental Biology (10th ed.). Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780878939787.
- "cloning | Definition, Process, & Types". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
- Binder, Marc D.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Windhorst, Uwe, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Neuroscience ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3540237358.
- Kaplan, Karen (March 6, 2009). "Cancer threat removed from stem cells, scientists say". Los Angeles Times.
- Langerova A, Fulka H, Fulka J (2013). "Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cell lines in humans: pros and cons". Cell Reprogram. 15 (6): 481–3. doi:10.1089/cell.2013.0054. PMID 24180743.
- Zhu Z, Huangfu D (2013). "Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology". Development. 140 (4): 705–17. doi:10.1242/dev.086165. PMC 3557771. PMID 23362344.
- Subba Rao M, Sasikala M, Nageshwar Reddy D (2013). "Thinking outside the liver: induced pluripotent stem cells for hepatic applications". World J. Gastroenterol. 19 (22): 3385–96. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i22.3385. PMC 3683676. PMID 23801830.
- Tobe BT, Brandel MG, Nye JS, Snyder EY (2013). "Implications and limitations of cellular reprogramming for psychiatric drug development". Exp. Mol. Med. 45 (11): e59. doi:10.1038/emm.2013.124. PMC 3849573. PMID 24232258.
- Singec, Ilyas; Jandial, Rahul; Crain, Andrew; Nikkhah, Guido; Snyder, Evan Y. (February 2007). "The Leading Edge of Stem Cell Therapeutics". Annual Review of Medicine. 58 (1): 313–328. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.58.070605.115252. PMID 17100553. S2CID 18623750.
- Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010. Cited August 24, 2010
- Cell Basics: What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? Archived 2017-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. In Stem Cell Information World Wide Web site. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. cited Sunday, April 26, 2009
- Cummings BJ, Uchida N, Tamaki SJ, Salazar DL, Hooshmand M, Summers R, Gage FH, Anderson AJ (September 2005). "Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (39): 14069–74. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10214069C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507063102. PMC 1216836. PMID 16172374.
- Svendsen CN (2013). "Back to the future: how human induced pluripotent stem cells will transform regenerative medicine". Hum. Mol. Genet. 22 (R1): R32–8. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt379. PMC 3782070. PMID 23945396.
- Booth C, Soker T, Baptista P, Ross CL, Soker S, Farooq U, Stratta RJ, Orlando G (2012). "Liver bioengineering: current status and future perspectives". World J. Gastroenterol. 18 (47): 6926–34. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6926. PMC 3531676. PMID 23322990.
- Jongkamonwiwat N, Noisa P (2013). "Biomedical and clinical promises of human pluripotent stem cells for neurological disorders". Biomed Res Int. 2013: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2013/656531. PMC 3793324. PMID 24171168.
- Häyry, Matti (2018). "Ethics and cloning". British Medical Bulletin. 128 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldy031. PMID 30203088.
- "Cloning Fact Sheet". U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program. 2009-05-11. Archived from the original on 2013-05-02.
- Kfoury C (2007). "Therapeutic cloning: Promises and issues". McGill Journal of Medicine. 10 (2): 112–20. PMC 2323472. PMID 18523539.
- de Grey, Aubrey; Rae, Michael (2007). Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-36706-0.
- Staff (August 10, 2001). "In the news: Antinori and Zavos". Times Higher Education.
- Kfoury C (2007). "Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues". Mcgill J Med. 10 (2): 112–20. PMC 2323472. PMID 18523539.
- "AAAS Statement on Human Cloning".
- McGee, G. (October 2011). "Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning". American Institute of Biological Sciences. Archived from the original on 2013-02-23.
- "Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights". UNESCO. 1997-11-11. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- McGee, Glenn (2000). The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics (2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9758-8.
- Havstad, Joyce C. (February 2010). "Human Reproductive Cloning: A Conflict of Liberties". Bioethics. 24 (2): 71–77. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00692.x. PMID 19076121. S2CID 40051820.
- Sullivan, Bob (November 26, 2003). "Religions reveal little consensus on cloning". MSNBC. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Sims Bainbridge, William (October 2003). "Religious Opposition to Cloning". Journal of Evolution and Technology. 13.
- Cohen, Haley (31 July 2015). "How Champion-Pony Clones Have Transformed the Game of Polo". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Decree 200/97" (in Spanish). InfoLEG. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction Act 2002". NHMRC.gov.au. Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009.
- "Research cloning – Legal Aspects". Deutches Referenzzentrum fur Ethik in den Biowissenschaften. April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Philipkoski, Kristen (17 March 2004). "Canada Closes Door on Cloning". Wired.
- Kleiderman, Erika; Stedman, Ian Norris Kellner (April 2020). "Human germline genome editing is illegal in Canada, but could it be desirable for some members of the rare disease community?". Journal of Community Genetics. 11 (2): 129–138. doi:10.1007/s12687-019-00430-x. ISSN 1868-310X. PMC 7062950. PMID 31420817.
- Government of Canada, Interagency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics (2019-04-01). "Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans – TCPS 2 (2018) – Chapter 12: Human Biological Materials Including Materials Related to Human Reproduction". ethics.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-09.
- Matthews, Kristin. "Overview of World Human Cloning Policies". Connexions. Rice University. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Baylis, Francoise (2004). "Canada Bans Human Cloning". The Hastings Center Report. 34 (3): 5. PMID 15281719. Retrieved 7 December 2011.[dead link]
- Philipkoski, Kristen (March 17, 2004). "Canada Closes Door on Cloning". Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "Regulating and treating conception problems". CBC.ca. December 21, 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- "Ley 599 de 2000 (Julio 24) Por la cual se expide el Código Penal" [Law 599 of 2000 (July 24) which issued the Penal Code]. alcaldiabogota.gov.co (in Spanish). Bogota, Colombia: Bogota Mayoral Office. July 24, 2000. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Additional Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings
- Signatures and ratifications
- Treaty of Lisbon (2007/C 306/01) Article 6 (1)
- "EU Charter of Fundamental Rights". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Bagla, Pallava (Jun 24, 2009). "Should India ban human cloning?". New Delhi: NDTV. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved Apr 18, 2014.
- "Cloning Ethical Policies on the Human Genome, Genetic Research and Services [India]". Genetics & Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 2014-04-20.
- World, Business (Sep 20, 2020). "NDRI Uses Clone Technology To Develop Buffalo Calf 'Tejas' For High Milk Yield".
- "5 Biotechnology breakthroughs that were already invented by Hindu gods". 7 January 2017.
- APP (5 November 2013). "CII declares human cloning, gender change un-Islamic". DAWN. Islamabad. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- Dz.U. 2015 poz. 1087
- Федеральный закон от 20 мая 2002 г. N 54-ФЗ "О временном запрете на клонирование человека"
- "Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, II Human and Minority Rights and Freedoms". Government of Serbia. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- Human Cloning and Other Prohibited Practices Act (Cap. 131B), section 5
- Sithole, Sandra (2011-12-15). "Stem cell research – the regulatory framework in South Africa". South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. 4 (2): 55. doi:10.7196/SAJBL.171 (inactive 31 May 2021). ISSN 1999-7639.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
- Text of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001 (No. 188) as originally enacted or made within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk.
- SD Pattinson (2006), Medical Law and Ethics, Sweet & Maxwell, ISBN 978-0-421-88950-7
- "Campaigners win cloning challenge". BBC News. London. 15 November 2001. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- "Lords uphold cloning law". BBC News. London. 13 March 2003.
- "HFEA grants the first therapeutic cloning licence for research". HFEA. 11 August 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- "MPs support embryology proposals". BBC News. London. 23 October 2008.
- "United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning" Archived 2013-12-15 at the Wayback Machine. Bio Etica Web. March 16, 2005.
- "Ad Hoc Committee on an International Convention against the Reproductive Cloning of Human Beings". United Nations. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- "Patients First Act of 2017 (HR 2918, 115th Congress)". Oct 19, 2017. Archived from the original on December 19, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2017.
- "President Clinton in 1993 lifts the ban on taxpayer-funded fetal tissue research. Throughout the following years in February 1997 Dolly was cloned; Clinton launches review of US policy and In May 1997 Federal funding for human cloning [was] banned". Malakoff, D. (2000-12-22). "SCIENCE POLICY: Clinton's Science Legacy: Ending on a High Note". Science. 290 (5500): 2234–2236. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2234. PMID 11188713. S2CID 9581221.
- "H.R.4808 – Stem Cell Research Advancement Act of 2009". congress.gov. 10 March 2010.
- "Embryonic and fetal research laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. Jan 1, 2016.
- The Law and Human Cloning
- State Laws on Human Cloning
- 2003 Ark. SB 185
- Iowa Code § 707B.1–4
- La. R.S. 40:1299.36-36.6
- MCLS §§ 333.16274-16275, 333.20197, 333.26401-26406, 750.430a
- R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-16.4-1-4
- Va. Code Ann. §§ 32.1–162.21–22
- Hopkins, Patrick (1998). "How Popular media represent cloning as an ethical problem". The Hastings Center Report. The Hastings Center. 28 (2): 6–13. doi:10.2307/3527566. JSTOR 3527566. PMID 9589288.
- De La Cruz, Yvonne A. "Science Fiction Storytelling and Identity: Seeing the Human Through Android Eyes" (PDF). CSUStan.edu. California State University, Stanislaus. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
- Ebert, Roger. "Multiplicity". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Douglass, Todd Jr. (July 12, 2008). "The Nude Bomb". DVDTalk.com. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- tech-writer (September 30, 2005). "A Chiller Thriller". Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Emily Yahr (April 18, 2014). "'Orphan Black': Everything you forgot from Season 1 that you need to remember". Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Daniel Kurland (May 23, 2019). "Us: Who Are the Tethered?". Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Jason Spiegel (March 23, 2019). "'Us' Ending Explained: Could There Be A Sequel?". Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- Araujo, Robert John, "The UN Declaration on Human Cloning: a survey and assessment of the debate," 7 The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 129 – 149 (2007).
- Seyyed Hassan Eslami Ardakani, Human Cloning in Catholic and Islamic Perspectives, University of Religions and Denominations, 2007
- Oregon Health & Science University. "Human skin cells converted into embryonic stem cells: First time human stem cells have been produced via nuclear transfer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 May 2013. .
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Genes, Technology and Policy|
- "Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world" academic article by S. Pattinson & T. Caulfield
- Moving Toward the Clonal Man
- Should We Really Fear Reproductive Human Cloning
- United Nation declares law against cloning.[permanent dead link]
- General Assembly Adopts United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning By Vote of 84-34-37
- Cloning Fact Sheet
- How Human Cloning Will Work